Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States. The state is the 10th largest by area, the least populous, the second most sparsely populated state in the country. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho and Montana; the state population was estimated at 577,737 in 2018, less than 31 of the most populous U. S. cities including Denver in neighboring Colorado. Cheyenne is the state capital and the most populous city, with an estimated population of 63,624 in 2017; the western two-thirds of the state is covered by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie called the High Plains. Half of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U. S. government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth by area and fifth by proportion of a state's land owned by the federal government. Federal lands include two national parks—Grand Teton and Yellowstone—two national recreation areas, two national monuments, several national forests, historic sites, fish hatcheries, wildlife refuges.
Original inhabitants of the region include the Crow, Arapaho and Shoshone. Southwestern Wyoming was in the Spanish Empire and Mexican territory until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican–American War; the region acquired the name Wyoming when a bill was introduced to the U. S. Congress in 1865 to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming"; the name was used earlier for the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, is derived from the Munsee word xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat". The main drivers of Wyoming's economy are mineral extraction—mostly coal, natural gas, trona—and tourism. Agricultural commodities include livestock, sugar beets and wool; the climate is semi-arid and continental and windier than the rest of the U. S. with greater temperature extremes. Wyoming has been a politically conservative state since the 1950s, with the Republican Party candidate winning every presidential election except 1964. Wyoming's climate is semi-arid and continental, is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with greater temperature extremes.
Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 and 95 °F in most of the state. With increasing elevation, this average drops with locations above 9,000 feet averaging around 70 °F. Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with the hottest locations averaging in the 50–60 °F range at night. In most of the state, most of the precipitation tends to fall in early summer. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is a dry state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin averaging 5–8 inches; the lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains average around 10–12 inches, making the climate there semi-arid. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, 20 inches or more, much of it as snow, sometimes 200 inches or more annually.
The state's highest recorded temperature is 114 °F at Basin on July 12, 1900 and the lowest recorded temperature is −66 °F at Riverside on February 9, 1933. The number of thunderstorm days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during early summer; the southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those that occur farther east; as specified in the designating legislation for the Territory of Wyoming, Wyoming's borders are lines of latitude 41°N and 45°N, longitude 104°3'W and 111°3'W, making the shape of the state a latitude-longitude quadrangle. Wyoming is one of only three states to have borders along only straight latitudinal and longitudinal lines, rather than being defined by natural landmarks.
Due to surveying inaccuracies during the 19th century, Wyoming's legal border deviates from the true latitude and longitude lines by up to half of a mile in some spots in the mountainous region along the 45th parallel. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho, it is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing 97,814 square miles and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is 276 miles; the Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming. The state is a great plateau broken by many mountain ranges. Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at 13,804 feet, to the Belle Fourche River val
The Bighorn Mountains are a mountain range in northern Wyoming and southern Montana in the United States, forming a northwest-trending spur from the Rocky Mountains extending 200 miles northward on the Great Plains. They are separated from the Absaroka Range, which lie on the main branch of the Rockies in western Wyoming, by the Bighorn Basin. Much of the land is contained within the Bighorn National Forest; the Bighorns were uplifted during the Laramide orogeny beginning 70 million years ago. They consist of over 9,000 feet of sedimentary rock strata laid down before mountain-building began: the predominantly marine and near-shore sedimentary layers range from the Cambrian through the Lower Cretaceous, are rich in fossils. There is an unconformity where Silurian strata are missing. Following the uplift, large volumes of sediments, rich in early Tertiary fossils, were deposited in the adjoining basins. Though many cirques, U-shaped valleys and glacial lakes can be found in the mountain range, the only remaining active glacier is the Cloud Peak Glacier, on the east slope of Cloud Peak.
The highest peaks within the Bighorns are located in Wyoming in the 1.12-million-acre Bighorn National Forest. Two peaks rise to over 13,000 feet: Black Tooth Mountain. There are a dozen more. From the east the mountains present a vertical relief of over 8,000 feet, rising abruptly from the plains. Overall, the Bighorns are more rounded than their sister mountain ranges to the west; the Cloud Peak Wilderness is the centerpiece of a roadless block of land around 189,000 acres in size. The Wilderness is surrounded by unprotected acreage of U. S National Forest as well as Bureau of Land Management and some private land. Most of the Cloud Peak Wilderness is above the tree line. Mule deer, moose, black bear, mountain lion are found throughout the area. Two more large roadless areas remained in the Bighorns as of 1992, it is unknown whether these areas have since been reduced in size by road-building and other development. Both areas straddle the Montana-Wyoming state line, in the northern part of the range.
One area, north of U. S. Route 14A and containing the headwaters of the Little Bighorn River, is 155,000 acres of National Forest land; this little-known region features subalpine terrain cut by steep canyons. Pronghorn inhabit the area. What little human use it receives is from hunters and fishermen; the second roadless area is located on the Crow Indian Reservation in Montana. F. in Wyoming. In this part of the range, semidesert prairie is cut by steep canyons leading to Yellowtail Reservoir, high, Douglas-fir cloaked ridges top out at over 9,000'. Colorful rock formations are common. Rocky Mountain juniper and limber pine are scattered on lower elevations, wildlife includes pronghorn, golden eagle, ferruginous hawk, mule deer; the Crow Indians manage a wild bison herd on this portion of the Bighorns. The Crow lands are a sacred area, thus are off-limits to non-tribal members; the three highways traversing the Bighorns are designated Scenic Byways by the US Forest Service and the State of Wyoming.
These include U. S. Routes 14, 14A, 16; the range is the location of the headwaters of the Little Bighorn and Powder rivers. Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area consists of 120,000 acres within the Bighorn Mountains, it includes a reservoir damming the Bighorn River. In 2015, a sudden, huge'gash' was found in Wyoming's Big Horn Mountains; the Wyoming Geological Survey studied the area and determined that "The Crack" may be the result of an "apparent active landslide" in the southern end of the Big Horn Mountains. The Bighorns are a popular destination for hiking, fly fishing, horse back riding and ATV riding and snowmobiling. Trails wind through most of the national forest; the Cloud Peak Wilderness has a network of hiking trails to alpine lakes. Higher trails are covered with snow except from July through August. After Labor Day, there is a good chance of high country snow storms at any time; the Bighorns are home to one of the elite ultramarathons in the nation. The Bighorn Trail Run is held every June.
The Sioux and Cheyenne Indians have long considered the Bighorns sacred mountains. List of mountain ranges in Montana List of mountain ranges in Cynde. In the shadow of the Bighorns: A history of early Sheridan and the Goose Creek valley of northern Wyoming. Sheridan, Wyoming: Sheridan County Historical Society, 2010. ISBN 978-0-9792871-7-6. Paleontological resources at Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area
A livery yard or livery stable, or boarding stable, is a stable where horse owners pay a weekly or monthly fee to keep their horses. A livery or boarding yard is not a riding school and the horses are not for hire. Facilities at a livery yard include a loose box or stable and access for the horse to graze on grass. In North America "livery stable" had a somewhat different meaning: a stable where horses and wagons were for hire, but where owned horses could be boarded for a short time attached to a hotel or boarding house; the C. W. Miller Livery Stable is an example of a multi-story livery stable located at Buffalo, New York; the livery stable was a necessary institution of every American town, but it has been ignored by historians. In addition to providing vital transportation service, the livery was the source of hay, grain and wood; because of the stench and vermin that surrounded the livery and towns attempted to control their locations and activities. The scene of gambling and stag shows, they were condemned as sources of vice.
With the advent of the automobile after 1910, the livery stables disappeared. Full livery - The staff undertake all care of the horse and exercise or compete the horse on behalf of the owner; this is the most expensive option. Part livery - The horse is fed and the stall or loose box is mucked out on behalf of the owner, it is not exercised. Do it yourself or DIY livery - A field or paddock and a stable are provided; the owner undertakes all care of the horse and provides all hay and bedding. This is the least expensive option. Sometimes an amount of hay and/or straw for bedding is included. Everything else needs to be done by the horse owner who will visit the yard one or more times a day to manage their horse. Grass livery or agistment - A form of DIY livery in which a field or paddock is provided with a field shelter, but without stabling. Grass livery is only usable during drier weather or during the grass growing season, with the horses being stabled elsewhere at other times; this arrangement is similar to the owner renting a field or paddock for their horse, but fees are charged per horse rather than by the size of the field.
Working livery - Working liveries are common at riding schools and it involves the owner paying a discounted livery fee so that the riding school has the right to use the horse in lessons. In the United States, terminology is less defined and varies by region, requiring horse owners to inquire as to services provided, but boarding falls into one of the following categories: Full board: Generally includes all food, stabling, stall-cleaning, sometimes, daily turnout for exercise. In a few locations in the eastern US, "full board" may encompass grooming and riding of the horse, but not a common practice nationally. If a horse is groomed and taken into competition by someone other than the owner, it is referred to as "in training" or "at training," and the owner pays additional fees on top of full boarding costs. Part or Partial board: The horse is provided shelter, water and twice daily feedings of hay. All other care, including feeding of grain, stall-cleaning and all exercise, is the responsibility of the owner.
Self-board: Similar to "DIY livery" in the UK. The stabling is provided, the owner is responsible for all care. In most cases and stall bedding is available for the use of the boarders. In some places, this is included in the term "partial board." Pasture board: Essentially the same as "Grass livery" in the UK. Used year-round in the United States in the west. In the winter, if there is insufficient grass, some pasture board situations include hay fed to the horses, in other places, the owner must provide all supplemental feeding. Equestrian facility Horse care Livery Stable Blues Houghton-Brown, J. Horse Business Management: Managing a Successful Yard. Blackwell Science. Macdonald, J. M. Running a Stables as a Business. London: J. A. Allen. Spence, Clark C. "The Livery Stable in the American West," Montana: The Magazine of Western History, June 1986, Vol. 36 Issue 2, pp 36–49 https://web.archive.org/web/20060427005743/http://www.horsedata.co.uk/LiveryYards.asp Directory of livery yards in the UK. https://web.archive.org/web/20140502004702/http://www.ukliveryyards.co.uk/guide-finding-reliable-livery-yards-horse/
Old Trail Town
Old Trail Town is a collection of historic western buildings and artifacts, dating from 1879–1901, located off the Yellowstone Highway in the resort city of Cody, the seat of Park County in northwestern Wyoming. Much of the collection was derived from within 150 miles of Cody, the town that Buffalo Bill and his associates surveyed and established in 1895. One of the assembled buildings is the log cabin of the Crow Indian named Curly, a scout to General George Armstrong Custer, who escaped prior to hostilities at the Little Big Horn in Montana on June 25, 1876. In 1885, the United States government constructed Curly’s cabin as a reward for his military service. Kid Curry and the Sundance Kid used a cabin at Old Trail Town as a hide-out before they robbed a bank in Red Lodge, Montana. Butch Cassidy, the Sundance Kid, other desperados met at another cabin brought in from the Hole-in-the-Wall country in north central Wyoming, it was built in 1883 by Alexander Ghent. Trail Town began in 1967 through the efforts of Bob W. Edgar, an archeologist and a native of the Big Horn Basin region of Wyoming.
Edgar explored the area and worked for seven years for the large Buffalo Bill Historical Center in Cody. He realized the need to gather the historic buildings and relics and display them at a common site, the actual location where Buffalo Bill Cody and his associates had surveyed the first town site, "Cody City". Trail Town has more than twenty-five buildings, a hundred horse-drawn vehicles, an extensive collection of memorabilia of the Wyoming frontier; the largest collection of its kind in Wyoming, Old Trail Town has enjoyed the support of area ranchers and the Cody community. Visitors can stroll between buildings along the boardwalk and access the cemetery, where some local and national folk heroes are interred. On June 8, 1974, the grave of mountain man Liver-Eating Johnson was relocated to Old Trail Town. Johnson's legendary exploits were brought to film with Robert Redford in Jeremiah Johnson. “Johnston”, John Johnson was a trapper, United States Army scout and Union veteran of the American Civil War.
More than two thousand attended the reburial service the largest such gathering in Wyoming history. The bronze statue of Johnson erected over his grave is the work of Peter M. Fillerup of Cody, it was dedicated on July 3, 1981. Old Trail Town is open from May 15 until September 30. Admission is $8 for adults, $7 for seniors, $4 for children 6-12; the Museum of the Old West, a separate entity within Old Trail Town established in 1971 as a 501 Not for Profit Corporation by Bob Edgar and Frances Beldon, is seeking to purchase and administer Old Trail Town provided the financing can be secured. Old Trail Town - official site
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch
Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch was one of the loosely organized outlaw gangs operating out of the Hole-in-the-Wall in Wyoming during the Old West era in the United States. It was popularized by the 1969 movie, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, took its name from the original Wild Bunch; the gang was led by Butch Cassidy, it included his closest friend Elzy Lay, the Sundance Kid, Tall Texan, News Carver, Camilla "Deaf Charley" Hanks, Laura Bullion, Flat-Nose Curry, Kid Curry and Bob Meeks. They were the most successful train-robbing gang in history; this Wild Bunch gang claimed to make every attempt to abstain from killing people, Cassidy boasted of having never killed a single man or woman in his entire career. These claims were false, however. Kid Curry, "Flat-Nose" George Curry, Will Carver and other members of the gang killed numerous people during their flight from law enforcement. Kid Curry alone killed nine lawmen while with the gang, another two civilians during shootouts, becoming the gang's most feared member.
Elzy Lay killed another two lawmen following a robbery, for which he was wounded and sentenced to life imprisonment. George Curry killed at least two lawmen, before being killed by Utah lawmen; the gang was closely associated with female outlaws Ann Bassett and Josie Bassett, whose ranch near Browns Park supplied the gang with fresh horses and beef. Both Bassett girls would become romantically involved with several members of the gang, both would accompany the gang to one of their hideouts, called "Robbers Roost". Associations with ranchers like these in the area allowed the gang considerable mobility, giving them an easy resupply of fresh horses and supplies, a place to hole up for a night or two. At 1:00 a.m on June 2, 1899, Sundance Kid, Harvey Logan and Lay robbed a Union Pacific train near Wilcox, Wyoming. They wore masks made from white napkins pilfered from a Harvey House restaurant. In the holdup, they stole between $30,000 and $60,000; the gang split up afterward, a common ploy to throw off pursuers, several fled to New Mexico.
On July 11, 1899, gang members robbed a train near New Mexico, without Cassidy's presence. The pursuit by a posse led by Sheriff Ed Farr culminated in two gun battles, during which Sheriff Farr and two deputies were killed. Gang member Sam Ketchum was died in custody. Elzy Lay, one of Cassidy's closest friends and cofounder of the Wild Bunch gang, was wounded and captured. Cassidy and the other members regrouped in Wyoming. On August 29, 1900, the Sundance Kid, Kid Curry and another unidentified gang member believed to have been Will Carver, held up another Union Pacific train at Tipton, Wyoming. Less than a month on September 19, 1900, they raided the First National Bank of Winnemucca, stealing $32,640; these and other lucrative robberies led to much fame. In early 1901, the Sundance Kid, Sundance's girlfriend Etta Place relocated to Patagonia, where they spent time at La Leona, 110km from El Calafate in the Province of Santa Cruz, to escape the pursuit of Pinkerton detectives and other lawmen.
That same year, Will Carver was died in May. Ben Kilpatrick and Laura Bullion were captured in Tennessee in December 1901. Kid Curry killed two lawmen in Tennessee, he escaped again. Kid Curry killed himself in Colorado in 1904 during a shootout with lawmen, for he had said that no lawman would take him alive. In 1908, Cassidy and Sundance were killed in a shootout with Bolivian cavalry. Etta Place disappeared, her last known sighting in 1909 in San Francisco, it had been suspected she may have reinvented herself as a brothel and hotel owner named Eunice Gray, in Fort Worth, Texas. Elzy Lay was released from prison in 1906, after a brief visit to the Bassett ranch in Utah, he relocated to California, where he became a respected businessman. Ben Kilpatrick was released from prison in 1911, was killed during a train robbery in Texas in 1912. Laura Bullion was released from prison in 1905 and lived the remainder of her life as a seamstress, dying in Memphis, Tennessee in 1961, the last of the Wild Bunch.
The Three Outlaws, starring Neville Brand as Butch Cassidy and Alan Hale Jr as the Sundance Kid, is a fictional film of the duo's exploits with Wild Bunch member William "News" Carver as the third outlaw in the title. Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, was written by William Goldman. Drifters, features Butch Cassidy and Sundance Kid as supporting characters to the protagonists, they are transported to a fantasy world after their deaths and help aid in the fight against the genocidal "Black King". Rockstar's "Red Dead Redemption 2" is rumoured to be inspired by the Wild Bunch. Additionally, Rockstar recommended the film ` the Sundance Kid' to their fans. Hole in the Wall Gang Red Lopez Media related to Wild Bunch at Wikimedia Commons Butch & Sundance - Wyoming Tales and Trails Was Henry Long Harry Longabaugh
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.