Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the style was carried to France, England and other parts of Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact. Italy of the 15th century, and the city of Florence in particular, was home to the Renaissance, the scholarly approach to the architecture of the ancient coincided with the general revival of learning. A number of factors were influential in bringing this about, Italian architects had always preferred forms that were clearly defined and structural members that expressed their purpose. Many Tuscan Romanesque buildings demonstrate these characteristics, as seen in the Florence Baptistery, Italy had never fully adopted the Gothic style of architecture. In the 15th century, Florence and Naples extended their power through much of the area that surrounded them and this enabled Florence to have significant artistic influence in Milan, and through Milan, France.
Successive Popes, especially Julius II, 1503–13, sought to extend the Pope’s temporal power throughout Italy, in the early Renaissance, Venice controlled sea trade over goods from the East. Trade brought wool from England to Florence, ideally located on the river for the production of fine cloth, by dominating Pisa, Florence gained a seaport, and maintained dominance of Genoa. In this commercial climate, one family in particular turned their attention from trade to the business of money-lending. The Medici became the chief bankers to the princes of Europe, becoming virtually princes themselves as they did so, along the trade routes, and thus offered some protection by commercial interest, moved not only goods but artists and philosophers. This commenced in the mid 15th century and gained momentum in the 16th century, the construction of the Sistine Chapel with its uniquely important decorations and the entire rebuilding of St Peters, one of Christendoms most significant churches, were part of this process.
In wealthy republican Florence, the impetus for church-building was more civic than spiritual, the unfinished state of the enormous cathedral dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary did no honour to the city under her patronage. The dome inspired further religious works in Florence, through Humanism, civic pride and the promotion of civil peace and order were seen as the marks of citizenship. Some major ecclesiastical building works were commissioned, not by the church. During the Renaissance, architecture became not only a question of practice, printing played a large role in the dissemination of ideas. The first treatise on architecture was De re aedificatoria by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450 and it was to some degree dependent on Vitruviuss De architectura, a manuscript of which was discovered in 1414 in a library in Switzerland. De re aedificatoria in 1485 became the first printed book on architecture, Sebastiano Serlio produced the next important text, the first volume of which appeared in Venice in 1537, it was entitled Regole generali darchitettura.
It is known as Serlios Fourth Book since it was the fourth in Serlios original plan of a treatise in seven books, in all, five books were published
Poul Henningsen was a Danish author and critic, and one of the leading figures of the cultural life of Denmark between the World Wars. In Denmark, he is referred to as PH. Poul Henningsen was the son of author Agnes Henningsen and satirist Carl Ewald. He spent a childhood in a tolerant and modern home in Ordrup which was often visited by the leading literates. Between 1911 and 1917 he was educated as an architect, but he never graduated and tried himself as an inventor and his most valuable contribution to design was in the field of lighting. He designed the PH-lamp in 1925, like his designs, used carefully analyzed reflecting and baffling of the light rays from the bulb to achieve glare-free. His light fixtures were manufactured by Louis Poulsen and his best-known models are the PH Artichoke and PH5. The lamps created the foundation of his work. Other notable designs include the PH Grand Piano which is included in several notable 20th-century design collections and he designed Glassalen for Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen.
During the 1920s Poul Henningsen had his literary breakthrough and he edited the polemic left wing periodical Kritisk Revy in which he and his colleagues scorned old-fashioned style and cultural conservatism, linking these themes to politics. At the same time he began as a revue writer praising natural behaviour, sexual broad-mindedness and he was the man who made the Danish revues a political weapon of the left wing without giving up its character of entertainment. 1933 he edited his most famous work Hvad med Kulturen, a polemic and urgent criticism of Danish cultural life and its snobism and passion of the past in spite of all the efforts of the Modern Break-Through. He tried to make parallels between prudery and fascist leanings and he accused the Social Democrats of lacking a firm. This book together with his activities as a whole made him a reputation as a semi-communist fellow traveller, in this period he in fact stood near the communists without joining them. He took part in the anti-fascist propaganda, always trying to connect culture, among his other initiatives of this period was Danmarksfilmen 1935, known as PH’s Danmarksfilm.
It is an unpretentious and untraditional film portraying the life in contemporary Denmark in a lively and slightly disrespectful way in which the visuals are supported by jazz rhythms. It was condemned and torn apart by most critics but on it has become rehabilitated as one of the classic Danish documentary films and he wrote some movie manuscripts. During World War II and the German Occupation of Denmark he kept a lower profile and fled to Sweden in 1943, however he kept writing and debating, and during the 1960s the new generation in many ways made him something of a guru
Royal Danish Theatre
The Royal Danish Theatre is both the national Danish performing arts institution and a name used to refer to its old purpose-built venue from 1874 located on Kongens Nytorv in Copenhagen. The theatre was founded in 1748, first serving as the theatre of the king, the theatre presents opera, the Royal Danish Ballet, classical music concerts, and drama in several locations. The Old Stage is the original Royal Danish Theatre built in 1874, the Copenhagen Opera House, built in 2004. Stærekassen is an Art Deco theatre adjacent to the main theatre and it is used for drama productions. Royal Danish Playhouse is a venue for theatre with three stages, inaugurated in 2008
Assistens Cemetery (Copenhagen)
Assistens Cemetery in Copenhagen, Denmark, is the burial site of a large number of Danish notables as well as an important greenspace in the Nørrebro district. Among the latter are the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Niels Bohr and a number of American jazz musicians who settled in Copenhagen during the 1950s and 1960s, including Ben Webster and Kenny Drew. The cemetery is one of five run by Copenhagen Municipality, the cemeteries are Vestre Cemetery, Brønshøj Cemetery, Sundby Cemetery. In Medieval times intramural interment was the rule although outdoor graveyards gradually became more common, in 1666 the Naval Holmens Cemetery was moved from its original location at Church of Holmen to a site outside the Eastern City Gate as the first burial facility to be located outside the city. An outbreak of plague in 1711 which killed an estimated 23,000 citizens put the burial sites under so much pressure that up to five coffins were sometimes buried on top of each other. After some negotiations it was decided to place it outside the Northern City Gate, the new cemetery was inaugurated on 6 November 1760.
It was enclosed by a built by Philip de Lange. Originally the cemetery was intended as a ground for paupers. Simon, der dort Gräber ist, gesprochen habe and he was soon followed by other leading figures from the elite and the cemetery soon developed into the most mondain burial ground of the city. Around that time, excursions to the cemetery with picnic baskets and it is certainly one of the most beautiful graveyards in Europe. The excursions sometimes evolved into rowdy gatherings and legislation was passed to prevent this, a commission established in 1805 issued instructions which prohibited the consumption of food or drink as well as music or any other kind of cheerful behaviour in the cemetery. The gravediggers, who lived on the premises, were to enforce these restrictions, legislation from 1813 prohibited them to sell alcohol to visitors to the cemetery. Despite all these efforts, the peace and quiet was a long time in coming. For particularly grand funerals, crowds of spectators would gather, to reduce numbers of visitors, there was talk of introducing admission fees, but this was never carried out.
The oldest part is Section A and features the graves of Søren Kierkegaard, Section D is dedicated to religious minorities, containing Roman Catholic and Reformed graves as well as Russian graves. Section E is the section which served under Church of Our Lady. Apart from the permanent exhibition, the museum contains an exhibition space for special exhibitions, a picture workshop for children and young people
Copenhagen Police Headquarters
The Copenhagen Police Headquarters building is located on Polititorvet southwest of the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. Designed by Hack Kampmann and Aage Rafn in 1924 in the Neoclassical style, often referred to as Nordic Classicism, until late in the 19th century, the area around todays Police Headquarters was part of Kalvebod Beach. After the quayside had been established, construction began on the Glyptotek, in 1906, a street plan was drawn up for the area which at the time was known as the Rysensteen Quarter. Hack Kampmann was commissioned to design the building in the summer of 1918, work on the foundations began in August of that year with 3,816 reinforced concrete piles. He was assisted in the work by other architects including Aage Rafn and Holger Jacobsen. Rafn exerted considerable influence on the design of the building, Hack Kampmann, who died in June 1920, did not live to see the completion of his building in early 1924. The building is said to be the last example of Neoclassical architecture in Northern Europe and it typically juxtaposes squares and circles and darkness and the horizontal with the vertical.
Its interior is inspired by the Renaissance architecture of southern Europe, there are features based on Roman craftsmanship and on Art Deco. The round courtyard,45 m in width, is surrounded by a colonnade consisting of 44 Doric columns, the small square-shaped courtyard, dominated by eight colossal pillars, contains a sculpture of the Snake Killer by Einar Utzon-Frank. Rafn was inspired by the warehouses of Londons dockland in designing the buildings facade, when it opened in 1924, the building was a masterpiece of its genre. It was nonetheless the subject of criticism by those who felt it was an anachronistic symbol of power at a time when Functionalism was becoming the style of the times. Other Danish police crime series set in Copenhagen that regularly feature establishing shots of the include the acclaimed series The Killing. The music video for Laid Backs song White Horse was filmed in the courtyard of the building. Danish Police Museum Images on arkitekturbilleder. dk PDF about the building Renderings in the Danish National Art Library More renderings in the Danish National Art Library
Glostrup is a Danish town in Region Hovedstaden, forming one of the western suburbs of Copenhagen. It is the seat of Glostrup Municipality, with an estimated population of 22,357 as of 2015. During the 20th century Glostrup developed from a railroad town into a modern middle class suburb. The population reached a peak during the 1970s flight from central Copenhagen, while most of Copenhagens western suburbs are dominated by public housing projects, Glostrups mix is around the Danish average. A series of companies, e. g. Grontmijs and Motorolas Danish sections, along with NKT Holding. Along with the municipalities, it forms the center of Copenhagens productive industry. Glostrup Municipality has a total of 21,200 jobs in the private, Glostrup is home to a series of public offices and institutions, e. g. Københavns Vestegn Police Departement and Glostrup Court, covering the western and northern suburbs of Copenhagen. Glostrup Hospital was inaugurated in 1958 and employs 3,200 people, the village of Glostrup was established some time between 1000 and 1197 and is named after its founder Glob.
The village is first mentioned between 1186 and 1197 as Glostorp, but Glostrup church is from around 1150, indicating that a community was already found at the site at this point. Most of the privately owned land came under Roskilde Cathedral over the couple of centuries but was confiscated by the Crown after the Reformation in 1536. Sources from 1682 indicate that the soil in the area was quite fertile as the village consisted of eight farms and 13 houses, most of the smallholders worked for the farmers. In 1773, when the new Roskilde Road was constructed between Copenhagen and Roskilde was constructed, it became the road of the area. Glostrup was a station on the new railway, Denmarks first, Glostrup changed character and the population grew significantly during the last decades of the century. A poorhouse was established in 1862 and it was followed by a pharmacy in 1864, an increasing number of industrial enterprises established in the area. Lever Brothers opened a factory in 1924. Glostrup Housing Association was founded in 1943 as a part of the expansion of the Danish capitol, the growing population combined with the already miserable living conditions in the central city led to a series of national plans to expand the number of housing units.
The largest project of the association was the building of 1,200 housing units in relation to the building of Glostrup Hospital and they were built between 1956 and 1965, ultimately defining Glostrup as a suburb rather than a village. Other large plans included the erection of Avedøre Stationsby and the Hvissinge Plan, transport in Glostrup has historically been dominated by the railroad station opened on the first Danish railroad in 1847 between Copenhagen and Roskilde
DR, officially rendered into English as the Danish Broadcasting Corporation, is the Danish government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company. Founded in 1925 as an organization, it is Denmarks oldest and largest electronic media enterprise. DR is a member of the European Broadcasting Union. DR is funded by a licence which is charged to all Danish households with television sets, smartphones. Today, DR operates six television channels, all of which are distributed free-to-air via a nationwide DVB-T network, DR operates eight radio channels, of which all are available nationally on DAB radio and online. On FM radio only the original 4 stations are available, DR was founded on April 1,1925 under the name of Radioordningen, changed to Statsradiofonien in 1926, and Danmarks Radio in 1959. Which was changed to DR in 1996, statsradiofoniens second FM radio station, Program 2, was added in 1951, followed by P3 in 1963. Experimental television broadcasts started in 1949, with regular programming beginning on October 2,1951 with the launch of Denmarks first television channel, colour television test broadcasts were started in March 1967, with the first large-scale colour broadcasting occurring for the 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France.
Danmarks Radio officially ended test transmissions of television on April 1,1970. On exactly 16 May 1983 at 14,00 CEST, DR launched its first teletext information service, Danmarks Radios monopoly on national television lasted until 1988, when TV2 started broadcasting. 8 years DR launched their second channel, DR2 on August 30,1996. It was sometimes called den hemmelige kanal in its early years because it could not be seen nationwide at its launch, the first trials of DAB were carried out in 1995, with eight channels officially launching in October 2002. On June 7,2007, DR launched a news channel DR Update. It was added as a traditional channel, at the Danish changeover to over-the-air digital signals on November 1,2009, DR added three new channels to their lineup DR K - an intercultural and odd-film channel. DR HD – Denmarks first free-to-air high-definition channel intended to air shows from the other DR channels in true HD only. In 2013 the line-up of television channels was changed once again, a new channel targeting young people, DR3 replaced DR HD.
Another channel for children, DR Ultra replaced DR Update, the closure of DR Update was the start of a revamping of DR2 as a channel for news and society. Also in 2013, DR introduced a new logo in which the words DR featured in a white sans-serif font on a black background
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, but is treated as a part of Copenhagen. It occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015, Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two. Some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, and is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or posh, the town is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens and Søndermarken. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are actually located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg. The Copenhagen S-train system has stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station.
Frederiksbergs original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title, in Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as the old thul. Thula translates as song, like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda, by 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy. It was regarded as Copenhagens border to the west, people lived here since the Bronze Age. Farming was not very successful, and in 1697 most of the burned down. This meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, in 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke. He named the palace Frederichs Berg, and the town at the foot of the hill consequently changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land. The town changed slowly from a community to a merchant town, with craftsmen. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, and restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the city for the open land
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Odense is the third-largest city in Denmark. It has a population of 175,245 as of January 2016, by road, Odense is located 45 kilometres north of Svendborg,144 kilometres to the south of Aarhus and 167 kilometres to the southwest of Copenhagen. Odense has close associations with Hans Christian Andersen who is remembered above all for his fairy tales and he was born in the city in 1805 and spent his childhood years there. There has been settlement in the Odense area for over 4,000 years, although the name was not mentioned in writing until 988. Canute IV of Denmark, generally considered to be the last Viking king, was murdered by peasants in Odenses St Albans Priory on 10 July 1086. Although the city was burned in 1249 following a royal rivalry, in 1865, one of the largest railway terminals in Denmark was built, further increasing the population and commerce, and by 1900, Odense had reached a population of 35,000. Odenses Odinstårnet was one of the tallest towers in Europe when built in 1935 but was destroyed by the Nazis during World War II, the University of Southern Denmark was established in 1966.
In the present day, Odense remains the hub of Funen. Several major industries are located in the city including the Albani Brewery and GASA, Denmarks major dealer in vegetables and flowers. In sports, Odense has a number of clubs including OB, BM, B1909, and B1913, the Odense Bulldogs professional ice hockey team. Odense is served by Hans Christian Andersen Airport and Odense station, Odense is one of Denmarks oldest cities. Archaeological excavations in the vicinity show proof of settlement for over 4,000 years since at least the Stone Age, the earliest community was centred on the higher ground between the Odense River to the south and Naesbyhoved Lake to the north. Nonnebakken, one of Denmarks former Viking ring fortresses, lay to the south of the river, Odenses Møntergården Museum has many artefacts related to the early Viking history in the Odense area. The Vikings built numerous fortifications along the banks to defend it against invaders coming in from the coast. The first church in Odense appears to have been St Marys, the territory, previously part of the vast Archbishopric of Hamburg, was created a Catholic diocese in 988.
The first recorded bishops of Odense were Odinkar Hvide and Reginbert, recent excavations have shown that from the early 11th century, the town developed in the area around Albani Torv, Fisketorvet and Vestergade. By 1070, Odense had already grown into a city of stature in Denmark, the priory no longer exists, although a church has been situated on the site since about 900. At the beginning of the 12th century, Benedictine monks from England founded St Canutes Abbey and it was here the English monk Ælnoth wrote Denmarks first literary work, Vita et Passio S. Canuti
Circus Building, Copenhagen
The Circus Building on Axel Torv in Copenhagen, Denmark. is a circular building completed in 1886 to serve as a venue for circus performances. It is now used for shows and as a restaurant, at that time, circus tents were relatively uncommon. Instead, touring circus companies performed in permanent venues and they were generally simple wooden structures but in major cities elaborate circus buildings in brick and stone became increasingly common. Ernst Renz, director of Circus Renz and artist who had made a fortune on his trade, had built extravagant circus buildings in such as Berlin, Vienna. In Copenhagen he leased the new building on a three-year contract, the first plans envisioned an extravagant building with an elaborate facade with statues and Greek columns but in the end a much simpler design was chosen. Renz did not renew his lease after the 1888 season and died in 1891, instead the Circus building played host to performances by a variety of visiting foreign circus companies which passed through Copenhagen on their European tours.
In March 1914, the Circus building was devastated by a fire left only the outer walls standing. It was quickly rebuilt, under the direction of the architect Holger Jacobsen, in 1916, Cirkus Schumann performed in the building. The company was run by Willy and Oscar Schumann, nephews of Albert Schumann, after they had taken over the business from their father, Max Schumann. They returned to the Circus building in 1918 and except for a few years break during the beginning of World War II performed there every summer until 1968. During that period, their company was synonymous with circus in Denmark, in 1963, a retail company, bought the Circus building to replace it with a modern department store but the plans were abandoned after massive protests and due to lack of funding. Still, due to escalating rent and the uncertainty about the buildings future, the Schumanns were succeeded by another prominent Danish circus, headed by Eli Benneweis, presenting summer performances from 1970 to 1990. In 1974, the City bought the building and rented it out to the Benneweis family, in 1988, the Circus building was listed by the Danish Heritage Agency.
After decreasing ticket sales, Circus Benneweis decided to leave the building in 1990, the building has since been used for a variety of activities and events, including musicals, ballet and concerts. The building is circular and topped by a shallow dome, the most distinctive feature of the facade is a frieze located just below the roof on the periphery of the outer wall. It was created by the sculptor Frederik Hammeleff and survived the fire in 1906 and it depicts motifs from ancient Rome and Greece. Since 2003, the building has been leased by Wallmans salonger, a Swedish entertainment company, the Circus Buuilding is used as a location in the 1973 Olsen Gang film The Olsen Gang Goes Crazy