A photoblog is a form of photo sharing and publishing in the format of a blog. It focus on photographs rather than text. Photoblogging cameraphones. There are three popular ways. Photoblogs on individual domains, photoblogs on blogging hosting services such as WordPress or Blogger, photoblogs on photo specific blogging services such as Fotolog or Flickr; the dynamic nature of blogs, including photoblogs compared to static sites means that blogs require some form of content management system rather than being built by hand. These content management systems provide the photoblog's authors with a web service that allows the creation and management of posts and the uploading of images; the CMS delivers webpages based on the data entered by the photoblog author. Access to photoblogs is unrestricted and available to anyone with internet access and a web browser; some existing blogging CMS have been modified by the use of add-ons or plugins to enable the transition from text blogging to photoblogging.
As an example, a photoblog author might limit his blog to display a single entry per day and he might put thumbnails in entry excerpts to provide archives that display images instead of text snippets. Over time, developers have begun to write purpose-built CMS just for creating photoblogs. Additionally many services specializing in hosting and displaying images, such as Flickr and Fotolog, have APIs that allow other blogging systems to display their images, giving the user many options as to the construction of a particular site. Good photoblogging platforms include camera metadata that display the camera settings of each photo taken; the early days of photoblogging required some level of technical experience with setting up a webserver and installing or writing the CMS code for it. Some photobloggers still prefer this option of running their own server, as this gives them full control over the display and functionality of their photoblog. However, there are now a range of photoblog hosting services available which provide ready made solution in which everything has been set up.
This has made photoblogging more accessible to the layman. Convergence of mobile phones with digital cameras has opened a new era in photoblogging as authors may publish photos directly from smart devices to the Web. Visual blogging enables people with limited English, or low literacy to contribute to material on the Web. Combined with automatic uploading technology, this is a powerful tool to build digital literacy and digital citizenship in marginalized groups. Blog software Content management system Image hosting service Mobile blogging Photo sharing Photoblogs at Curlie
IPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software; the first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard; the iPhone can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video, take photos, play music and receive email, browse the web and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps; as of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone. Apple has released twelve generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the twelve major releases of the iOS operating system.
The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri; the iPhone 5 featured Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal, they were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models.
The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, therefore, no Touch ID. In September 2018, Apple again released 3 new iPhones, which are the iPhone XS, an upgraded version of the since discontinued iPhone X, iPhone XS Max, a larger variant with the series' biggest display as of 2018 and iPhone XR, a lower end version of the iPhone X; the original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have garnered praise; the iPhone is one of the most used smartphones in the world, its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees to work on the confidential "Project Purple."
Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet towards a phone. Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. According to Steve Jobs, the "i" word in "iMac" stands for internet, instruct and inspire. Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano. Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house and paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue, in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011. Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco; the two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599, went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.
The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the'Jesus phone'. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, Germany in November 2007, Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008. On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it in June and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost, 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000; the back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal; the iPhone 3G was available in
Laura Bates is an English feminist writer. She founded the Everyday Sexism Project website in April 2012, her first book, Everyday Sexism, was published in 2014. Bates was born on 27 August 1986 in Oxford to a mother who taught French and a physician father, grew up in Hackney and Taunton, has an older sister and a younger brother, her parents divorced. She read English literature at St John's College and graduated from the University of Cambridge in 2007. Bates remained in Cambridge for two and a half years as a researcher for the psychologist Susan Quilliam, working on an updated edition of The Joy of Sex. Bates worked as an actress and a nanny, a period in which she has said she experienced sexism at auditions and found the young girls she was caring for were preoccupied with their body image; the Everyday Sexism project website was founded in 2012. Bates told the Financial Times journalist Lucy Kellaway in 2014 about "having a guy in a car slow down and say,'You walk down here every Wednesday and Thursday at about 12, don't you?'" Bates recalled asking herself afterwards: "Is it my fault?"During an interview for The Daily Telegraph in April 2014, Bates said: "All feminism means to me is that everyone should be treated regardless of their sex.
We have to get past judging women on their looks and using that to derive some sort of idea about their agenda." "A man can be a father, a doctor, a politician, a lawyer, without his sex being an issue or being commented on", Bates told Anna Klassen of The Daily Beast website. "One of the nicest surprises has been the compassionate responses from men", she wrote in The Guardian. "It's not about men against women, but people against prejudice."Around the third anniversary of the website, in April 2015, Everyday Sexism had reached 100,000 entries. She has faced abuse online. "People talk about specific serial killers they admire and who they would like to emulate", she told Lucy Kellaway, "and about the different weapons that they fantasise about using on you and in what order. It is quite twisted stuff."A contributor to other publications as well as The Guardian, Bates' first book Everyday Sexism was published by the London subsidiary of Simon & Schuster in 2014. She is contracted to write two further books for Schuster.
She is a contributor to the New York–based, Women Under Siege Project. Bates was awarded the British Empire Medal in the 2015 Birthday Honours for services to gender equality, she received Cosmopolitan magazine's Ultimate New Feminist Award in 2013. In June 2018 Bates was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in its "40 Under 40" initiative. Bates married Nick Taylor in 2014. Everyday Sexism, 2014, Simon & Schuster ISBN 1471131572 Girl Up, 2016, Simon & Schuster ISBN 9781471149504 The Burning, 2019, Simon & Schuster ISBN 1471170209 The Everyday Sexism Project EverydaySexism on Twitter The Guardian contributor page The Independent contributor page Women Under Siege contributor page
Women's liberation movement
The women's liberation movement was a political alignment of women and feminist intellectualism that emerged in the late 1960s and continued into the 1980s in the industrialized nations of the Western world, which affected great change throughout the world. The WLM branch of radical feminism, based in contemporary philosophy, comprised women of racially- and culturally-diverse backgrounds who proposed that economic and social freedom were necessary for women to progress from being second-class citizens in their societies. Towards achieving the equality of women, the WLM questioned the cultural and legal validity of patriarchy and the practical validity of the social and sexual hierarchies used to control and limit the legal and physical independence of women in society. Women's liberationists proposed that sexism—legalized formal and informal sex-based discrimination predicated on the existence of the social construction of gender—was the principal political problem with the power dynamics of their societies.
In general, the WLM proposed socio-economic change from the political Left, rejected the idea that piecemeal equality and according to social class, would eliminate sexual discrimination against women, fostered the tenets of humanism the respect for human rights of all people. In the decades during which the Women's Liberation Movement flourished, liberationists changed how women were perceived in their cultures, redefined the socio-economic and the political roles of women in society, transformed mainstream society; the wave theory of social development holds that intense periods of social activity are followed by periods of remission, in which the activists involved intensely in mobilization are systematically marginalized and isolated. After the intense period fighting for women's suffrage, the common interest which had united international feminists left the women's movement without a single focus upon which all could agree. Ideological differences between radicals and moderates, led to a split and a period of deradicalization, with the largest group of women's activists spearheading movements to educate women on their new responsibilities as voters.
Organizations like the African National Congress Women's League, the Irish Housewives Association, the League of Women Voters, the Townswomen's Guilds and the Women's Institutes supported women and tried to educate them on how to use their new rights to incorporate themselves into the established political system. Still other organizations, involved in the mass movement of women into the work force during World War I and World War II and their subsequent exit at the end of the war with concerted official efforts to return to family life, turned their efforts to labor issues; the World YWCA and Zonta International, were leaders in these efforts, mobilizing women to gather information on the situation of working women and organize assistance programs. Radical organizations, like the American National Women's Party, were marginalized, by media which denounced feminism and its proponents as "severe neurotics responsible for the problems of" society; those who were still attached to the radical themes of equality were unmarried and economically advantaged and seemed to the larger society to be deviant.
In countries throughout Africa, the Caribbean, the Middle East and South America efforts to decolonize and replace authoritarian regimes, which began in the 1950s and stretched through the 1980s saw the state overtaking the role of radical feminists. For example, in Egypt, the 1956 Constitution eliminated gender barriers to labour, political access, education through provisions for gender equality. Women in Argentina, Chile, Cuba and other Latin American countries had worked for an end to dictatorships in their countries; as those governments turned to socialist policies, the state aimed to eliminate gender inequality through state action. As ideology in Asia and the Caribbean shifted left, women in newly independent and still colonized countries saw a common goal in fighting imperialism, they focused their efforts to address gendered power imbalances in their quest for respect of human rights and nationalist goals. This worldwide movement towards decolonization and the realignment of international politics into Cold War camps after the end of World War II, usurped the drive for women's enfranchisement, as universal suffrage and nationhood became the goal for activists.
A Pan-African awareness and global recognition of blackness as a unifying point for struggle, led to a recognition by numerous marginalized groups that there was potential to politicize their oppression. In their attempt to influence these newly independent countries to align with the United States, in the polarized Cold War climate, racism in U. S. policy became a stumbling block to the foreign policy objective to become the dominant superpower. Black leaders were aware of the favorable climate for securing change and pushed forward the Civil Rights Movement to address racial inequalities, they sought to eliminate the damage of oppression, using liberation theory and a movement which sought to create societal transformation in the way people thought about others by infusing the disenfranchised with political power to change the power structures. The Black Power movement and global student movements protested the apparent double standards of the age and the authoritarian nature of social institutions.
From Czechoslovakia to Mexico, in diverse locations like Germany, France and Japan, among others, students protested the civil and political inequalities, as well as involvement in the Vietnam War. Many of the activists participating in these causes would go
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
A photograph is an image created by light falling on a photosensitive surface photographic film or an electronic image sensor, such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera, which uses a lens to focus the scene's visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of what the human eye would see; the process and practice of creating such images is called photography. The word photograph was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek φῶς, meaning "light," and γραφή, meaning "drawing, writing," together meaning "drawing with light." The first permanent photograph, a contact-exposed copy of an engraving, was made in 1822 using the bitumen-based "heliography" process developed by Nicéphore Niépce. The first photographs of a real-world scene, made using a camera obscura, followed a few years but Niépce's process was not sensitive enough to be practical for that application: a camera exposure lasting for hours or days was required. In 1829 Niépce entered into a partnership with Louis Daguerre and the two collaborated to work out a similar but more sensitive and otherwise improved process.
After Niépce's death in 1833 Daguerre concentrated on silver halide-based alternatives. He exposed a silver-plated copper sheet to iodine vapor, creating a layer of light-sensitive silver iodide, he named this first practical process for making photographs with a camera the daguerreotype, after himself. Its existence was announced to the world on 7 January 1839 but working details were not made public until 19 August. Other inventors soon made improvements which reduced the required exposure time from a few minutes to a few seconds, making portrait photography practical and popular; the daguerreotype had shortcomings, notably the fragility of the mirror-like image surface and the particular viewing conditions required to see the image properly. Each was a unique opaque positive. Inventors set about working out improved processes. By the end of the 1850s the daguerreotype had been replaced by the less expensive and more viewed ambrotype and tintype, which made use of the introduced collodion process.
Glass plate collodion negatives used to make prints on albumen paper soon became the preferred photographic method and held that position for many years after the introduction of the more convenient gelatin process in 1871. Refinements of the gelatin process have remained the primary black-and-white photographic process to this day, differing in the sensitivity of the emulsion and the support material used, glass a variety of flexible plastic films, along with various types of paper for the final prints. Color photography is as old as black-and-white, with early experiments including John Herschel's Anthotype prints in 1842, the pioneering work of Louis Ducos du Hauron in the 1860s, the Lippmann process unveiled in 1891, but for many years color photography remained little more than a laboratory curiosity, it first became a widespread commercial reality with the introduction of Autochrome plates in 1907, but the plates were expensive and not suitable for casual snapshot-taking with hand-held cameras.
The mid-1930s saw the introduction of Kodachrome and Agfacolor Neu, the first easy-to-use color films of the modern multi-layer chromogenic type. These early processes produced transparencies for use in slide projectors and viewing devices, but color prints became popular after the introduction of chromogenic color print paper in the 1940s; the needs of the motion picture industry generated a number of special processes and systems the best-known being the now-obsolete three-strip Technicolor process. Non-digital photographs are produced with a two-step chemical process. In the two-step process the light-sensitive film captures a negative image. To produce a positive image, the negative is most transferred onto photographic paper. Printing the negative onto transparent film stock is used to manufacture motion picture films. Alternatively, the film is processed to invert the negative image; such positive images are mounted in frames, called slides. Before recent advances in digital photography, transparencies were used by professionals because of their sharpness and accuracy of color rendition.
Most photographs published in magazines were taken on color transparency film. All photographs were monochromatic or hand-painted in color. Although methods for developing color photos were available as early as 1861, they did not become available until the 1940s or 1950s, so, until the 1960s most photographs were taken in black and white. Since color photography has dominated popular photography, although black and white is still used, being easier to develop than color. Panoramic format images can be taken with cameras like the Hasselblad Xpan on standard film. Since the 1990s, panoramic photos have been available on the Advanced Photo System film. APS was developed by several of the major film manufacturers to provide a film with different formats and computerized options available, though APS panoramas were created using a mask in panorama-capable cameras, far less desirable than a true panoramic camera, which achieves its effect through a wider film format. APS has been discontinued; the advent of the microcomputer and d