Central Arkansas known as the Little Rock metro, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the most populous metro area in the US state of Arkansas. With an estimated 2016 population of 734,622, it is the most populated area in Arkansas. Located at the convergence of Arkansas's other geographic regions, the region's central location make Central Arkansas an important population, economic and political center in Arkansas and the South. Little Rock is the state's capital, the city is home to two Fortune 500 companies, Arkansas Children's Hospital, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; the site known as "little rock" along the Arkansas River was discovered by explorer Bernard de la Harpe in 1722. The territorial capitol had been located at Arkansas Post in Southeast Arkansas since 1819, but the site had proven unsuitable as a settlement due to frequent flooding of the Arkansas River. Over the years, the "little rock" remained unsettled.
A land speculator from St. Louis, Missouri who had acquired many acres around the "little rock" began pressuring the Arkansas territorial legislature in February 1820 to move the capital to the site, but the representatives could not decide between Little Rock or Cadron, the preferred site of Territorial Governor James Miller; the issue was tabled until October 1820, by which time most of the legislators and other influential men had purchased lots around Little Rock. The legislature moved the capital to Little Rock, where it has remained since. Central Arkansas is located in the Southern United States, within a subregion known as the Upper South; the South is a distinct cultural region reliant upon a plantation economy in the 18th and 19th century, until the secession of the Confederate States of America and the Civil War. The region is the point of convergence for four other Arkansas regions: the Ozarks to the north, the Arkansas River Valley to the west, the Arkansas Delta to the east, Piney Woods to the southwest.
The Arkansas River crosses the region, serves as the dividing line between Little Rock and North Little Rock. The Arkansas is an important geographic feature in Central Arkansas, requiring long bridge spans but allowing barge traffic to the Port of Little Rock and points upriver. Central Arkansas includes both the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway MSA, though the broader Little Rock CSA is considered Central Arkansas; the MSA is defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget as Faulkner, Lonoke, Perry and Saline counties. The CSA definition adds the Pine Bluff metropolitan area adding Cleveland and Lincoln counties, the Searcy Micropolitan Area, which adds White County, it is the core of the broader Little Rock-North Little Rock Combined Statistical Area. Its economic and demographic center is Little Rock, Arkansas's capital and largest city; the Little Rock Combined Statistical area spans ten counties and had an estimated population of 905,847 in 2016. Prior to 2002, the area consisted of four core counties: Pulaski, Faulkner and Lonoke.
The area was expanded to include adjoining Perry County to the west, Grant County to the south. The city of Conway was designated as a third principal city for the MSA by 2007; as of the census of 2000, there were 610,518 people, 241,094 households, 165,405 families residing within the MSA. The racial makeup of the MSA was 75.40% White, 21.02% African American, 0.44% Native American, 0.96% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.87% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.07% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $37,912, the median income for a family was $44,572. Males had a median income of $31,670 versus $23,354 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $18,305. As of the census of 2000, there were 785,024 people, 304,335 households, 210,966 families residing within the CSA; the racial makeup of the CSA was 73.97% White, 22.73% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.80% from other races, 1.20% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.93% of the population. The median income for a household in the CSA was $35,301, the median income for a family was $41,804. Males had a median income of $31,192 versus $22,347 for females; the per capita income for the CSA was $16,898. Communities are categorized based on their populations in the 2000 U. S. Census. Little Rock Conway North Little Rock Benton Bryant Cabot Jacksonville Maumelle Pine Bluff Sherwood The Little Rock Regional Chamber of Commerce, the oldest association in Arkansas, has produced the following list of largest employers in Central Arkansas. Source: Little Rock Regional Chamber of Commerce Interstate 30 Interstate 430 Interstate 530 Interstate 630 Interstate 40 Interstate 440 U. S. Highway 64 U. S. Highway 65 U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 165 U. S. Highway 167 U. S. Highway 270 The Clinton National Airport in Little Rock is the largest commercial airport in the state, with more than 100 flights arriving or departing each day and nonstop jet service to eighteen cities.
North Little Rock Municipal Airport, located across the Arkansas River, is designated as a general aviation reliever airport for Clinton National by the Federal Aviation Administration. Central Arkansas has several smaller municipally owned general aviation airports: Conway Airport at Cantrell Field in Conway, Saline County Regional in Benton, Grider Field in Pine Bluff; the city of
U.S. Route 65
U. S. Route 65 is a north -- south United States highway in midwestern United States; the southern terminus of the route is at U. S. Route 425 in Louisiana; the northern terminus is at Interstate 35 just south of Interstate 90 in Minnesota. Parts of its modern route in Iowa and historic route in Minnesota follow the old Jefferson Highway. U. S. 65 begins in Clayton and proceeds northward to Waterproof, St. Joseph, Newellton, all in Tensas Parish. At Newellton, it intersects with Louisiana State Highway 4 coming from the west. In Tallulah, it intersects Interstate 20, 30 miles north of this intersection it enters Arkansas. US 65 enters the southeast corner of Arkansas just north of Louisiana, it is designated as part of Arkansas' Great River Road from this point north through Lake Village, McGehee, Dumas. The Great River Road continues east onto US 165. US 65 entered Pine Bluff traveling northwest along Harding Avenue, turning north along Ohio Street west through downtown along 5th and 6th Avenues, where northbound traffic used 5th and southbound traffic used 6th, before converging onto 6th Avenue west of downtown.
The highway turned north along Blake Street and followed Dollarway Road, now designated Arkansas Highway 365, northwest into White Hall. US 65 was relocated to a bypass corridor on the north side of Pine Bluff, dubbed the Downtown Expressway. With the completion of the Interstate 530 bypass on the south side of Pine Bluff, US 65 was rerouted along Interstate 530, the Downtown Expressway was resigned US 65 Business; the original US 65 between Pine Bluff and Conway is now signed Arkansas Highway 365. US 65 entered Little Rock via what was Confederate Boulevard, turning west onto Roosevelt Road routing northbound traffic onto Scott Street, crossing the Arkansas River concurrently with US 67, US 167, US 70 along the Main Street Bridge to Main Street in North Little Rock; the highway in Little Rock was relocated five blocks west of Main Street to Broadway, where it crossed the Arkansas River via the Broadway Bridge. It was relocated east along Interstate 30. US 65 entered North Little Rock via the Main Street Bridge and continued with northbound traffic along Main Street, converging onto Main Street, diverging from US 67 and US 70 by turning west onto 18th Street.
The highway turned northwest along the east side of the railroad, along what is now Percy Machin Drive, paralleled the railroad into Conway. US 65 was relocated west, following the Broadway Bridge to a west turn on Broadway, proceeding under a rail overpass to turn north on Pike Avenue; as US 65 progressed into North Little Rock's Levy neighborhood, its alignment shifted east of the railroad along Pike Avenue, turning northwest along Parkway Drive to converge with its original route near the city's Amboy neighborhood. The Levy-to-Amboy segment was relocated again along the west side of the railroad via MacArthur Drive converging with its original route. US 65 was relocated east, through downtown along Interstate 30 following Interstate 40 to Conway. US 65 entered Conway via Harkrider Street, along what is now signed as Arkansas Highway 365, where it joined with US 64, running north through downtown; the highway was relocated along Interstate 40, where it joins its original route on the north side of town via the city's Skyline Drive.
US 65 continues north through Greenbrier and Marshall before crossing the Buffalo River near Tyler Bend. South of Harrison, the highway joins with US 62/412 heading northwest through Harrison before diverging from US 62/412 at Bear Creek Springs and continuing as a four-lane expressway into Missouri. US 65 enters Missouri between Omaha and Ridgedale, Missouri; the four-lane expressway continues through Branson toward the Springfield metro area. Through the Branson area, US 65 is built as a freeway. North of Branson is an interchange with Route 465 and U. S. Route 160. US 160 to Highlandville is the old alignment of US 65. Just north of Route EE, US 65 returns to freeway status; the freeway is called the "Schoolcraft Freeway" in Springfield, in honor of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. In Springfield are junctions with U. S. Route 60 and Interstate 44; the interchange with I-44 includes a flyover ramp connecting NB 65 with WB 44. Construction is underway to rebuild the interchange at US 60. In September 2011, US 65 became a six-lane divided freeway in Springfield between Interstate 44 and US 60.
It is the first six-lane highway to appear in Southwest Missouri. North of Springfield, it returns to a non-interstate highway. Through the town of Buffalo, the highway becomes two lanes with a center lane for left turns; this part of the highway has seen upgrades in recent years, such as rumble stripes and extending the middle turn lane to just outside the northern part of the city. From Buffalo to Preston, US 65 is two-lane highway, having an intersection with U. S. Route 54 at Preston. At Warsaw the highway crosses over the western end of the Lake of the Ozarks and becomes a four lane, non interstate highway again at the intersection with Missouri Route 7. At Sedalia is an intersection with U. S. Route 50, at Marshall Junction is an interchange with Interstate 70 and U. S. Route 40. In Marshall, the four-lane ends, US 65 is a two-lane highway all the way to Iowa. At Waverly
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
North Little Rock, Arkansas
North Little Rock is a city in Pulaski County, United States, across the Arkansas River from Little Rock in the central part of the state. The population was 62,304 at the 2010 census. In 2017 the estimated population was 65,911. North Little Rock, along with Little Rock and Conway, anchors the six-county Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area, further included in the Little Rock-North Little Rock Combined Statistical Area with 902,443 residents; the city's downtown is anchored in the Argenta Historic District, which draws its name from the original name of the city. Farther west in the city is one of the largest municipal parks in the United States. North Little Rock has a long history, dating back to the Burial Mound People, it was once known as Argenta, a name that applies to downtown North Little Rock. In 1890, Little Rock annexed the unincorporated Argenta community as its Eighth Ward, preempting a competing petition to incorporate Argenta. A neighboring area was incorporated as the Town of North Little Rock in 1901 as part of a plan to reclaim the Eighth Ward from Little Rock.
By 1904, the Arkansas Supreme Court allowed the town to annex the Eighth Ward. The combined city adopted the Argenta name by 1906, but reverted to North Little Rock in October 1917. A remnant of the city's earliest years can be found in North Little Rock City Hall, which still contains plaques referring to "Argenta", contains "C of A" ornamental designs. North Little Rock is located at 34°46′51″N 92°15′25″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 47.0 square miles, of which 44.8 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles is water. North Little Rock is the eastern terminus of Interstate 30 and southern terminus of the Arkansas-designated portion of Interstate 57. Interstate 40, US 65, US 67, US 167 all run through the city; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, North Little Rock has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. North Little Rock has a humid subtropical climate with long and sunny summers and mild, wet winters with little snow.
January on average is the coldest month, while July is the warmest, but August can claim the title. The overall yearly average temperature is 62.5 degrees. Precipitation averages 45.79 inches a year, with winter and spring tending to be wetter than summer and autumn. Severe thunderstorms can occur during the Spring, on April 25, 2011, a possible tornado struck the air force base in the city; as of the census of 2010, there were 62,304 people, 25,542 households, 16,117 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,348.6 people per square mile. There were 27,567 housing units at an average density of 615.2 per square mile. The city was 54.0% White, 39.7% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.59% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.18% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races. 5.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 25,542 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 17.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families.
32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,578, the median income for a family was $43,595. Males had a median income of $31,420 versus $24,987 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,662. About 12.4% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.5% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over. The City of North Little Rock elected officials are a mayor, city council of Aldermen, city clerk/treasurer, city attorney, two judges; this is supplemented by a number of commissions composed of city officials and residents.
The North Little Rock Police Department has approval to operate unmanned aerial vehicle s. The department has been working with a small pilotless helicopter since 2008. In addition to fire and EMS calls, the North Little Rock Fire Department responds to calls for their Special Operations Response Team, Haz Mat Response Team and Water Rescue for the Arkansas River. University of Arkansas – Pulaski Technical College Shorter College Arkansas College of Barbering and Hair Design New Tyler Barber College Diesel Driving Academy Lee's School of Cosmetology The Salon Professional Academy National Real Estate School U. S. Dept of Veterans Affairs Police Law Enforcement Training Center Most students attend public schools in the North Little Rock School District which includes: One High School North Little Rock High School grades 9-12 One Mid
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai