King is a township in York Region north of Toronto, within the Greater Toronto Area in Ontario, Canada. The rolling hills of the Oak Ridges Moraine are the most prominent visible geographical feature of King; the Holland Marsh, considered to be Ontario's "vegetable basket", straddles King Township and Bradford West Gwillimbury. King is known for its horse and cattle farms. Though King is predominantly rural, most of its residents inhabit the communities of King City and Schomberg. Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe named King Township for John King, an English Under-Secretary of State for Home Office from 1794 to 1801 for the Home Department in the Portland administration when Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool was Secretary of State; the township was created as part of the subdivision of York County, itself a subdivision of the Home District. The lands were acquired by the British in an agreement with the Mississaugas, known as the Toronto Purchase. Acquisition of the lands for the townships of Etobicoke, King and York, Upper Canada was completed at a meeting between the Mississaugas and the British at the Credit River on 1 August 1805, where 250,808 acres were exchanged for £1,700.
Simcoe planned Yonge Street, built between 1793 and 1796 by the Queen's Rangers. The first seven land patents were issued in 1797. By 1801, Timothy Rogers, a Loyalist from Vermont, had travelled the road and found an area on its western boundary southwest of Newmarket appealing, he applied for and received a grant for land totalling 40 farms, each of 200 acres, subsequently returned to Vermont to recruit families to operate those farms. By February 1802, he had set out for King Township with the first group of settlers for those forty farms. A second group followed that month; the area would become known in honour of its first settler Amos Armitage. It was the first of King's settlements, now part of Newmarket. Soon after the establishment of Armitage, the communities of Kettleby and Lloydtown were established to the west. More settlers arrived from New York and other Loyalist enclaves over the subsequent years to populate the region, drawn by the abundant, fertile land being apportioned cheaply to newcomers.
A "considerable area of land...in different concessions" of King were patented to the Canada Company after its establishment in 1826. By 1842, the township consisted of 53,240 acres of land, of which 13,818 acres had been cleared and was being cultivated; the principal villages at the time were Lloydtown, Brownsville and Tyrwhitt's Mills. In 1851, the township annexed from West Gwillimbury the portion of land north of its extant and east of the Holland River as a result of the formation of Simcoe County. 86,840 acres of land were administered by the township in 1878, according to the Historical Atlas of York County, but by 1973 this had been reduced to 82,000. The first survey of King Township was conducted in 1800 by Hessian soldier Johann Stegmann. At the time, the area's population was twenty residents. According to a letter by Benjamin Cody to the Newmarket Era published on 7 May 1892, there were church records listing births in the area, the first white child in King may have been Sarah Rogers, born April 1800.
At least four children were born in King by July 1802. By 1809, the township's population had increased sevenfold, to 160, it wasn't until 1820, with the construction of roads into the township, that its population began to grow. By 1842, the population of 2,625 residents was principally Irish, included those of English, Scottish and American descent. Further surveys were conducted in 1836–1838 by Callighan, in 1852 by John Ryan, completed in 1859 by Whelock; the townships population grew to 5574 in 1850, nearly 8000 in 1875, after which it declined to 4588 in 1914. There is some evidence of a large Huron encampment at Hackett Lake. Residents in the area in the 1950s and 1960s discovered arrowheads and other archaeological items indicating a Huron presence; this is consistent with the fact that the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, a major route used in the 17th and 18th centuries, passes through the township. The route was used by explorer Étienne Brûlé, who first travelled along the trail with twelve Huron guides in 1615.
Early settlements in the area developed around gristmills and sawmills. These were important economic engines in the region during the 19th century, which resulted in the establishment of other communities and businesses nearby. By 1842, there were eight grist mills and 12 saw mills in King; some settlements have since been abandoned, or are no longer communities per se, including Bell's Lake, Davis Corners, King Ridge. In 1971, with the formation of the Regional Municipality of York and dissolution of York County, the township's boundaries were changed, shifting west by one concession from Yonge Street to Bathurst Street, north by one lot from the King-Vaughan town line; the township's boundaries are East: Bathurst Street South: a line north of the King-Vaughan Road West: the Caledon/King Townline, which connects two roads in a straight line North: Highway 9 from the Caledon/King Townline to east of Highway 27 cuts north following branches of the Holland River until it meets Bathurst StreetThe majority of King is located on the Oak Ridges Moraine, the origin for the headwaters of many
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Cook's Bay is the southernmost bay of Lake Simcoe in Ontario, Canada. It was named by John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, for James Cook, who had served as master aboard HMS Pembroke in 1759 under the command of Captain John Simcoe, the Lieutenant-Governor's father. Most of the southern part of the bay is within the jurisdiction of Georgina, a town in the Regional Municipality of York, its western end is in Simcoe County, a small portion from the mouth of the Holland River to the Simcoe County border is within Bradford West Gwillimbury. The largest community on the shores of the bay is Keswick; the bay is used for fishing, is known for yellow perch. It attracts windsurfers and kitesurfers throughout the year, its northern end features many cottages that are part of Ontario's cottage country. Marinas and motel accommodations are available. Natural Resources Canada entry for Cook's Bay
The Holland Marsh is a wetland and agricultural area in Ontario, about 50 kilometres north of Toronto. It lies within the valley of the Holland River, stretching from the northern edge of the Oak Ridges Moraine near Schomberg to the river mouth at Cook's Bay, Lake Simcoe. In its entirety it comprises about 21,000 acres, with two distinct divisions, it has been referred to as "the marsh". The first area to be drained and reclaimed for farming is a 7,200-acre municipally drained polder south-west of the town of Bradford proper, of which 40% lies in King Township and 60% in the town of Bradford West Gwillimbury; the other 13,800 acres lie north and east of Bradford, fringing Cook's Bay in the townships of Innisfil and East Gwillimbury. Portions of this area have been reclaimed for farming, such as the Ravenshoe Road and Bradford Marsh areas, portions are recreational or undisturbed wetland. In some cases, recreational boating and agricultural areas intersect; the flat reclaimed areas consist of fertile organic soil, ideal for growing market garden crops such as onions, leafy greens and carrots.
Organic matter consists of living plant organisms found in soil. Organic matter improves the physical condition of soil, residues from its decomposition play an important role in holding plant nutrients and water. Organic matter in soil undergoes change as decomposes and new material is added. Careful management of this soil is necessary to prevent wind erosion. Much of the fertile, organic soil has been depleted due to unsustainable use by farmers over the years. Submerged decayed trees contribute to the valuable fibrous nature of the soil, but without human assistance and ingenuity, the area would have little fertility; the main crops of the area are vegetables which reflect each wave of immigration into Canada, have traditionally been grown by immigrants for ethnic markets in the Greater Toronto Area and for export. The agricultural plots were divided into 5-acre "market garden" family farms, produce was taken to local markets. In the 1920s the main crops reflected eastern and western European tastes - yellow onions, carrots, head lettuce, etc.
From the 1950s to the 1980s, Italian greens started to be grown, for example dandelion and endive. Demand for Asian greens, such as bok choy, began in the 1990s. With the opening of Highway 400 in the 1950s, farmers gained access to the Ontario Food Terminal in Toronto, vastly expanding their market. Yonge Street and the CN rail are situated to the northeast; when the federal government relaxed food import rules in the 1990s and grocery stores consolidated to form large chains across Canada, small family farms growing diverse crops were, for the most part, no longer financially feasible, but a few small family farms still survive. Corporate farms that had bought land in the 1950s sold their plots and a few family farms consolidated, growing onions and carrots for grocery stores and food processing companies; the Greenbelt family farmers market introduced by the Ontario government has helped some small family farms. At the nearby Muck Crops Research Station, located on the southernmost polder, various studies research the effects of altering specific agricultural practices.
These focus on, are intended for implementation, on Holland Marsh farms. According to the Ontario government Holland Marsh Schedule 3 Greenbelt map, all of Holland Marsh - whether designated agricultural, recreational or wetland - is a 22,000-acre specialty soil region; the southernmost polder sits on the lowest lying, flat area, consisting of 7,200 acres, of the 816,120-acre Lake Simcoe Watershed region. The area is oval shaped, with the narrowest points at the southeast; this polder's length is its width about 4 km. The location runs from 44 to 44.15 N and from 73.8 to about 73.65 W. The Holland River's main branch meets the polder's north and south canals near the intersection of Bridge Street and Canal Road in Bradford. Before its development, the entire area was a large wetland extending continuously along the western arm of the Holland River, it was part of the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, although another route to the east was used, avoiding the dense marshy area. In the 1880s a mattress-stuffing business flourished as reeds were harvested first by hand with scythes by horse-drawn mowers.
Horses were ferried by flat-bottomed scows across flooded areas, wearing large boards on their hooves so as not to sink into the soggy ground. In October 1954, Hurricane Hazel overwhelmed the polder's drainage system with unprecedented heavy rains, resulting in the dykes being breached at the north canal. Within six hours the whole area was flooded; the canals were designed with the bank on the outside of the marsh several inches lower than the bank on the inside, so that flooding will occur outside of the marsh first, but the amount of runoff flowing into the valley from the surrounding uplands was so great that this failsafe became ineffective. The pipes below the marsh, which opened into the canal system with one-way valves to prevent flooding became ineffective. Highway 400 was five feet underwater; the residents were alerted to the flood because it happened in the evening when they had returned from their fields, the party phone line rang in all the homes as residents called each other to warn of the flood.
Those with houses that had only one floor escaped to neighbours with a second floor, many had boats or canoes that they used for recreation. Many residents were taken in over the w
East Gwillimbury is a town on the East Holland River in the Regional Municipality of York. It is part of the Greater Toronto Area of southern Ontario, in Canada, it was formed by the amalgamation of the Township of East Gwillimbury with all the incorporated villages and hamlets within the township. The main centres in East Gwillimbury are the villages of Holland Landing, Queensville and Mount Albert; the Civic Centre are located along Leslie Street in Sharon. The northernmost interchange of Highway 404 is at the North edge of East Gwillimbury, just south of Ravenshoe Road; the hamlets of Holt and Brown Hill are within town limits. East Gwillimbury takes its name from the family of Elizabeth Simcoe, née Gwillim, wife of Sir John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant Governor of Ontario; the municipal council consists of a mayor and four councillors elected at large, with the mayor representing the town in York Regional Council. The current and recent mayors are: Virginia Hackson was elected mayor in the 2010 election, re-elected in 2014 and 2018.
In the 2018 election, where council was elected for a four-year term, East Gwillimbury's council was elected on the basis of three wards, with two councillors from each ward. The elected councillors were Loralea Carruthers, Terry Foster, Joe Persechini, Tara Roy-Diclemente, Cathy Morton and Scott Crone; the Federal Member of Parliament is Scot Davidson of the Conservative Party of Canada representing the riding of York—Simcoe, elected in a by-election on February 25, 2019. He replaced Peter Van Loan, who retired as of September 30, 2018; the Member of Provincial Parliament is Caroline Mulroney, a member of the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario, representing the provincial riding of York—Simcoe, who won the seat in the 2018 provincial election. There are three fire and emergency services locations, in Holland Landing, Mount Albert and Queensville, they are each staffed by volunteer firefighters. Police services are provided by the York Regional Police. In March, 2006 the town council passed a policy during the Committee of the Whole Council Meeting which requires all residential developments of at least ten units to comply with Energy Star qualifications.
The town's mayor described potential benefits of the program: "Energy efficient housing is the best way to ensure that East Gwillimbury's residents are insulated against rising energy costs and won't have to make costly energy efficiency upgrade retrofits in the future." The program was developed in conjunction with the development community, stipulates "that homes in new subdivisions must — emphasis here on must — have some of the most efficient hot water and air conditioning systems, be upgraded with top-rated insulation, have draft-proof windows."East Gwillimbury is the first jurisdiction in Canada to require Energy Star certification for residential units. In June 2010, town council passed the Official Plan for the Town of East Gwillimbury; the Official Plan was praised for its consultations with the public and other stakeholders. Designated as a future growth area under the Places to Grow Act by the Province of Ontario, East Gwillimbury will see growth from 23,000 residents in 2010, to 88,400 people and 34,000 jobs by the year 2031.
Despite the large amount of growth 75% of East Gwillimbury land will not be developed as it is part of both the Greenbelt and the Oak Ridges Moraine. Rather than being spread out throughout the town, growth will be concentrated in the existing villages of Holland Landing, Sharon and Mount Albert. Queensville will see the most growth, going from a population of 650 people in 2010, to over 30,000 residents. Much of the growth has been proposed since the early 1990s – however, growth in East Gwillimbury cannot occur until the York–Durham Sewage System is extended into the town, postponed until 2012 or 2013, when costs are lowered. In October 2011, the Regional Municipality of York advised the Ontario Municipal Board, that they support the Official Plan for East Gwillimbury; the Sharon Temple is located in the village of Ontario. It was designated as a National Historic Site of Canada in 1990; the site is composed of eight distinctive heritage buildings and dwellings, houses 6,000 artifacts on a 1.8-hectare site.
The Temple was constructed between 1825 and 1832 by the "Children of Peace", a Quaker sect led by David Willson on whose property it was built. Bare Oaks Family Naturist Park is a naturist park located between the villages of Sharon and Mount Albert, it attracts thousands of visitors to East Gwillimbury and has a significant economic impact on area tourism. It has been in that location since 1972. Stardust Drive-In Theatre on Mount Albert Road opened in 1950s as North York Drive-In and is one of a handful of drive-in theatres remaining in Canada. Schools in East Gwillimbury are governed by the York Region District School Board and the York Catholic District School Board. There are several elementary schools. Under the public system, the school board operates Holland Landing Public School, Park Avenue Public School, located in Holland Landing and Phoebe Gilman Public School in the Harvest Hills neighborhood. Sharon Public School, Queensville Public School and Mt. Albert Public School are located in Sharon and Mount Albert respectively.
The York Catholic District School Board operates Good Shepherd Catholic School. There are no secondary schools in East Gwillimbury, so students in Holland Landing attend Dr. John M. Denison Secondary School in Newmarket and students from Sharon and Mount Albert