El Segundo, California
El Segundo is a city located in Los Angeles County, United States. El Segundo, from Spanish, means "The Second" in English. Located on the Santa Monica Bay, it was incorporated on January 18, 1917, part of the South Bay Cities Council of Governments; the population was 16,654 at the 2010 census up from 16,033 at the 2000 census. The El Segundo and Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva Native American tribes thousands of years ago; the area was once a part of Rancho Sausal Redondo. Rancho Sausal Redondo extended from Playa Del Rey in the North to Redondo Beach in the South. A Mexican land grant owned by Antonio Ygnacio Avila, the rancho was purchased by a Scottish baronet named Sir Robert Burnett. After his return to Scotland, the property was purchased by current manager of the rancho, Daniel Freeman. Daniel Freeman sold portions of the rancho to several persons. George H. Peck owned the 840 acres of land. Peck developed land in neighboring El Porto where a street still bears his name.
The city earned its name as it was the site of the second Standard Oil refinery on the West Coast, when Standard Oil of California purchased the 840 acres of farm land in 1911. The city was incorporated in 1917; the Standard Oil Company was renamed Chevron in 1984. The El Segundo refinery entered its second century of operation in 2011; the Douglas Aircraft Company plant in El Segundo was one of the major aircraft manufacturing facilities in California during World War II. It was one of the major producers of SBD Dauntless dive bombers, which achieved fame in the Battle of Midway; the facility, now operated by Northrop Grumman, is still an aircraft plant. The north and south boundaries of the town are Los Angeles International Airport and Manhattan Beach, with the Pacific Ocean as the western boundary, its eastern boundary is Aviation Blvd. El Segundo is located at 33°55′17″N 118°24′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles, over 99% of, land.
Guinness World Records has listed El Segundo as having the most roads with a grade. The 2010 United States Census reported that El Segundo had a population of 16,654; the population density was 3,047.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of El Segundo was 12,997 White, 337 African American, 68 Native American, 1,458 Asian, 38 Pacific Islander, 799 from other races, 957 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2,609 persons; the Census reported that 16,578 people lived in households, 66 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 10 were institutionalized. There were 7,085 households, out of which 2,183 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,050 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 729 had a female householder with no husband present, 326 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 369 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships. 2,254 households were made up of individuals and 570 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.34. There were 4,105 families; the population was spread out with 3,719 people under the age of 18, 1,120 people aged 18 to 24, 5,182 people aged 25 to 44, 4,955 people aged 45 to 64, 1,678 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.8 males. There were 7,410 housing units at an average density of 1,356.1 per square mile, of which 3,034 were owner-occupied, 4,051 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.4%. 8,177 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 8,401 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, El Segundo had a median household income of $84,341, with 4.8% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the 2000 Census, the population density was 2,894.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,261 housing units at an average density of 1,310.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 83.61% White, 1.17% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 6.41% Asian, 0.29% Pacific Islander, 3.51% from other races, 4.55% from two or more races. 11.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,060 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.5% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.6% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 38.7% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $61,341, the median income for a family was $74,007.
Males had a median income of $52,486 versus $41,682 for females. The per capita income for
Hermosa Beach, California
Hermosa Beach is a beachfront city in Los Angeles County, United States. Its population was 19,506 at the 2010 U. S. Census; the city is located in the South Bay region of the Greater Los Angeles area. Hermosa Beach is bordered by the other two, Manhattan Beach to the north and Redondo Beach to the south and east; the city's beach is popular for sunbathing, beach volleyball, paddleboarding, bars and running. The city itself extends only about 15 blocks from east to west and 40 blocks from north to south, with Pacific Coast Highway running down the middle. Situated on the Pacific Ocean, Hermosa's average temperature is 70 °F in the summer and 55 °F in the winter. Westerly sea breezes lessen what can be high summertime temperatures in Los Angeles and elsewhere in the county and help keep the smog away 360 days of the year. A paved path, called The Strand, runs along Hermosa's beach from Torrance Beach in the south twenty miles north to Santa Monica; the Hermosa Beach pier is at the end of Pier Avenue, one of the beach community's main shopping and partying areas.
Hermosa Beach was part of the 1784 Rancho San Pedro Spanish land grant that became the ten-mile Ocean frontage of Rancho Sausal Redondo. In 1900 a tract of 1,500 acres was purchased for $35 per acre from A. E. Pomroy owner of the greater part of Rancho Sausal Redondo. Messrs. Burbank and Baker, bought this land for Sherman and Clark who organized and retained the controlling interest in the Hermosa Beach Land and Water Company, In early days, Hermosa Beach — like so many of its neighboring cities — was one vast sweep of rolling hills covered with fields of grain barley. During certain seasons of the year large herds of sheep were grazed over this land, corrals and large barns for storing the grain, as well as providing shelter for horses and farm implements, were located on the ranch between Hermosa and Inglewood; the Spanish words Rancho Sausal Redondo mean a large circular ranch of pasture of grazing land, with a grove of willow on it. The first official survey was made in the year 1901 for the board walk on the Strand, Hermosa Avenue and Santa Fe Avenue.
In 1904 the first pier was built. It was constructed of wood to the pilings and it extended five hundred feet out into the ocean; the pier was constructed by the Hermosa Beach Water Company. In 1913 this old pier was washed away and torn down and a new one built to replace it; this pier was built of concrete 1,000 feet long, paved with asphalt its entire length. Small tiled pavilions were erected at intervals along the sides to afford shade for fishermen and picnic parties. A bait stand was built out on the end. Soon after, about 1914, an auditorium building was constructed; this pier is municipally owned. The Los Angeles Pacific Railway, a "trolley" system, was the first railway in Hermosa Beach, running the entire length of Hermosa Ave. on its way from L. A. to Redondo Beach. A few years it was merged with most all other "trolley" companies in the region to form the new Pacific Electric Railway Company, informally called the Red Cars; the Santa Fe Railway was next through Hermosa Beach. It was seven blocks from the beach.
The street that led to the tracks was called Santa Fe Avenue, but was renamed Pier Avenue. There was no Santa Fe railway station for Hermosa, but Burbank and Baker built a railway platform on the west side of the tracks near Santa Fe Avenue, the Railroad Company donated an old boxcar to be used as a storage place for freight. In 1926, the Santa Fe Company built a modern stucco depot and installed Western Union telegraph service in it; the first city election for city officers was held December 24, 1906. On January 14, 1907, Hermosa Beach became the nineteenth incorporated city of Los Angeles County. Hermosa is a Spanish word meaning "beautiful". Hermosa Beach is located at 33°51′59″N 118°23′59″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.4 square miles, all of it land. Average air temperature - Average water temperature - 60 °F Hermosa Beach has an average of 325 days of sunshine a year; because of its location, nestled on a vast open bay, morning fog and haze is a common phenomenon in May and early July.
Locals have a particular terminology for this phenomenon: the "May Gray" and the "June Gloom". Overcast skies are common for June mornings, but the strong sun burns the fog off by noon. Nonetheless, it will sometimes stay cloudy and cool all day during June as other parts of the Los Angeles area will enjoy sunny skies and warmer temperatures. At times, the sun shines east of PCH; as a general rule, the temperature is from 5 to 10 degrees. A typical spring day is sunny and about 68 °F. In the summer, which stretches from May to late October, temperatures can reach to the mid-80s Fahrenheit at the beach. In early November, it is about 68 °F. In late January, temperatures are around 63 °F, it is winter, when the hot, dry Santa Ana winds are most common. In mid-December 2004, temperatures soared to 84 °F (
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California, United States, 12 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles. The population at the 2010 census was 103,340. Billed as the "Media Capital of the World" and only a few miles northeast of Hollywood, numerous media and entertainment companies are headquartered or have significant production facilities in Burbank, including Warner Bros. Entertainment, The Walt Disney Company, Nickelodeon Animation Studios, The Burbank Studios, Cartoon Network Studios with the West Coast branch of Cartoon Network, Insomniac Games; the Hollywood Burbank Airport was the location of Lockheed's Skunk Works, which produced some of the most secret and technologically advanced airplanes, including the U-2 spy planes that uncovered the Soviet Union missile components in Cuba in October 1962. Burbank consists of two distinct areas: a downtown/foothill section, in the foothills of the Verdugo Mountains, the flatland section; the city was referred to as "Beautiful Downtown Burbank" on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
The city was named after David Burbank, a New Hampshire–born dentist and entrepreneur who established a sheep ranch there in 1867. The city of Burbank occupies land, part of two Spanish and Mexican-era colonial land grants, the 36,400-acre Rancho San Rafael, granted to Jose Maria Verdugo by the Spanish Bourbon government in 1784, the 4,063-acre Rancho Providencia created in 1821; this area was the scene of a military skirmish which resulted in the unseating of the Spanish Governor of California, his replacement by the Mexican leader Pio Pico. Remnants of the military battle were found many years in the vicinity of Warner Bros. Studio when residents dug up cannonballs. Dr. David Burbank purchased over 4,600 acres of the former Verdugo holding and another 4,600 acres of the Rancho Providencia in 1867 and built a ranch house and began to raise sheep and grow wheat on the ranch. By 1876, the San Fernando Valley became the largest wheat-raising area in Los Angeles County, but the droughts of the 1860s and 1870s underlined the need for steady water supplies.
A professionally trained dentist, Burbank began his career in Maine. He joined the great migration westward in the early 1850s and, by 1853 was living in San Francisco. At the time the American Civil War broke out he was again well established in his profession as a dentist in Pueblo de Los Angeles. In 1867, he purchased Rancho La Providencia from David W. Alexander and Francis Mellus, he purchased the western portion of the Rancho San Rafael from Jonathan R. Scott. Burbank's property reached nearly 9,200 acres at a cost of $9,000. Burbank would not acquire full titles to both properties until after a court decision known as the "Great Partition" was made in 1871 dissolving the Rancho San Rafael, he became known as one of the largest and most successful sheep raisers in southern California, as a result, he closed his dentistry practice and invested in real estate in Los Angeles. Burbank later owned the Burbank Theatre, which opened on November 27, 1893, at a cost of $150,000. Though the theater was intended to be an opera house, instead it staged plays and became known nationally.
The theatre featured famous actors of the time including Fay Bainter and Marjorie Rambeau, until it had deteriorated into a burlesque house. When the area that became Burbank was settled in the 1870s and 1880s, the streets were aligned along what is now Olive Avenue, the road to the Cahuenga Pass and downtown Los Angeles; these were the roads the Native Americans traveled and the early settlers took their produce down to Los Angeles to sell and to buy supplies along these routes. At the time, the primary long-distance transportation methods available to San Fernando Valley residents were stagecoach and train. Stagecoaching between Los Angeles and San Francisco through the Valley began in 1858; the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in the Valley in 1876, completing the route connecting San Francisco and Los Angeles. A shrewd businessman, foreseeing the value of rail transport, Burbank sold Southern Pacific Railroad a right-of-way through the property for one dollar; the first train passed through Burbank on April 5, 1874.
A boom created by a rate war between the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific brought people streaming into California shortly thereafter, a group of speculators purchased much of Burbank's land holdings in 1886 for $250,000. One account suggests Burbank may have sold his property because of a severe drought that year, which caused a shortage of water and grass for his livestock. 1,000 of his sheep died due to the drought conditions. The group of speculators who bought the acreage formed the Providencia Land and Development Company and began developing the land, calling the new town Burbank after its founder, began offering farm lots on May 1, 1887; the townsite had Burbank Boulevard/Walnut Avenue as the northern boundary, Grandview Avenue as the southern boundary, the edge of the Verdugo Mountains as the eastern boundary and Clybourn Avenue was the western border. The establishment of a water system in 1887 allowed farmers to irrigate their orchards and provided a stronger base for agricultural development.
The original plot of the new townsite of Burbank extended from what is now Burbank Boulevard on the north, to Grandview Avenue in Glendale, California on the south, from the top of the Verdugo Hills on the east to what is now known as Clybourn Avenue on the west. At the same time, the arrival of the railroad provided immediate access for the farmers to bring crops to market. Packing houses and warehouses were built alo
Long Beach, California
Long Beach is a city on the Pacific Coast of the United States, within the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California. As of 2010, its population was 462,257, it is the 7th most populous in California. Long Beach is the second-largest city in the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the third largest in Southern California behind Los Angeles and San Diego. Long Beach is a charter city; the Port of Long Beach is the second busiest container port in the United States and is among the world's largest shipping ports. The city maintains a progressively declining oil industry with minor wells located both directly beneath the city as well as offshore. Manufacturing sectors include those in aircraft, automotive parts, electronic equipment, audiovisual equipment, precision metals and home furnishings. Long Beach lies in the southeastern corner of borders Orange County. Downtown Long Beach is 22 miles south of downtown Los Angeles, though the two cities share an official border for several miles.
Indigenous people have lived in coastal Southern California for over 10,000 years, several successive cultures have inhabited the present-day area of Long Beach. By the 16th-century arrival of Spanish explorers, the dominant group was the Tongva people, they had at least three major settlements within the present-day city. Tevaaxa'anga was an inland settlement near the Los Angeles River, while Ahwaanga and Povuu'nga were coastal villages. Along with other Tongva villages, they were forced to relocate in the mid-19th century due to missionization, political change, a drastic drop in population from exposure to European diseases. In 1784 the Spanish Empire's King Carlos III granted Rancho Los Nietos to Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto; the Rancho Los Cerritos and Rancho Los Alamitos were divided from this territory. The boundary between the two ranchos ran through the center of Signal Hill on a southwest to northeast diagonal. A portion of western Long Beach was part of the Rancho San Pedro, its boundaries were in dispute for years, due to flooding changing the Los Angeles River boundary, between the ranchos of Juan Jose Dominguez and Manuel Nieto.
In 1843 Jonathan Temple bought Rancho Los Cerritos, having arrived in California in 1827 from New England. He built what is now known as the "Los Cerritos Ranch House", a still-standing adobe, a National Historic Landmark. Temple created a thriving cattle ranch and prospered, becoming the wealthiest man in Los Angeles County. Both Temple and his ranch house played important local roles in the Mexican–American War. On an island in the San Pedro Bay, Mormon pioneers made an abortive attempt to establish a colony. In 1866 Temple sold Rancho Los Cerritos for $20,000 to the Northern California sheep-raising firm of Flint, Bixby & Co, which consisted of brothers Thomas and Benjamin Flint and their cousin Lewellyn Bixby. Two years previous Flint, Bixby & Co had purchased along with Northern California associate James Irvine, three ranchos which would become the city that bears Irvine's name. To manage Rancho Los Cerritos, the company selected Lewellyn's brother Jotham Bixby, the "Father of Long Beach".
Three years Bixby bought into the property and would form the Bixby Land Company. In the 1870s as many as 30,000 sheep were kept at the ranch and sheared twice yearly to provide wool for trade. In 1880, Bixby sold 4,000 acres of the Rancho Los Cerritos to William E. Willmore, who subdivided it in hopes of creating a farm community, Willmore City, he failed and was bought out by a Los Angeles syndicate that called itself the "Long Beach Land and Water Company." They changed the name of the community at that time. The City of Long Beach was incorporated in 1897. Another Bixby cousin, John W. Bixby, was influential in the city. After first working for his cousins at Los Cerritos, J. W. Bixby leased land at Rancho Los Alamitos, he put together a group: banker I. W. Hellman and Jotham Bixby, him, to purchase the rancho. In addition to bringing innovative farming methods to the Alamitos, J. W. Bixby began the development of the oceanfront property near the city's picturesque bluffs. Under the name Alamitos Land Company, J.
W. Bixby laid out the parks of his new city; this area would include Belmont Shore and Naples. J. W. Bixby died in 1888 of apparent appendicitis; the Rancho Los Alamitos property was split up, with Hellman getting the southern third and Lewellyn, the northern third, J. W. Bixby's widow and heirs keeping the central third; the Alamitos townsite was kept as a separate entity, but at first, it was run by Lewellyn and Jotham Bixby, although I. W, Hellman had a significant veto power, an influence made stronger as the J. W. Bixby heirs began to side with Hellman more; when Jotham Bixby died in 1916, the remaining 3,500 acres of Rancho Los Cerritos was subdivided into the neighborhoods of Bixby Knolls, California Heights, North Long Beach and part of the city of Signal Hill. The town grew as a seaside resort with light agricultural uses; the Pike was the most famous beachside amusement zone on the West Coast from 1902 until 1969. The oil industry, Navy shipyard and facilities and port became the mainstays of the city.
In the 1950s it was referred to as "Iowa
Bell is an incorporated city in Los Angeles County, near the center of the former San Antonio Township. Its population was 35,477 at the 2010 census, down from 36,664 in the 2000 census. Bell is located on the west bank of the Los Angeles River and is a suburb of the city of Los Angeles. At 2.5 square miles, Bell is the thirteenth smallest city in the United States with a population of at least 25,000. In 2007, the U. S. Census Bureau ranked Bell's land area at 1245 out of 1257 cities and two unincorporated areas that had a population of at least 25,000 in year 2000. Ten cities in the list of 1267 cities had no land area data. City residents voted to become a charter city in a special municipal election on November 29, 2005. Fewer than 400 voters turned out for that special election. More than half of those votes were dubiously obtained absentee votes. Being a charter city meant that city officials were exempt from state salary caps. A scandal ensued, in which several city officials were indicted for giving themselves extraordinarily high salaries.
The area comprising the city of Bell has a Native American history dating back thousands of years. The Gabrieliño Indians migrated to the place now called Bell in 500 BC. Spaniards have been living in this area of California since the mid-18th century. Among the early Spanish settlers was one of California’s first families, the Lugos. While stationed at Mission San Antonio de Padua near Salinas, Francisco Lugo’s first California son, Antonio Maria Lugo was born in 1775; that son became Don Antonio Maria Lugo, Spanish aristocrat and soldier, who settled on 30,000 acres of land that encompasses what is now the city of Bell. In 1810, the King of Spain formally granted the land to Lugo as a reward for his military service. Lugo became the mayor of a little town called Los Angeles, from 1816–1819, the acreage became known as Rancho San Antonio; the grant was confirmed by the Mexican governor in 1838. By 1865, the Lugo family's fortune had dwindled and most of the Rancho was sold for less than a dollar per acre.
The Lugo family did manage to retain its home, built about 1810, the now oldest house in Los Angeles County. The original adobe house was on Gage Avenue. Between 1870 and 1890, settlers arrived to the area and among those was the city’s founder. In 1876, the pioneer residents for whom the city is named, James George Bell and his wife Susan Abia Hollenbeck Bell, their two children, Maude Elizabeth and Alphonzo Sr. moved from Los Angeles where they lived for a short period with Susan's brother, John Hollenbeck, in their Victorian style home — the Bell House, now a historic landmark located at 4401 East Gage Avenue. On April 6, 2000, the Bell House was dedicated as a California State Historical Resource, they acquired about 360 acres of land and in the next decade, helped in its development as a small farming and cattle raising community. The Bell Family lived at the Hollenbeck’s “Town House” on 4th and Breed Street until they moved into the “ranch” Bell House in 1876; the Bell House was an early Victorian style farm house.
In 1898, the town’s name was changed from Rancho San Antonio to Bell, in honor of its pioneer founders. At the turn of the 20th century, the Bell area was a sparsely settled countryside with a scattering of houses, including the Bell family's home. Between 1900 and 1915, more people settled into the area. More homes, churches and a library were built, several small businesses were established by 1913; the citizens agreed to provide all services for the library, except for the books. Between 1920 and 1935, an explosive growth in population occurred in the Bell area. Old and new residents built new businesses, established schools, founded community organizations, such as the Bell Chamber of Commerce and the Woman's Club. An area-wide sanitation district was formed in 1923 to provide sewer facilities. In 1924, George O. Wheeler founded the local newspaper. By the early 1960s, the Bell Industrial Post had become the Bell-Maywood-Cudahy Industrial Post, it was renamed the Community News, became part of the Los Cerritos Community Newspaper Group.
In 1998 it was sold again. The Community News disappeared not long after, facilitating a chain of corrupt practiced that led to criminal convictions for city administrator Robert Rizzo, hired around 1998, six other Bell city officials. In 1925, the Alcazar Theater to show "talking pictures", was opened, it has since been demolished. In 1926, Bell High School was opened. Bell was incorporated as a city in 1927. Since its incorporation, the city of Bell has acquired land for public parks and the recreational program; the city has constructed an adequate sewer system, widened all major streets, built a city hall, provided fire department buildings, with the cooperation of the city of Maywood and the County of Los Angeles, the city of Bell constructed an indoor public swimming pool at Bell High School. The city's Chamber of Commerce is located at the historic James George Bell House, which serves as a meeting place and in addition, a museum showcasing artifacts from the city's founding family and period furniture.
The house is open to the general public with free admission. In March 2007, the city of Bell held its first contested election for city council in a decade; the next election for City Council was held in March 2011, included the recall of all the city council members save one, not re-elected. In March 2000, Bell gained worldwide publicity, as the media announced that a shipment of 55 Oscar statuettes was stolen from a trucking company loading dock in Bell. In addition to the Los Angeles and Bell police departments
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. Its estimated 2014 population was 200,167, making it the third-largest city in Los Angeles County and the 23rd-largest city in California, it is located about 8 mi north of downtown Los Angeles. Glendale lies in the southeastern end of the San Fernando Valley, bisected by the Verdugo Mountains, is a suburb in the Los Angeles metropolitan area; the city is bordered to the northwest by the Sun Tujunga neighborhoods of Los Angeles. The Golden State, Ventura and Foothill freeways run through the city. Glendale is known to have one of the largest communities of Armenian descent in the United States. In 2013, Glendale was named LA's Neighborhood of the Year by the editors of Curbed.com. Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery contains the remains of many noted celebrities and local residents. Grand Central Airport was the departure point for the first commercial west-to-east transcontinental flight flown by Charles Lindbergh; the area was long inhabited by the Tongva people, who were renamed the Gabrieleños by the Spanish missionaries, after the nearby Mission San Gabriel Arcángel.
In 1798, José María Verdugo, a corporal in the Spanish army from Baja California, received the Rancho San Rafael from Governor Diego de Borica, formalizing his possession and use of land on which he had been grazing livestock and farming since 1784. Rancho San Rafael was a Spanish concession. Unlike the Mexican land grants, the concessions were similar to grazing permits, with the title remaining with the Spanish crown. In 1860, his grandson Teodoro Verdugo built the Verdugo Adobe, the oldest building in Glendale; the property is the location of the Oak of Peace, where early Californio leaders including Pio Pico met in 1847 and decided to surrender to Lieutenant Colonel John C. Frémont. Verdugo's descendants sold the ranch in various parcels, some of which are included in present-day Atwater Village, Eagle Rock, Highland Park neighborhoods of Los Angeles. In 1884, residents gathered to form a townsite and chose the name "Glendale" (it was bounded by First Street on the north, Fifth Street on the south, Central Avenue on the west, the Childs Tract on the east.
Residents to the southwest formed "Tropico" in 1887. The Pacific Electric Railway brought streetcar service in 1904. Glendale incorporated in 1906, annexed Tropico 12 years later. An important civic booster of the era was Leslie Coombs Brand, who built an estate in 1904 called El Miradero, featuring an eye-catching mansion, the architecture of which combined characteristics of Spanish and Indian styles, copied from the East Indian Pavilion at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago, which he visited. Brand loved to fly, built a private airstrip in 1919 and hosted "fly-in" parties, providing a direct link to the soon-to-be-built nearby Grand Central Airport; the grounds of El Miradero are now city-owned Brand Park and the mansion is the Brand Library, according to the terms of his will. Brand partnered with Henry E. Huntington to bring the Pacific Electric Railway, or the "Red Cars", to the area. Today, he is memorialized by one of Brand Boulevard; the city's population rose from 13,756 in 1920 to 62,736 in 1930.
The Forest Lawn Cemetery opened in 1906 and was renamed Forest Lawn Memorial-Park in 1917. Pioneering endocrinologist and entrepreneur Henry R. Harrower opened his clinic in Glendale in 1920, which for many years was the largest business in the city; the American Green Cross, an early conservation and tree preservation society, was formed in 1926. Until as late as the 1960s, Glendale was a sundown town. Nonwhites were required to leave city limits by a certain time each day or risk arrest and possible violence. In the 1930s, Glendale and Burbank prevented the Civilian Conservation Corps from stationing African American workers in a local park, citing sundown town ordinances that both cities had adopted. In 1964, Glendale was selected by George Lincoln Rockwell to be the West Coast headquarters of the American Nazi Party, its offices, on Colorado Street in the downtown section of the city, remained open until the early 1980s. In 1977 and 1978, 10 murdered women were found in and around Glendale in what became known as the case of the Hillside Strangler.
The murders were the work of Kenneth Bianchi and Angelo Buono, the latter of whom resided at 703 East Colorado Street, where most of the murders took place. Glendale is located at the junction of the San Fernando and the San Gabriel. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 79.212 km2. It is bordered to the north by the foothill communities of La Cañada Flintridge, La Crescenta, Tujunga. Glendale is located 10 miles north of downtown Los Angeles. Several known earthquake faults criss-cross the Glendale area and adjacent mountains, as in much of Southern California. Among the more recognized faults are the
Glendora is a city in the San Gabriel Valley in Los Angeles County, California, 23 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. As of the 2010 census, the population of Glendora was 50,073. Known as the "Pride of the Foothills", Glendora is nestled in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains, its downtown area, known as the Glendora Village, has been voted as one of the best downtowns in the San Gabriel Valley. It hosts dozens of restaurants, cafes and boutiques along the main street, Glendora Avenue, with many community events scheduled throughout the year. A small town vibe combined with low crime rates and a high-ranking school district, has made the city an attractive choice for families in the region. Glendora celebrated its centennial as an incorporated city in 2011. Neighborhoods and residences in Glendora reflect the city's history and range from Queen Annes, to Folk Victorians, early 20th-century bungalows, to ranch style homes, to mid-rise Multi-family residential complexes, to modern mansions.
Glendora's most expensive neighborhoods contain many large, estate homes with sweeping views across the San Gabriel Valley to Downtown Los Angeles. These neighborhoods include Morgan Ranch, Gordon Highlands, Bluebird Hill, Silent Ranch, Oak Tree Rancho, Hidden Springs, Oakhart Estates, Easley Canyon Estates. Glendora is home to the exclusive Glendora Country Club, which includes a Robert Trent Jones Sr. 18-hole golf course, played by many professional golfers. Glendora is bordered by Azusa to the west, San Dimas to the east and south and the unincorporated community of Charter Oak to the south, the San Gabriel Mountains range to the north. Ygnacio Palomares received the 22,340-acre land grant Rancho San Jose from Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado in 1837; the land included the present day cities of Pomona, Claremont, La Verne, San Dimas, Glendora. Like so many cities in the San Gabriel Valley, Glendora was established on remote agricultural land when the area became connected to the outside world upon the completion of the Santa Fe Railway's main transcontinental line from Los Angeles to Chicago in May 1887.
Located at the foot of the San Gabriel Mountains, Glendora was started on 300 acres that were subdivided and sold by George D. Whitcomb in late March 1887. On the first day of sale, 300 lots were sold. Whitcomb was the founder of the Whitcomb Locomotive Works in Chicago and Rochelle and had moved to California in the early 1880s, he devised the name Glendora by combining the name of his wife, Leadora Bennett Whitcomb, with the location of his home in a glen of the San Gabriel Mountains. In December 1907, the development of Glendora got a boost when passenger service opened on a new extension of the Pacific Electric Railway's Monrovia-Glendora line which provided service from downtown Glendora to the Pacific Electric Building at Sixth and Main in Downtown Los Angeles. Prior to its 1911 incorporation, Glendora's administrator occupied the office of President of Glendora; the downtown area as it appears now is the product of years of renovation and maintenance by the city. There once stood a movie theatre, various banks, playhouses but all were converted into more modern commercial buildings.
The original layout can be read about on the Downtown Glendora Historical Walk, by reading placards placed along Glendora Avenue. The original townsite was bounded by Sierra Madre Avenue on the north, Minnesota Avenue on the east, Ada Avenue and the railroad on the south, Pennsylvania Avenue on the west. Glendora used to be home to several military academies, which have since been converted into either churches or private school facilities; these academies included Brown Military Academy, now St. Lucy's Priory High School and Church of the Open Door on Sierra Madre, Harding Military Academy, whose property is now home to North Glendora Private, a prestigious private community adjacent to Easley Canyon atop Glendora Avenue. From 1960 to 1978, Glendora was home to Clokey Productions which produced 85 episodes of Gumby and 65 episodes of Davey and Goliath in town. In celebration of this history, Glendora hosted the first Gumby Fest in 2014 which brought thousands of people from around the country and Canada.
In 2015 the 2nd GumbyFest was held at Citrus College over an entire weekend. Several wildfires have affected the city in recent years, the most notable being the Colby Fire, which displaced hundreds of Glendora residents. A relief concert titled "Glendora Band Aid" was held shortly after the fire to help raise funds to assist the homeowners who lost their homes in the fire. Glendora has an active Chamber of Commerce, established in 1903; the mission of the Glendora Chamber is to provide tools and resources to assist the business community in prospering and adapting to the economic climate, while growing membership and promoting local purchasing. Glendora is located at 34°7′51″N 117°51′15″W; the city lies in the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley between the San Gabriel Mountains range to the north and the South Hills to the south. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.6 square miles, of which 19.4 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles, or 0.84%, is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 50,073 people, 16,819 households, 12,866 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,581.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 17,145 housing units at an average density of 895.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.1% White, 1.9% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 8.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.2% from other races