Keith Rupert Murdoch, is an Australian-born American media mogul. Murdoch's father, Sir Keith Murdoch, was a reporter and editor who became a senior executive of The Herald and Weekly Times publishing company, covering all Australian states except New South Wales. After his father's death in 1952, Murdoch declined to join his late father's registered public company and created his own private company, News Limited. In the 1950s and 1960s, Murdoch acquired a number of newspapers in Australia and New Zealand before expanding into the United Kingdom in 1969, taking over the News of the World, followed by The Sun. In 1974, Murdoch moved to New York City, to expand into the U. S. market. In 1981, Murdoch bought The Times, his first British broadsheet and, in 1985, became a naturalized U. S. citizen, giving up his Australian citizenship, to satisfy the legal requirement for U. S. television ownership. In 1986, keen to adopt newer electronic publishing technologies, Murdoch consolidated his UK printing operations in Wapping, causing bitter industrial disputes.
His holding company News Corporation acquired Twentieth Century Fox, HarperCollins, The Wall Street Journal. Murdoch formed the British broadcaster BSkyB in 1990 and, during the 1990s, expanded into Asian networks and South American television. By 2000, Murdoch's News Corporation owned over 800 companies in more than 50 countries, with a net worth of over $5 billion. In July 2011, Murdoch faced allegations that his companies, including the News of the World, owned by News Corporation, had been hacking the phones of celebrities and public citizens. Murdoch faced police and government investigations into bribery and corruption by the British government and FBI investigations in the U. S. On 21 July 2012, Murdoch resigned as a director of News International. On 1 July 2015, Murdoch left his post as CEO of 21st Century Fox; however and his family would continue to own both 21st Century Fox and News Corp through the Murdoch Family Trust. In July 2016, after the resignation of Roger Ailes due to accusations of sexual harassment, Murdoch was named the acting CEO of Fox News.
Keith Rupert Murdoch was born on 11 March 1931 in Melbourne, Australia, the son of Sir Keith Murdoch and Dame Elisabeth Murdoch. He is of English and Scottish ancestry. Murdoch's parents were born in Melbourne. Keith Murdoch was a war correspondent and a regional newspaper magnate owning two newspapers in Adelaide, South Australia, a radio station in a faraway mining town, chairman of the powerful Herald and Weekly Times group. In life, Keith Rupert chose to go by his second name, the first name of his maternal grandfather. Keith Murdoch the elder asked to meet with his future wife after seeing her debutante photograph in one of his own newspapers and they married in 1928, when she was aged 19 and he was 23 years older. In addition to Rupert, the couple had three daughters: Janet Calvert-Jones, Anne Kantor and Helen Handbury. Murdoch attended Geelong Grammar School, where he was co-editor of the school's official journal The Corian and editor of the student journal If Revived, he took his school's cricket team to the National Junior Finals.
He worked part-time at the Melbourne Herald and was groomed by his father to take over the family business. Murdoch studied Philosophy and Economics at Worcester College, Oxford in England, where he kept a bust of Lenin in his rooms and came to be known as "Red Rupert", he was a member of the Oxford University Labour Party, stood for Secretary of the Labour Club and managed Oxford Student Publications Limited, the publishing house of Cherwell. After his father's death from cancer in 1952, his mother Elisabeth did charity work as life governor of the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne and established the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute. At the age of 102, she had 74 descendants. Murdoch completed an MA before working as a sub-editor with the Daily Express for two years. Following his father's death, when he was 21, Murdoch returned from Oxford to take charge of what was left of the family business. After liquidation of his father's Herald stake to pay taxes, what was left was News Limited, established in 1923.
Rupert Murdoch turned The News, its main asset, into a major success. He began to direct his attention to acquisition and expansion, buying the troubled Sunday Times in Perth, Western Australia and over the next few years acquiring suburban and provincial newspapers in New South Wales, Queensland and the Northern Territory, including the Sydney afternoon tabloid, The Daily Mirror; the Economist describes Murdoch as "inventing the modern tabloid", as he developed a pattern for his newspapers, increasing sports and scandal coverage and adopting eye-catching headlines. Murdoch's first foray outside Australia involved the purchase of a controlling interest in the New Zealand daily The Dominion. In January 1964, while touring New Zealand with friends in a rented Morris Minor after sailing across the Tasman, Murdoch read of a takeover bid for the Wellington paper by the British-based Canadian newspaper magnate, Lord Thomson of Fleet. On the spur of the moment, he launched a counter-bid. A four-way battle for control ensued in which the 32-year-old Murdoch was successful.
In 1964, Murdoch launched The Australian, Australia's first national daily newspaper, based first in Canberra and in Sydney. In 1972, Murdoch acquired the Sydney morning tabloid The Daily Telegraph from Australian media mogul Sir Frank Packer, who regretted selling it to him. In 1984, Murdoch was appointed Com
San Juan Bautista, California
San Juan Bautista is a city in San Benito County, United States. The population was 1,862 at the 2010 census, up from 1,549 at the 2000 census; the city of San Juan Bautista was named after Mission San Juan Bautista. San Juan is an agricultural town; the Juan Bautista de Anza House, the General José Castro house, the San Juan Bautista Plaza Historic District are National Historic Landmarks. El Teatro Campesino is based in San Juan Bautista. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.7 square miles, 99.94% of it land and 0.06% of it water. This region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, San Juan Bautista has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the area around San Juan Bautista was populated by the Mutsunes, a branch of the Ohlone Indians; the Mutsunes lived in villages composed of thatched huts made of willow and grass, as they lived the simple hunter-gatherer lifestyle common to California Indians, left little mark on the land.
Today, the Mutsunes are extinct, with the last full-blooded native, Ascención Solórzano, dying in 1930. In 1797, the Spanish Franciscan priest fray Fermín de Lasuén founded Mission San Juan Bautista to facilitate the conversion of the native people to Catholicism. Lasuén chose the site because of the area's fertile cropland, steady water supply, sizable Indian population. At its height, the Mission had over 1200 neophytes living within its walls; the mission churchyard holds the remains of about 4500 Indians. Construction of the current mission church began in 1803, has served the community continuously since 1812; the mission was located on the Camino Real, a "royal highway" which connected the California missions and which remained well-used until the 19th century. In 1821, Mexico revolted against Spain, winning independence for itself, making California a province of the newly independent Mexico. By 1834, a town known as San Juan de Castro has sprouted up around the mission, it drew its name from the town's prominent alcalde José Tiburcio Castro.
In 1834 the mission was secularized, Castro appointed executor of the property. Accordingly, he auctioned off the former mission properties, his son, José Antonio Castro, built the Castro Adobe on the south side of the Plaza Mayor in 1840. Castro was a key member of the overthrow of governors Nicolás Gutiérrez in 1836 and Manuel Micheltorena in 1844. After defeating Micheltorena and his ill-equipped "Cholo" army, José Antonio Castro was appointed Comandante General of California, in charge of the Mexican Army's operations in California. From San Juan Bautista, Castro ordered the army against potential foreign incursions, he kept close watch over the movements of John C. Frémont, an American military officer, let into California to conduct a survey of the interior. Though given explicit instructions to stay away from coastal settlements, Frémont soon broke the agreement by taking his team to Monterey, a potential military target; when Castro told Frémont he would have to leave the country, the situation came close to war when he obstinately refused to leave and instead set up a base on Gavilán Peak, overlooking the town of San Juan.
However, fighting was avoided and Frémont, withdrew. Using old photographs and eyewitness accounts, researchers were able to estimate the location of hypocenter of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake as offshore from San Francisco, or near the city of San Juan Bautista, confirming previous estimates; the 2010 United States Census reported that San Juan Bautista had a population of 1,862. The population density was 2,616.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Juan Bautista was 1,125 White, 12 African American, 58 Native American, 52 Asian, 2 Pacific Islander, 494 from other races, 119 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 907 persons; the mission had 1,248 Mutsun Native Americans. The Census reported that 1,857 people lived in households, 5 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 681 households, out of which 229 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 345 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 86 had a female householder with no husband present, 48 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 42 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 8 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 157 households were made up of individuals and 48 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73. There were 479 families; the population was spread out with 431 people under the age of 18, 178 people aged 18 to 24, 476 people aged 25 to 44, 556 people aged 45 to 64, 221 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. There were 745 housing units at an average density of 1,046.9 per square mile, of which 345 were owner-occupied, 336 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.6%. 898 people (48.2%residing in the city. The population density was 2,187.0
A boulevard abbreviated Blvd, is a type of large road running through a city. In modern American usage it means a wide, multi-lane arterial thoroughfare divided with a median down the centre, with roadways along each side designed as slow travel and parking lanes and for bicycle and pedestrian usage with an above-average quality of landscaping and scenery. Phnom Penh has numerous boulevards scattered throughout the city. Norodom Boulevard, Sisowath Boulevard, Monivong Boulevard, Sothearos Boulevard are the most famous. Indira Gandhi Sarani Red Road, is a road in Kolkata that runs from Raj Bhavan to Fort William; the road, a wide boulevard, was built in 1820. The British authorities during colonial era intended for the road to be able to host large parades; the name'Red Road' was given due to its surfacing. During the Second World War, the road, in the heart of Kolkata, served as a landing strip for fighter aircraft; the annual Kolkata Marathon starts from outside the Rangers Club on Red Road. The name'Indira Gandhi Sarani' was adopted in 1985.
Mumbai'sMarine Drive is a 4.3 km -long crescent-shaped coastal road located in South Mumbai along the Arabian Sea. It is called the Queen's Necklace because if the stretch is viewed from an elevated point, the lamp posts along the road seem like pearls and thus in continuation look like a necklace. A promenade lies parallel to the road, it is one of the major tourist attractions in Mumbai. The Gateway of India is located just 1.7 kilometres away from Marine Drive. Though used, Marine Drive's official name is Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Marg. Local residents use it for morning exercises as well, it is popular among youths who come here to enjoy the splash of water during high tide. New Delhi's premier boulevard is the Rajpath, a thoroughfare. New Delhi being the national capital, many such thoroughfares were built to sustain the exploding traffic growth that New Delhi and most Indian metro cities have seen in recent decades. Rajpath, a tree lined road with ponds and fountains, was designed, along with Janpath, by British architect Edwin Lutyens during the British Raj.
Various national events such as Independence Day parades and Republic Day parades among many others take place over here annually. Hyderabad's Necklace Road is a boulevard adjoining the Hussain Sagar lake. In Chennai, the capital city of Tamil Nadu the major road is the Anna Salai. Another boulevard is Radakrishnan Salai called Cathedral Road; some of the most important thoroughfares in Jakarta are not named as a boulevard while do in fact follow the boulevard configuration of multiple lanes and/or landscaping. Examples of these are Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Jalan M. H. Thamrin, Jalan Jenderal Gatot Subroto, Jalan H. R. Rasuna Said, Jalan Gajah Mada/Jalan Hayam Wuruk, Jalan Haji Benyamin Sueb, Jalan Teuku Umar, Jalan Prof. Dr. Satrio; the term boulevard - sometimes under its Indonesian translation "bulevar" - is however used for thoroughfares in integrated urban centers as developed by private developers, such as Jalan Boulevard Raya in Kelapa Gading, Jalan Boulevard BSD Timur in Bumi Serpong Damai and Jalan Boulevard Gading Serpong in Gading Serpong.
Note that the term "Jalan" is still used despite the use of the term "Boulevard". Examples of boulevards in other Indonesian cities are Jalan Dago in Bandung, Jalan Pahlawan in Semarang, Jalan Mayjen Sungkono and Jalan Raya Darmo in Surabaya. In Iran, "Boulevard" is defined as a wide road surrounded by trees in sides and divided by a green space line including grass, trees or buxuses in the middle. There are many boulevards in Iran. One of the most famous one is Keshavarz Boulevard in Tehran, referred to as "The Boulevard". Isfahan has a historical boulevard, called Chaharbagh Boulevard. Tel Aviv, was designed along the guidelines set out by architect Sir Patrick Geddes. Geddes designed a green or garden ring of boulevards surrounding the central city, which still exists today and continues to characterize Tel Aviv. One of the most famous and busy streets in the city is Rothschild Boulevard. Roxas Boulevard is a major boulevard in Metro Manila, Philippines; the boulevard, which runs along the shores of Manila Bay, is popular for its view of Manila's famous sunsets and stretch of coconut trees.
The boulevard is an eight-lane major arterial road designated as Radial Road 1 that connects the center of Manila with Pasay and Parañaque. Other boulevards in Metro Manila include the Shaw Boulevard, España Boulevard, Pedro Tuazon Boulevard and Quezon Boulevard. Not all boulevards in the Philippines have ornamentation, or slow lanes, like the Aurora Boulevard and E. Rodriguez Sr. Boulevard, which have no ornamentation at all. Osmeña Boulevard is a boulevard in the Philippines' second city, it is Cebu's most important street and is its primary ceremonial avenue, the conventional route of the city's civic and cultural parades. Measuring six to ten lanes wide with 3-5 meter-wide sidewalks on both sides and a landscaped central median, the boulevard is lined with narra trees. Midway is the roundabout of Fuente Osmeña; the Ring Road is a circular ring road surrounding the Innere Stadt district of Vienna, Austria and is one of its main sights. Constructed in the mid-19th century after the dismantling of the city fortification walls, its architecture is typical of the eclectic, historicist style called Ringstraßenstil of the 1860s to 1890s.
Known for its unique architectural beauty and history, it
A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages. Other common newspaper formats include tabloid/compact formats. Many broadsheets measure 29 1⁄2 by 23 1⁄2 inches per full broadsheet spread, twice the size of a standard tabloid. Australian and New Zealand broadsheets always have a paper size of A1 per spread. South African broadsheet newspapers have a double-page spread sheet size of 820 by 578 mm or 32.3 by 22.8 in. Others measure 560 millimetres vertically. In the United States, the traditional dimensions for the front page half of a broadsheet are 15 inches wide by 22 3⁄4 inches long. However, in efforts to save newsprint costs many U. S. newspapers have downsized to 12 inches wide by 22 3⁄4 inches long for a folded page. Many rate cards and specification cards refer to the "broadsheet size" with dimensions representing the front page "half of a broadsheet" size, rather than the full, unfolded broadsheet spread; some quote actual page size and others quote the "printed area" size.
The two versions of the broadsheet are: Full broadsheet – The full broadsheet is folded vertically in half so that it forms four pages. The four pages are called a spread. Inside broadsheets are nested accordingly. Half broadsheet – The half broadsheet is an inside page, not folded vertically and just includes a front and back. In uncommon instances, an entire newspaper can be a two-page half broadsheet or four-page full broadsheet. Self-contained advertising circulars inserted in a newspaper in the same format are referred to as broadsheets. Broadsheets are folded horizontally in half to accommodate newsstand display space; the horizontal fold however does not affect the page numbers and the content remains vertical. The most important newspaper stories are placed "above the fold." This contrasts with tabloids which do not have a horizontal fold. The broadsheet has since emerged as the most popular format for the dissemination of printed news; the world's most circulated English-language daily broadsheet is The Times of India, a leading English-language daily newspaper from India, followed by Wall Street Journal from the United States, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations.
The broadsheet, was used as a format for musical and popular prints in the 17th century. The people began using the broadsheet as a source for political activism by reprinting speeches. Broadsheet newspapers developed after the British in 1712 placed a tax on newspapers based on the number of their pages. Larger formats, had long been signs of status in printed objects, still are in many places, outside Britain the broadsheet developed for other reasons, including style and authority, unrelated to the British tax structure. With the early mechanization of the 19th century came an increased production of printed materials including the broadside as well as the competing penny dreadful. In this period newspapers all over Europe began to print their issues on broadsheets. However, in the United Kingdom, the main competition for the broadside was the gradual reduction of the newspaper tax, beginning in the 1830s, its dismissal in 1855. With the increased production of newspapers and literacy, the demand for visual reporting and journalists led to the blending of broadsides and newspapers, creating the modern broadsheet newspaper.
Modern printing facilities most efficiently print broadsheet sections in multiples of eight pages. The broadsheet is cut in half during the process, thus the newsprint rolls used. The width of a newsprint roll is called its web, thus the new 12-inch-wide front page broadsheet newspapers in the United States use a 48-inch web newsprint roll. With profit margins narrowing for newspapers in the wake of competition from broadcast, cable television, the internet, newspapers are looking to standardize the size of the newsprint roll; the Wall Street Journal with its 12-inch wide frontpage was printed on 48-inch web newsprint. Early adopters in the downsizing of broadsheets used a 50-inch web; however the 48-inch web is now becoming the definitive standard in the U. S; the New York Times held out on the downsizing until July 2006, saying it would stick to its 54-inch web. However, the paper adopted the narrower format beginning Monday, 6 August 2007; the smaller newspapers have the advantage of being easier to handle among commuters.
In some countries Australia, the UK, the U. S. broadsheet newspapers are perceived to be more intellectual in content than their tabloid counterparts. They tend to use their greater size to publish stories exploring topics in depth, while carrying less sensationalist and celebrity-oriented material; this distinction is most obvious on the front page: whereas tabloids tend to have a single story dominated by a headline, broadsheets allow two or more stories to be displayed, of which the most important sit at the top of the page—"above the fold". In other countries, such as Spain, a small format is the universal standard for newspapers—a popular, sensational press has had difficulty taking root—and the tabloid size does not carry pejorative connotations. On the other hand, a few newspapers, such as the German Bild-Zeitung and others
Pacific Sun (newspaper)
The Pacific Sun is a free weekly newspaper published in Marin County, just north of San Francisco in the San Francisco Bay Area. It is the longest running alternative weekly in the nation; the weekly is published every Wednesday. The Pacific Sun was founded in April 1963 in California by Merrill and Joann Grohman in the back of a Stinson Beach grocery store. In 1966, the Pacific Sun moved its offices to San Rafael. Steve McNamara, the former Sunday editor of the San Francisco Examiner, bought it from the Grohmans that year. Ten months after McNamara took over as editor, the San Francisco Press Club awarded its first prize for the best news story in a northern California non-daily paper for the Sun's story “The Night Nicasio Fired the Principal”, about a school board’s firing of a principal for admitting to marijuana use. In 1984, The Sun won the award for General Excellence from the California Newspaper Publishers Association. U. S. Senator Barbara Boxer worked as a reporter for the Pacific Sun for two years in the 1970s, winning a Press Club award for a 1973 story on a state supreme court controversy.
Embarcadero Media, publisher of community weeklies in Palo Alto, Mountain View and Pleasanton, purchased The Sun from McNamara in 2004. Sam Chapman, a former Chief of Staff to Senator Boxer, served as the paper's publisher until 2010. In October 2012, former Embarcadero principal Bob Heinen purchased the paper and took over as publisher. Jason Walsh served as the editor and Dani Burlison replaced Samantha Campos as staff writer in 2010, after Campos replaced Jacob Shafer in 2008. In May 2015, Metro Newspapers acquired the Pacific Sun, increasing its portfolio to four Bay Area alternative weeklies. Metro restored circulation cuts that had occurred under the previous ownership and commissioned well-known typographer Jim Parkinson to redraw the Sun’s nameplate. Owner Dan Pulcrano promised “investment and creative vision... to produce a free weekly that’s fresh and true to its history.” Cyra McFadden’s 1977 best seller, The Serial — a Year in the Life of Marin County. Began as a series of 52 installments in the Sun.
In 1980, Paramount Pictures made. Pacific Sun website