Hurricane Ike was a powerful tropical cyclone that swept through portions of the Greater Antilles and Northern America in September 2008, wreaking havoc on infrastructure and agriculture in Cuba and Texas. The ninth tropical storm, fifth hurricane, third major hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season, Ike developed from a tropical wave west of Cape Verde on September 1 and strengthened to a peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane over the open waters of the central Atlantic on September 4 as it tracked westward. Several fluctuations in strength occurred before Ike made landfall on eastern Cuba on September 8; the hurricane weakened prior to continuing into the Gulf of Mexico, but increased its intensity by the time of its final landfall on Galveston, Texas on September 13. The remnants of Ike continued to track across the United States and into Canada, causing considerable damage inland, before dissipating two days later. Ike was blamed for at least 195 deaths. Of these deaths, 74 were in Haiti, trying to recover from the impact of three storms which had made landfall that same year.
Seven people were killed in Cuba by Ike. In the United States, 113 people were reported killed, directly or indirectly, 16 were still missing as of August 2011. Due to its immense size, Ike caused devastation from the Louisiana coastline all the way to the Kenedy County region near Corpus Christi, Texas. In addition, Ike caused flooding and significant damage along the Mississippi coastline and the Florida Panhandle Damages from Ike in U. S. coastal and inland areas are estimated at $30 billion, with additional damage of $7.3 billion in Cuba, $200 million in the Bahamas, $500 million in the Turks and Caicos, amounting to a total of at least $38 billion in damage. At the time, the hurricane was the second-costliest in United States history; the search-and-rescue operation after Ike was the largest search-and-rescue operation in Texas history. The origins of Hurricane Ike can be traced back to a well-defined tropical wave first identified by the National Hurricane Center just within the western coast of Africa on August 28.
Despite the development of a low-pressure area associated with the wave and signs of organization within favorable conditions near the Cape Verde Islands, the system was only able to generate intermittent thunderstorm activity. The broad low-pressure continued to track westward and was considered to have become sufficiently organized to be classified as a tropical depression at 06:00 UTC on September 1. By this time the cyclone had tracked 780 miles west of Cape Verde. Although post-analysis indicated that the depression reached tropical storm strength at 12:00 UTC that day, operationally the NHC began issuing advisories on Ike three hours by which time the system had gained numerous curved rainbands and well-established outflow. Over the next few hours, Ike developed additional rainbands, but failed to a centralized area of convection due to the presence of dry air to the storm's south and its location in an area with only marginally favorable sea surface temperatures; these factors were responsible for Ike's slow developmental trend that began after formation.
Ike's gradual strengthening began to quicken early on September 3, with the strengthening of an intense rainband around the center of the storm. At 15:00 UTC that day, microwave imaging indicated that a primordial eye was developing within the intensifying tropical storm. Tracking northwestward, the NHC upgraded Ike to hurricane status at 18:00 UTC based on objective satellite intensity estimates and the appearance of the eye on visible satellite imagery. During this time, Ike was centered 690 mi east-northeast of the Leeward Islands and was tracking west-northwestward as a result of a weakened subtropical ridge to its northeast. Ike's placement in an area with no wind shear allowed for the hurricane to undergo explosive intensification despite unfavorable upper-level winds to its north, reaching major hurricane strength six hours after its designation as a hurricane. At 06:00 UTC on September 4, Ike peaked with maximum sustained winds of 145 miles per hour and a minimum barometric pressure of 935 millibars, making the storm a Category 4 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.
After peaking in strength, a ridge of high pressure to the storm's west strengthened, causing Ike to track towards the southwest—a path unusual for the time of year. However, this track brought the storm into an area of strong wind shear, causing the storm to become asymmetric in structure late on September 4 and weaken dropping below major hurricane status on September 6 while 150 miles east of Grand Turk Island. Although wind shear abated and allowed for reintensification, Ike would fluctuate in strength over the next few days. After passing near the Turks and Caicos Islands, Ike made its first landfall on Inagua in the Bahamas at 13:00 UTC on September 7 with winds of 125 mph. After passing over Inagua, the development of a double eyewall—a feature that denotes the beginning of an eyewall replacement cycle—slightly weakened Ike late on September 7. However, the hurricane was able to reintensify and reach Category 4 intensity for a final time before making landfall near Cabo Lucrecia on the coast of Holguín Province in Cuba by 00:00 UTC the next day.
Although Ike remained well-defined for most of its crossing of eastern Cuba, the hurricane's core had become disrupted by the time it had reached the Caribbean Sea after spending a few hours over land. Over the next day
Hurricane Gustav was the second most destructive hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. The seventh tropical cyclone, third hurricane, second major hurricane of the season, Gustav caused serious damage and casualties in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, the Cayman Islands and the United States. Gustav caused at least $8.31 billion in damages. It formed on the morning of August 25, 2008, about 260 miles southeast of Port-au-Prince and strengthened into a tropical storm that afternoon and into a hurricane early on August 26; that day it made landfall near the Haitian town of Jacmel. It inundated Jamaica and ravaged Western Cuba and steadily moved across the Gulf of Mexico. Once into the Gulf, Gustav weakened because of increased wind shear and dry air, it weakened to a Category 2 hurricane late on August 31, remained at that intensity until landfall on the morning of September 1 near Cocodrie, Louisiana. Weakening continued, Gustav weakened to a tropical storm that evening and to a tropical depression the next day as it meandered around the south-central US.
The weak system became extratropical on September 4 and was absorbed by another low on September 5. In total, an estimated 153 deaths had been attributed to Gustav in the U. S. and Caribbean. Damage in the U. S. totaled to $6 billion with additional damage of $2.1 billion in Cuba and $210 million in damage in Jamaica. Gustav formed out of a tropical wave that had produced t-rain and squalls in the Lesser Antilles, it developed well-defined curved bands and exhibited an upper-level eye feature. The NHC designated it Tropical Depression Seven and dispatched a hurricane hunter aircraft to investigate the system. At the time, the system had a well-defined outflow in all but the southeast and southwest quadrant, data from the hurricane-hunter aircraft confirmed that the tropical depression had strengthened into a tropical storm, soon designated Tropical Storm Gustav. A brief period of disorganization proved to be temporary as a well-defined eye wall formed that same night. In the early hours of August 26, as the storm approached Haiti's southwestern peninsula, another hurricane hunter aircraft confirmed what forecasters suspected—that Gustav had strengthened into a hurricane with winds topping 90 mph.
Before reaching Haiti, its satellite presentation continued to intensify, a central dense overcast became more prominent, the minimum central pressure fell. Hurricane Gustav regained a pronounced eye as it made landfall on Haiti, with 75 mph winds, near the town of Jacmel; as the hurricane moved over Haiti's mountainous terrain its circulation was disrupted and it lost a little strength. Although downgraded to a tropical storm, it still had a pronounced eye in its mid- and upper-level structures, its outflow improved throughout the night of August 26, the system was not disrupted when it moved back over water into the Gulf of Gonâve. However, the storm's movement slowed, continued interaction with nearby Haiti, combined with the incursion of mid-level dry air from the northeast, resulted in further weakening during the day on August 27; the storm began a west-southwesterly movement. On the morning of August 28 it was found that, Gustav had either reformed farther to the south or had moved farther to the south than thought.
The storm was found to have restrengthened nearly to hurricane status. It was upgraded to a hurricane again during the late afternoon of August 29. At 11:00 a.m EDT on August 30, as Gustav neared the west end of Cuba, it was upgraded to a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, with sustained winds near 125 mph. Gustav continued its rapid deepening trend, three hours it had reached Category 4 strength. Gustav's maximum sustained. On August 30 Gustav made landfall twice on Cuba: first, on Isla de la Juventud and on the mainland near the community of Los Palacios in Pinar del Río Province. By the early hours of August 31, Gustav entered the Gulf of Mexico with maximum sustained winds of 135 mph and minimum central pressure of 958 millibars. During August 31, the storm moved in a northwest direction losing its strength with sustained winds at 115 mph. On the evening of August 31, Gustav weakened to a Category 2 hurricane and remained at such intensity until landfall in the U. S. Gustav made landfall along the Louisiana coast with 105 mph winds near Cocodrie, at about 9:30 a.m CDT.
At U. S. landfall, hurricane-force winds extended outward 70 miles from the center, tropical-storm-force winds extended 200 miles. That night, by 10 pm CDT, Gustav had been downgraded to a Tropical Storm with winds of 60 mph about 20 miles southwest of Alexandria, Louisiana and by 4 am CDT on September 2 Gustav had diminished to a Tropical Depression with a threat of severe flooding in the lower Mississippi Valley and eastern Texas. Upon the storm's designation as a tropical depression it was expected to strengthen into a tropical storm and strike the island of Hispaniola, shared by the Dominican Republic on the east and Haiti on the west. Tropical storm warnings were issued from the coast of the Dominican Republic south of Santo Domingo to the Haitian coast south of Port-au-Prince. A tropical storm watch was issued for the Haitian coast, north of Port-au-Prince to the northern border with the Dominican Republic. Hours when Gustav was upgraded to a tropical storm, the tropical storm warning was upgraded to a hurricane warnin
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl
Cameron Parish, Louisiana
Cameron Parish is a parish in the southwestern section of the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,839; the parish seat is Cameron. Although it is the largest parish by land area in Louisiana, it has the second-smallest population in the state. Cameron Parish is part of Metropolitan Statistical Area; this was part of La Louisiane, colonized by the French beginning in the early 18th century. They encountered the Atakapa and Choctaw indigenous peoples, who had occupied this area for thousands of years. In the late 1700s, after France had ceded New France and other holdings east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain following its defeat in 1763 in the Seven Years' War, a number of French-speaking refugee families from Acadia settled in this part of coastal Louisiana; some had fought against the British with Indian allies during the war in Acadia. Among them were Joseph "Beausoleil" Broussard, his brothers Alexander and Pierre, their wives and families, who first went to Saint-Domingue before settling in Louisiana.
The British expelled many Acadians for their resistance their refusal to make loyalty oaths to Great Britain. Numerous other French-speaking families settled here and their descendants populate the smaller towns. In the 18th century France ceded its holdings in Louisiana and other areas west of the Mississippi River to Spain, the Spanish colonial government made grants of land to the Acadians. France took control of this territory again at the turn of the nineteenth century for a short period under Napoleon Bonaparte, but in 1803 he sold all the French territory west of the Mississippi River to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. The US was intent on getting control of New Orleans, an important part for its large agricultural interests in what is now the Midwest; this territory was part of Calcasieu Parish, established by the new Louisiana Territory legislature in 1807. The western part of this coastal area was included in what was called No Man's Land, a disputed area of control between Spain and the US after the Purchase.
In the 1806 Neutral Ground agreement, both parties agreed to leave this free of military occupation or civil law enforcement. The area between the Calcasieu River on the east and the Sabine River on the west became a hotbed of outlaws, pirates including Jean Lafitte, other nefarious characters for many years, it was acquired by the United States in 1819 under the Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain. Early Anglo-American settlers after the Louisiana Purchase included John M. Smith, Millege McCall, John William Sweeney, George W. Wakefield, William Doxey, James Hale, James Root, John M. Miller. During the American Civil War, loyalties in this area and in the greater coastal area were divided between Unionists and Confederates. Bands of local "Jayhawkers," known as bushwhackers, were active in the area. There were numerous Unionists near Sabine Leesburg. Others were located near the mouth of the Calcasieu and near Grand Chenier in Vermilion Parish; the Union Navy had forces at Sabine Lake. The Mermentau Jayhawkers were made up of a band of "200 mounted draft dodgers, cattle thieves, runaway slaves, Confederate deserters from Texas and Louisiana."
They raided federal supply lines and plundered from the local people, earning the enmity of both Union and Confederate regulars. If caught by Confederate forces, Jayhawker deserters were court martialed and executed. Local forces organized as Regulators in an effort to protect women and children of local families, repulse the Jayhawkers. After the end of the war, some of the vigilante Regulators turned to suppressing the blacks and resisting Reconstruction. Cameron Parish was organized in 1870 during the Reconstruction era and was made up of portions of Calcasieu and Vermilion parishes, it was one of several new parishes organized by the Republican-dominated legislature to create new centers of Republican political strength. Cameron Parish is named for Republican Simon Cameron, a Pennsylvanian, President Abraham Lincoln's first secretary of war. Today its population is overwhelmingly majority white and Republican in the 21st century realignment; this is among the largest civil parishes in Louisiana, yet the least populated, owing to the high proportion of land area made up by marsh and wetlands.
Cameron Parish comprises a large portion of the Louisiana Chenier Plain. These were developed for cotton plantations both after the Civil War; some of southwest Louisiana was developed for industrial export of oil products. In some areas, wetlands were drained and bayous dredged for navigation; this has been found to increase erosion of the wetlands and loss to area soils, with loss of coastline. Small farmers and hunters continued to make subsistence livings in some rural areas. There are tourist destinations for fishing. From the mid-20th century to the early 21st century, the parish was damaged three times and its history marked by hurricanes Audrey and Ike. So much damage was done by the latter two hurricanes that the population dropped in the parish by nearly one third from 2000 to 2010; the hurricanes occurred in 2008, respectively. In the 20th and 21st centuries, Cameron Parish has suffered severe damage from hurricanes, it was deva
A storm surge, storm flood, tidal surge or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water associated with low pressure weather systems, the severity of, affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides. Most casualties during tropical cyclones occur, it is a measure of the rise of water beyond what would be expected by the normal movement related to tides. The two main meteorological factors contributing to a storm surge are a long fetch of winds spiraling inward toward the storm, a low-pressure-induced dome of water drawn up under and trailing the storm's center; the deadliest storm surge on record was the 1970 Bhola cyclone, which killed up to 500,000 people in the area of the Bay of Bengal. The low-lying coast of the Bay of Bengal is vulnerable to surges caused by tropical cyclones; the deadliest storm surge in the twenty-first century was caused by the Cyclone Nargis, which killed more than 138,000 people in Myanmar in May 2008.
The next deadliest in this century was caused by the Typhoon Haiyan, which killed more than 6,000 people in the central Philippines in 2013 and resulted in economic losses estimated at $14 billion. The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, a Category 4 hurricane that struck Galveston, drove a devastating surge ashore; the highest storm tide noted in historical accounts was produced by the 1899 Cyclone Mahina, estimated at 44 ft at Bathurst Bay, but research published in 2000 concluded that the majority of this was wave run-up because of the steep coastal topography. In the United States, one of the greatest recorded storm surges was generated by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which produced a maximum storm surge of more than 25 ft in southern Mississippi, with a storm surge height of 27.8 ft in Pass Christian. Another record storm surge occurred in this same area from Hurricane Camille in 1969, with a storm tide of 24.6 ft at Pass Christian. A storm surge of 14 ft occurred in New York City during Hurricane Sandy in October 2012.
At least five processes can be involved in altering tide levels during storms: The atmospheric pressure effect The direct wind effect The effect of the Earth's rotation The effect of waves near the shore The rainfall effect. The pressure effects of a tropical cyclone will cause the water level in the open ocean to rise in regions of low atmospheric pressure and fall in regions of high atmospheric pressure; the rising water level will counteract the low atmospheric pressure such that the total pressure at some plane beneath the water surface remains constant. This effect is estimated at a 10 mm increase in sea level for every millibar drop in atmospheric pressure. Strong surface winds cause surface currents at a 45° angle to the wind direction, by an effect known as the Ekman Spiral. Wind stresses cause a phenomenon referred to as "wind set-up", the tendency for water levels to increase at the downwind shore and to decrease at the upwind shore. Intuitively, this is caused by the storm blowing the water toward one side of the basin in the direction of its winds.
Because the Ekman Spiral effects spread vertically through the water, the effect is proportional to depth. The pressure effect and the wind set-up on an open coast will be driven into bays in the same way as the astronomical tide; the Earth's rotation causes the Coriolis effect, which bends currents to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. When this bend brings the currents into more perpendicular contact with the shore, it can amplify the surge, when it bends the current away from the shore it has the effect of lessening the surge; the effect of waves, while directly powered by the wind, is distinct from a storm's wind-powered currents. Powerful wind whips up strong waves in the direction of its movement. Although these surface waves are responsible for little water transport in open water, they may be responsible for significant transport near the shore; when waves are breaking on a line more or less parallel to the beach, they carry considerable water shoreward.
As they break, the water particles moving toward the shore have considerable momentum and may run up a sloping beach to an elevation above the mean water line, which may exceed twice the wave height before breaking. The rainfall effect is experienced predominantly in estuaries. Hurricanes may dump as much as 12 in of rainfall in 24 hours over large areas and higher rainfall densities in localized areas; as a result, surface runoff can flood Streams and rivers. This can increase the water level near the head of tidal estuaries as storm-driven waters surging in from the ocean meet rainfall flowing downstream into the estuary. In addition to the above processes and wave heights on shore are affected by the flow of water over the underlying topography, i.e. the configuration and bathymetry of the ocean bottom and affected coastal area. A narrow shelf, for example, or one that has a steep drop from the shoreline and subsequently produces deep water in proximity to the shoreline, tends to produce a lower surge but a higher and more powerful wave.
This situation is well exemplified by the southeast coast of Florida. The edge of the Floridian Plateau, where the water depths reach 91 metres, lies just 3,000 m offshore of Palm Beach; the 180 m depth contour followed southward from Palm Beach County
Nathan Abshire was an American Cajun accordion player who, along with Iry LeJeune, was responsible for the renaissance of the accordion in Cajun music in the 1940s. Learning the accordion at age six, he was influenced by his father and uncle all playing the accordion. Abshire first performed on the accordion in public at age eight, he continued playing at dance parties through his teenage years. In the 1930s, he performed with and learned from fiddler Lionel Leleux and accordionist Amédé Ardoin. In 1935, he recorded six songs with the Rayne-Bo Ramblers, a group led by guitarist and singer Leroy "Happy Fats" Leblanc. Abshire served in the U. S. army during World War II. After the war, he settled in Basile, where he played at the Avalon Club, he released his best-known record, "Pine Grove Blues", in 1949, a song based on Amede Breaux's "Le Blues de Petit Chien", as well as several recordings on Swallow Records and Arhoolie Records in the 1960s. He appeared with Dewey Balfa and The Balfa Brothers at the Newport Folk Festival in 1967.
Along with Balfa, Abshire devoted much of his time in the 1960s and 70s to promoting Cajun music through appearances at festivals and schools throughout the United States. Abshire was featured in Les Blank's 1971 documentary Spend It All and the 1975 PBS documentary, The Good Times Are Killing Me, he was included in the documentary film, Les Blues de Balfa, along with Balfa. He died in Basile, Louisiana in 1981 after living most his life there as the overseer of the town dump. Pine Grove Blues Listen Step It Fast Listen Two Step Listen Compilations Cajun Fais Do Do Nathan Abshire & His Cajun Accordion- Pine Grove Blues Nathan Abshire & Other Cajun Gems: Vol.2 from the Khoury vaults Louisiana Cajun Music Volume 4: From The 30s To The 50s The Cajuns - Vol.1: Balfa Brothers Orchestra With Nathan Abshire Nathan Abshire: The Good Times Are Killing Me Featuring The Balfa Brothers A Cajun Tradition A Cajun Tradition Vol. 2 Nathan Abshire And The Pinegrove Boys Nathan Abshire: Good Times Are Killin' Me" Nathan Abshire Featuring Balfa Brothers: The Good Times Are Killing Me Louisiana Cajun: Special No. 2 Pine Grove Blues Cajun Country French Classics Vol. 3 Pioneers of Cajun Accordion 1926-1936 A Cajun Legend...
The Best of Nathan Abshire Pine Grove Blues/The Good Times Are Killing Me French Blues Nathan Abshire: The Great Cajun Accordionist Les Haricots Sont Pas Salés Balfa Brothers & Nathan Abshire - The 1970 NYC Cajun Concert Master Of The Cajun Accordion: The Classic Swallow Recordings History of Cajun Music List of Notable People Related to Cajun Music American National Biography, vol. 1, pp. 48–49. American National Biography, vol. 3 pp. 38–39. VH1.com biography clips from singles on the Swallow and La Louisianne labels TVTV's Documentary The Good Times Are Killing Me
Swamp pop is a music genre indigenous to the Acadiana region of south Louisiana and an adjoining section of Southeast Texas. Created in the 1950s and early 1960s by teenage Cajuns, it combines New Orleans-style rhythm and blues and western, traditional French Louisiana musical influences. Although a obscure genre, swamp pop maintains a large audience in its south Louisiana and southeast Texas homeland, it has acquired a small but passionate cult following in the United Kingdom, northern Europe, Japan."Swamp rock" is a distinct genre and is different from swamp pop in that drew more on 1960s rock than on the 1950s rhythm and blues sound that helped to define swamp pop. It is epitomized by the work of such artists as Creedence Clearwater Revival, Tony Joe White, Delaney & Bonnie and Jesse Ed Davis; the swamp pop sound is typified by emotional, lovelorn lyrics, tripleting honky-tonk pianos, undulating bass lines, bellowing horn sections, a strong rhythm and blues backbeat. It is exemplified by slow ballads like Cookie and the Cupcakes' "Mathilda", considered by many fans as the unofficial swamp pop "anthem".
But the genre has produced many upbeat compositions, such as Bobby Charles' "Later Alligator", popularly covered by Bill Haley & His Comets. During the genre's heyday, several swamp pop songs appeared on national U. S. record charts. These included Jimmy Clanton's "Just A Dream", Warren Storm's "Prisoner's Song", Phil Phillips' "Sea Of Love", Rod Bernard's "This Should Go On Forever", Joe Barry's "I'm A Fool To Care", Dale and Grace's "I'm Leaving It Up To You". In swamp pop's south Louisiana-southeast Texas birthplace, fans regarded many songs that never became national hits as classics; these include Johnnie Allan's "Lonely Days, Lonely Nights", Buck Rogers' "Crazy Baby", Randy and the Rockets' "Let's Do the Cajun Twist", T. K. Hulin's "I'm Not a Fool Anymore", Clint West's "Big Blue Diamond", among numerous others; the musicians who went on to birth Swamp pop listened to traditional Cajun music and black Creole music as children, as well as popular country and western songs by musicians like Bob Wills, Moon Mullican, Hank Williams.
However, like other American youth in the mid-1950s, they discovered the alluring new sounds of rock and roll and rhythm and blues artists like Elvis Presley and Fats Domino. As a result, these teenaged Cajuns and black Creoles shifted away from Louisiana French folk compositions like "Jolie Blonde", "Allons a Lafayette", "Les flammes d'enfer" in favor of singing rock and roll and rhythm and blues compositions in English. At the same time, they switched from folk instruments like the accordion and iron triangle to modern ones such as the electric guitar and bass, upright piano and drumming trap set. By the late 1950s, swamp pop musicians repertoires, they performed to receptive crowds in local dancehalls like the Southern Club in Opelousas, Landry's Palladium in Lafayette, the OST Club in Rayne, the Green Lantern in Lawtell. In addition, they released recordings on local record labels, such as Floyd Soileau's Jin label of Ville Platte, Eddie Shuler's Goldband of Lake Charles, Carol Rachou's La Louisianne of Lafayette, Huey Meaux's Crazy Cajun label of Houston, a number of labels owned by J. D. Miller of Crowley, Louisiana.
Swamp pop musicians adopted Anglo-American stage names that masked their Cajun surnames. John Allen Guillot, for example, became Johnnie Allan, Robert Charles Guidry became Bobby Charles, Joe Barrios became Joe Barry, Elwood Dugas became Bobby Page, Terry Gene DeRouen became Gene Terry; some of these musicians changed their names because they were ashamed of their rural French heritage — a feeling shared at the time by a segment of the Cajun population. But economics motivated most swamp pop musicians: They wanted to sell records not only in southern Louisiana and southeast Texas, but beyond, where the pronunciation of ethnic surnames like Guillot, DeRouen eluded record promoters, disc jockeys, consumers. Despite its obvious rock and roll and rhythm & blues influences, swamp pop was not devoid of folk characteristics. For example, Bobby Page and the Riff Raffs recorded "Hippy-Ti-Yo", a bilingual rock and roll version of the traditional Cajun French song "Hip et Taiaut" and Rod Bernard did the same with "Allons danser Colinda", another important folk composition.
Joe Barry re-recorded his swamp pop hit "I'm A Fool To Care" in French under the title "Je suis bête pour t'aimer". And Randy and the Rockets issued "Let's Do The Cajun Twist", an English remake of the Cajun French favorite "Allons a Lafayette". Over twenty swamp pop songs have appeared in the Billboard Hot 100 since the genre's origin in the mid-1950s. Five of these broke into the Top 10, three reached number one. While swamp pop drew on New Orleans rhythm and blues, it reciprocated by making a detectable impact on songs like Lloyd Price's "Just Because", Earl King's "Those Lonely Lonely Nights", Little Richard's "Can't Believe You Want To Leave" and "Send Me Some Lovin'", Clarence "Frogman" Henry's " But I Do" and "On Bended Knee". Swamp pop left its imprint on the related but distinct genre known as "swamp blues", including Slim Harpo's classic "Rainin' in My Heart". Jerry Lee Lewis recorded many swamp blues/swamp pop type songs most notably the Cookie and the Cupcakes hit "Mathilda", Harpo's "Rainin' in my heart" and a version of the blues standard "Got you on my mind" that