Marion Zimmer Bradley
Marion Eleanor Zimmer Bradley was an American author of fantasy, historical fantasy, science fiction, science fantasy novels, is best known for the Arthurian fiction novel The Mists of Avalon, the Darkover series. While she is noted for her feminist perspective in her writing, her popularity has been posthumously marred by multiple accusations against her of child sexual abuse and rape by two of her children and Moira Greyland, others. Born Marion Eleanor Zimmer on June 3, 1930, she lived on a farm in Albany, New York, began writing at the age of 17, she was married to Robert Alden Bradley from October 26, 1949 until their divorce on May 19, 1964. They had David Robert Bradley. During the 1950s she was introduced to lesbian advocacy organization the Daughters of Bilitis. After her divorce, Bradley married numismatist Walter H. Breen on June 3, 1964, they had a daughter, Moira Greyland, a professional harpist and singer, a son, Mark Greyland. In 1965, Bradley graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Hardin-Simmons University in Abilene, Texas.
Afterward, she moved to Berkeley, California, to pursue graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley between 1965 and 1967. In 1966, she helped found and named the Society for Creative Anachronism and was involved in developing several local groups, some in New York after her move to Staten Island. Bradley and Breen separated in 1979 but remained married, continued a business relationship and lived on the same street for over a decade, they divorced on May 9, 1990, the year Breen was arrested on child molestation charges after a 13-year-old boy reported that Breen had been molesting him for four years. She had edited Breen's book Greek Love, dedicated to her, in 1965 had contributed an article, "Feminine Equivalents of Greek Love in Modern Literature", to Breen's journal The International Journal of Greek Love, she had known about Breen's sexual interests and accepted his sexual abuse of a 14-year-old boy. While she was attending the College for Teachers in Albany, Bradley became involved in Western esoteric tradition.
She completed the Rosicrucian correspondence course. In the late 1950s or early 1960s, Bradley and Walter H. Breen founded the Aquarian Order of the Restoration based on the work of Dion Fortune. By 1961 she was formally initiating others, including Ramfis S. Firethorn. Bradley was active in Darkmoon Circle, founded in 1978 by several women who were members of her Aquarian Order of the Restoration. Bradley renovated her garage to provide a meeting room for Darkmoon Circle as well as for other local Pagan groups. In 1981 Bradley, Diana L. Paxson, Elisabeth Waters incorporated the Center for Non-Traditional Religion. In the 1990s Bradley said she would return to Christianity, telling an interviewer: "I just go to the Episcopalian church... That pagan thing... I feel. I would like people to explore the possibilities." After suffering declining health for years, Bradley died at Alta Bates Medical Center in Berkeley on September 25, 1999, four days after suffering a debilitating heart attack. Her ashes were scattered at Glastonbury Tor in Somerset, England.
In 2014, her daughter, Moira Greyland, accused her of sexual abuse from the age of three to 12. In an email to The Guardian, Greyland said that she had not spoken out before because: I thought that my mother's fans would be angry with me for saying anything against someone who had championed women's rights and made so many of them feel differently about themselves and their lives. I didn't want to hurt anyone she had helped, so I just kept my mouth shut. Greyland reported that she was not the only victim and that she was one of the people who reported her father, Walter H. Breen, for child molestation, for which he received multiple convictions. By her own admission, Bradley was aware of her husband's behavior although she chose not to report him. In response to these allegations, on July 2, 2014, Victor Gollancz Ltd, the publisher of Bradley's digital backlist, announced that it will donate all income from the sales of Bradley's e-books to the charity Save the Children; the author Janni Lee Simner announced on June 13, 2014 that she would be donating advances and royalties from her two Darkover short stories and at the request of her husband, Larry Hammer, payment for his sale to Bradley's magazine, to the American anti-sexual assault organization Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network.
Since the allegations were made public and her brother Mark have spoken at length about their experiences and a number of famous science fiction authors have publicly condemned Bradley. Among the first was John Scalzi, who within a day of the allegations being made public, described the allegations as "horrific". Hugo Award winner Jim C. Hines wrote that Bradley's positive effect on her readers and associates "makes the revelations about Marion Zimmer Bradley protecting a known child rapist and molesting her own daughter and others more tragic." G Willow Wilson, World Fantasy award winner, said she was "speechless". Diana L. Paxson, who collaborated with Bradley on a number of novels and who continued to write novels set in the Avalon Series after Bradley's death, said that she was "shocked and appalled to read Moira Greyland's posts about her mother." Bradley stated that when she was a child she enjoyed reading adventure fantasy authors such as Henry Kuttner, Edmond Hamilton, C. L. Moore, Leigh Brackett when they wrote about "the glint of strange suns on worlds that never were and never would be".
Her first novel and much of her subsequent work show their influence strongly. At 17, she began her first novel The Forest House, her ret
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not.
An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects. Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation, where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies.
Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Fantasy elements occur throughout the ancient Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh; the ancient Babylonian creation epic, the Enûma Eliš, in which the god Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat, contains the theme of a cosmic battle between good and evil, characteristic of the modern fantasy genre. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu, preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire. Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature.
The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra, for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda, includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir, dwarves, elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us
Aaron Dale Allston was an American game designer and author of many science fiction books, notably Star Wars novels. His works as a game designer include game supplements for role-playing games, several of which served to establish the basis for products and subsequent development of TSR's Dungeons & Dragons game setting Mystara, his works as a novelist include those of the X-Wing series: Wraith Squadron, Iron Fist, Solo Command, Starfighters of Adumar, Mercy Kill. He wrote two entries in the New Jedi Order series: Enemy Lines I: Rebel Dream and Enemy Lines II: Rebel Stand. Allston wrote three of the nine Legacy of the Force novels: Betrayal and Fury, three of the nine Fate of the Jedi novels: Outcast and Conviction. Allston was born December 1960, in Corsicana, Texas, to Tom Dale Allston and Rose Binford Boehm. Allston graduated from high school in Denton. An avid fan of science fiction from an early age, by high school he was the secretary and reporter for his high school science fiction club.
Allston attended the University of Texas. Allston was a circulation manager, assistant editor, editor of Space Gamer magazine, by 1983 was a full-time freelance game designer, he served as editor of Space Gamer from issues 52 to 65, as editor of Fantasy Gamer for the first issue and co-editor of the second issue. During Allston's tenure as editor, the magazine won the H. G. Wells Award for Best Professional Role-Playing Magazine in 1982. Allston authored the book Autoduel Champions in 1983, which crossed over Champions by Hero Games and Car Wars by Steve Jackson Games. Allston helped launch the Fantasy Gamer spinoff magazine, he co-wrote the computer game Savage Empire, named Best PC Fantasy RPG by Game Player magazine in 1990. He authored a revision and compilation for the Dungeons & Dragons game, he branched into fiction, in the mid-1990s wrote five novels. He began writing for the Star Wars X-Wing series in 1997, when the primary sequence writer Michael Stackpole could not handle the entire workload.
Allston produced a new edition of Champions for Hero Games in 2002. In 2006, he launched The Legacy of the Force series with a hardcover entitled Betrayal. In 2005, Allston made his directorial debut on the independent film Deadbacks, which he wrote and produced; the film was never released. Allston lived in Texas. For a short time, he worked for the Austin American-Statesman newspaper. In early April 2009 Allston had a heart attack and underwent an emergency quadruple bypass surgery, while on the book signing tour for Outcast, the first book in the Fate of the Jedi series. On February 27, 2014, Allston collapsed during an appearance at VisionCon in Branson, Missouri from heart failure, he died that day in Springfield, Missouri, at the age of 53. Web of Danger Galatea In 2-D Double Jeopardy Thunder of the Captains Wrath of the Princes Doc Sidhe Sidhe-Devil Wraith Squadron Iron Fist Solo Command Starfighters of Adumar Mercy Kill Enemy Lines I: Rebel Dream Enemy Lines II: Rebel Stand Betrayal Exile Fury Outcast Backlash Conviction Terminator 3 Terminator Dreams Terminator Hunt The Circle and M.
E. T. E. Autoduel Champions Lands of Mystery Treasure Hunt GAZ1: The Grand Duchy of Karameikos Mythic Greece Strike Force GURPS Supers School of Hard Knocks Dungeon Master's Design Kit The Complete Fighter's Handbook Dawn of the Emperors: Thyatis and Alphatia Ninja Hero Dungeons & Dragons Rules Cyclopedia Poor Wizard's Almanac & Book of Facts Wrath of the Immortals The Complete Ninja's Handbook Champions, Fifth Edition Appelcline, Shannon. Designers & Dragons. Mongoose Publishing. ISBN 978-1-907702-58-7. "Pen & Paper listing for Aaron Allston". Archived from the original on December 10, 2004. Aaron Allston @ FantasticFiction.co.uk Aaron Allston at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Interview with Aaron Allston, Author, "Star Wars: "Fate of the Jedi: Conviction Aaron Allston at Find a Grave
Although the genre is old, the romance novel or romantic novel discussed in this article is the mass-market version. Novels of this type of genre fiction place their primary focus on the relationship and romantic love between two people, must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending." There are many subgenres of the romance novel, including fantasy, historical romance, paranormal fiction, science fiction. Romance novels are read by women; the term romance is applied to a type of novel defined by Walter Scott as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse. Other precursors can be found in the literary fiction of the 18th and 19th centuries, including Samuel Richardson's sentimental novel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded and the novels of Jane Austen. Austen inspired Georgette Heyer, the British author of historical romance set around the time Austen lived, as well as detective fiction. Heyer's first romance novel, The Black Moth, was set in 1751; the British company Mills and Boon began releasing escapist fiction for women in the 1930s.
Their books were sold in North America by Harlequin Enterprises Ltd, which began direct marketing to readers and allowing mass-market merchandisers to carry the books. According to the Romance Writers of America, the main plot of a mass-market romance novel must revolve about the two people as they develop romantic love for each other and work to build a relationship. Both the conflict and the climax of the novel should be directly related to that core theme of developing a romantic relationship, although the novel can contain subplots that do not relate to the main characters' romantic love. Furthermore, a romance novel must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending." Others, including Leslie Gelbman, a president of Berkley Books, define the genre more stating only that a romance must make the "romantic relationship between the hero and the heroine... the core of the book." In general, romance novels reward characters who are good people and penalize those who are evil, a couple who fights for and believes in their relationship will be rewarded with unconditional love.
Bestselling author Nora Roberts sums up the genre, saying: "The books are about the celebration of falling in love and emotion and commitment, all of those things we want." Women's fiction is not directly a subcategory of the romance novel genre, because in women's fiction the heroine's relationship with her family or friends may be as important as her relationship with the hero. Some romance novel authors and readers believe the genre has additional restrictions, from plot considerations, to avoiding themes. Other disagreements have centered on the firm requirement for a happy ending. While the majority of romance novels meet the stricter criteria, there are many books considered to be romance novels that deviate from these rules. Therefore, the general definition, as embraced by the RWA and publishers, includes only the focus on a developing romantic relationship and an optimistic ending. Escapism is important. There are no specific restrictions on what can not be included in a romance novel.
Controversial subjects are addressed in romance novels, including topics such as date rape, domestic violence and disability. The combination of time frame and plot elements does, help a novel to fit into one of several romance subgenres. Despite the numerous possibilities this framework allows, many people in the mainstream press claim that "all seem to read alike." Stereotypes of the romance genre abound. For instance, some believe that all romance novels are similar to those of Danielle Steel, featuring rich, glamorous people traveling to exotic locations. Many romance readers disagree that Steel writes romance at all, considering her novels more mainstream fiction. Mass-market romance novels are sometimes referred to as "smut" or female pornography, are the most popular form of modern erotica for women. While some romance novels do contain more erotic acts, in other romance novels the characters do no more than kiss chastely; the romance genre runs the spectrum between these two extremes. Because women buy 90% of all romance novels, most romance novels are told from a woman's viewpoint, in either first or third person.
Although most romance novels are about heterosexual pairings there are romance novels that deal with same-sex relationships, some participants in the book industry characterize books dealing with same-sex relationships as F/F, M/M. While this article is about the mass-market form of love romance novels, the genre of works of extended prose fiction dealing with romantic love existed in classical Greece; the titles of over twenty such ancient Greek romance novels are known, but most of them have only survived in an incomplete, fragmentary form. Only five ancient Greek romance novels have survived to the present day in a state of near-completion: Chareas and Callirhoe and Clitophon, Daphnis and Chloe, The Ephesian Tale, The Ethiopian Tale. Precursors of the modern popular love-romance can be found in the sentimental novel Pamela, or Virtue
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website