Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. One of the world's oldest film studios, MGM's headquarters are located at 245 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, California. MGM was founded in 1924 when the entertainment entrepreneur Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, Louis B. Mayer Pictures. In 1971, it was announced that MGM was to merge with 20th Century Fox, but the plan never came to fruition. Over the next 39 years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3, 2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM emerged from bankruptcy on December 20, 2010, at which time the executives of Spyglass Entertainment, Gary Barber and Roger Birnbaum, became co-chairmen and co-CEOs of the holding company of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; as of 2017, MGM co-produces, co-finances, co-distributes a majority of its films with Sony Pictures, Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros.
MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "MGM", was created in 1973 as a division of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The company was spun out in 1979, with the studio's owner Kirk Kerkorian maintaining a large share, but it ended all affiliation with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1986. MGM was the last studio to convert to sound pictures, but in spite of this fact, from the end of the silent film era through the late 1950s, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was the dominant motion picture studio in Hollywood. Always slow to respond to the changing legal and demographic nature of the motion picture industry during the 1950s and 1960s, although at times its films did well at the box office, the studio lost significant amounts of money throughout the 1960s. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would buy Universal Studios. Three years an unprofitable MGM was bought by Kirk Kerkorian, who slashed staff and production costs, forced the studio to produce low-budget fare, shut down theatrical distribution in 1973.
The studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios United Artists. Kerkorian did, commit to increased production and an expanded film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up internal production, as well as keeping production going at UA, which included the lucrative James Bond film franchise, it incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production. The studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few months sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt, while keeping the library assets for himself; the series of deals left MGM more in debt. MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio; the French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the studio's major creditor took control of MGM. More in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, Australia's Seven Network in 1996.
The debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGM's ability to survive as a separate motion picture studio. After a bidding war which included Time Warner and General Electric, MGM was acquired on September 23, 2004, by a partnership consisting of Sony Corporation of America, Texas Pacific Group, Providence Equity Partners, other investors. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem, he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loew's Theatres chain. With Loew's lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality. However, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters. Approached by Louis B. Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17, 1924. Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production.
MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years. In 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. In 1925, MGM, Paramount Pictures and UFA formed a joint German distributor, Parufamet; when Samuel Goldwyn left he sued over the use of his name. Marcus Loew died in 1927, control of Loew's passed to Nicholas Schenck. In 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew family's holdings with Schenck's assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision. Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds. During this time, in the summer of 1929, Fox was badly hurt in an automobile accident. By the time he recovered, the stock market crash in the fall of 1929 had nearly wiped Fox out and ended any chance of the Loew's merger going through. Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along, the abortive Fox merger increased the animosity between the two men.
From the outset, MGM tapped into the audience's need for sophistication. Having inherited few big names from their predecessor companies and Thalberg began at once
Bell MTS Inc. is a subsidiary of BCE Inc. that operates telecommunications services in the Canadian province of Manitoba. The company's head office is located in MTS Place on Main Street, in Downtown Winnipeg, Manitoba. MTS is the descendant company of Manitoba Government Telephones, which went into operation in January 1908 after the government of Manitoba bought Bell Canada's Manitoba operations; the Crown corporation became Manitoba Telephone System in 1921, absorbed all private telephone operations in the province. In 1996, the Provincial government of Premier Gary Filmon decided to sell the Manitoba Telephone System to private shareholders; the decision to privatize was seen as controversial, as it marked a significant departure from the Progressive Conservatives' earlier position that MTS should remain provincially owned. On March 17, 2017, Bell re-gained control of MTS after closing its $3.9 billion acquisition of the provider. For regulatory reasons, Bell will divest a third of MTS's wireless business to Telus, a smaller portion to the new entrant Xplornet.
Under Bell ownership, Bell MTS will serve as the headquarters of Bell's telecom businesses in Western Canada. Bell MTS is the naming rights holder of two venues in Winnipeg. At midnight on June 21, 1959, Winnipeg was the first urban area in North America to implement the 9-9-9 emergency telephone number. In the late 1950s, MTS located one of its administrative offices on Empress St. near the newly opened Polo Park Shopping Centre complex. In 2001 these employees were moved to 333 Main St. known as MTS Place, where 1200 employees now work. This formed part of the Province's Downtown First strategy. In the late 1970s, similar to policy changes implemented by AT&T in the U. S. MTS allowed its customers to purchase their own telephone equipment and with this, provided free installation of RJ11 telephone jacks. In the Spring of 1979, MTS announced that it would be a pioneer in Telidon-based two-way electronic information services; the trial was called "Project IDA" and ran from 1980 to 1981. MTS was a pioneer in offering videotex at the commercial level.
In 1981, it partnered with Infomart to create the Grassroots service, providing information relevant to farmers on the Canadian prairies. Customers paid $47.50 per month to subscribe to Grassroots, plus connection fees to DATAPAC. Terminal equipment was manufactured by Norpak, they opened MTS Phone Centre stores in shopping malls to sell residential and business phones and services, in 1984 opened two MTS Business Centre locations to provide sales of business-level equipment. In the mid-1980s, MTS started a subsidiary known as MTX, which had invested in telecommunications in Saudi Arabia; however MTX was forced to shut down after controversy about the company back in Manitoba after MTX lost $27 million on the venture. In the late 1980s MTS launched MTS Mobility providing cellular and paging services in Manitoba. In 1996 and in a controversial decision, the Provincial government decided to sell the Manitoba Telephone System to private shareholders; the vote to privatize MTS was held in early December 1996.
In January 1999, MTS partnered with Bell Canada to form Intrigna, a Competitive Local Exchange Carrier, created to expand telecommunications options for the business market in Alberta and British Columbia. As part of the deal, Bell Canada gained 20% ownership of MTS, they set up a jointly operated office in Calgary. By the summer of 1999, fibre optic cable had been laid in Edmonton and Calgary, extended to Vancouver, British Columbia. In August 1999, MTS completed work on a new trunked radio system known as FleetNet 800, technology licensed from neighbouring SaskTel. In the Fall of 1999, MTS began to offer DSL high-speed Internet service in Winnipeg and Brandon, which expanded to other areas of the province; the CRTC met with the various telecommunications providers in Canada and required of them to implement a Service Improvement Plan. This meant that MTS had to improve service to northern remote areas that by the 21st century had poor quality phone service. Customers in northern Manitoba complained that the microwave system could not handle data communications well.
This, as well as the collapse of a microwave relay tower linking Churchill in early January 2000, lead MTS to initiate upgrades to the Radisson-Churchill corridor with fibre optics and the Lynn Lake-Thompson corridor with a digital microwave system to replace the outdated equipment. Cellular telephone service is available to 98% of population in the province. In 2003, MTS purchased the naming rights for the True North Centre in downtown Winnipeg, renaming it the MTS Centre; the 10-year deal between True North Sports & Entertainment and MTS, MTS's single largest advertising expenditure, was extended when the arena became a National Hockey League venue in 2011. In February 2004, MTS sold its 40% stake in Intrigna to Bell Canada for $230 million. In April 2004, MTS acquired Allstream, the successor to the transcontinental railways' telegraph businesses, it renamed the main subsidiary to MTS Allstream Inc. until 2012, when it was split as MTS Inc. and Allstream Inc. On December 7, 2005, former BCE executive Pierre Blouin was named Chief Executive Officer of Manitoba Telecom Services and of MTS Allstream, replacing longtime CEO Bill Fraser.
On March 31, 2011 MTS launched a HSPA+ wireless network along with the availability Apple's iPhone series of smartphones starting with the iPhone 4. The wireless network had claims it would provide data speeds up
Crave (TV network)
Crave is a Canadian premium television network owned by Bell Media. It serves as the premium tier of the video-on-demand service of the same name, is sometimes referred to in marketing materials as Crave + Movies + HBO to distinguish it from Crave's base tier. Crave's programming includes theatrically released motion pictures and foreign television series, made-for-cable movies and documentaries, live sports events and occasional stand-up comedy and concert specials. Along with French-language sister service Super Écran, Crave owns exclusive Canadian rights to most original programming from American premium services HBO and Cinemax, as well as Showtime. Launched in 1983 as the national service First Choice, early difficulties and a subsequent industry restructuring led to its operations being restricted to Eastern Canada from 1984 to 2016; the service resumed national operations in 2016, when it replaced the similar Movie Central offering in Western and Northern Canada. In 2018, The Movie Network combined operations with Bell Media's hybrid VOD service CraveTV, with both services renamed Crave.
The combined library of both services became available automatically to subscribers of the former TMN, while the over-the-top version of Crave added a second tier that provides access to the content exclusive to TMN, including films and first-run HBO programming, as well as the ability to stream the linear Crave and HBO Canada channels, on a direct-to-consumer basis. In 1976, Communications Minister Jeanne Sauvé was quoted as saying " pay television is inevitable". During the 1970s when premium television service HBO and the up-and-coming Atlanta, Georgia superstation WTBS became available via satellite in North America, some Canadians who were living in underserved rural areas, wanted access to these services; the Saskatchewan government together with Cable Regina set up a provincial pay television network called Teletheatre in 1979. Growth of grey market television receive-only dishes by 1980 led the Canadian government under the administration of Pierre Trudeau to allow for pay television in Canada, that there would be hearings to licence pay television networks in Canada.
In September 1981, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission held a hearing in Hull, Quebec to license Canada's first pay television networks. There were more than 24 applicants to start such services; when First Choice Canadian Communications Corp. made its application to the CRTC in September 1981, the individuals and companies involved in the proposed channel included Donald Sobey, J. R. McCaig, Norman Keevil, television producer Riff Markowitz, Royfund Equity Ltd. AGF Management Ltd. and Manufacturers Life Insurance Co. Together, they had $19 million in equity financing and proposed to spend $310.4 million over five years on Canadian television production. Estimated profit would be $3.1 million. A pay television licence was issued by the CRTC to First Choice on March 18, 1982; the channel's first president was Donald MacPherson. At the time that First Choice applied to the CRTC, it estimated that to program major American movies, entertainment specials and Canadian movies and specials, pay for satellite time, marketing of the channel, it could sell it to the cable companies at a wholesale rate of $7.50 each month.
However, by the time the channel launched, providers received their revenue from the pay television services, the retail cost of First Choice jumped to $15.95. When First Choice was launched on February 1, 1983, it operated as a national premium service. Look Out for First Choice!" The network inaugurated programming with a two-hour promotional reel announcing the programming that First Choice would carry, followed by a replay of The Who's farewell tour concert special. These programs were followed by first movie to be broadcast on First Choice, For Your Eyes Only. At 10 a.m. Eastern/7 a.m. Pacific Time that day, First Choice aired Star Wars and continued to replay the film every other day for eight hours; the channel offered its programming for free for 14 days starting with the channel's first day of operation, before it was scrambled, except to those subscribers who wanted to pay the extra fee to continue receiving the channel. Before the advent of stereo television and home theatre systems, subscribers who paid for cable FM service could receive a stereo feed of First Choice.
During its first year, First Choice aired a two-hour block of programming from the American adult-oriented pay service The Playboy Channel as part of a late night programming block on Fridays. The broadcast of these softcore pornographic programs resulted in opposition from many domestic feminist groups. After a disappointing run for pay services in general, the industry was restructured in late 1983 and into 1984, First Choice's service area was restricted to Canadian provinces east of the Ontario-Manitoba border, with competitor Superchannel taking territorial rights to the west of that border; as part of this restructuring, film production company Astral Bellevue Pathé took a controlling in
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission
The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission is a public organization in Canada with mandate as a regulatory agency for broadcasting and telecommunications. It was created in 1976. Prior to 1976, it was known as the Canadian Radio and Television Commission, established in 1968 by the Parliament of Canada to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors, its headquarters is located in the Central Building of Les Terrasses de la Chaudière in Gatineau, Quebec. The CRTC was known as the Canadian Radio-Television Commission. In 1976, jurisdiction over telecommunications services, most of which were delivered by monopoly common carriers, was transferred to it from the Canadian Transport Commission although the abbreviation CRTC remained the same. On the telecom side, the CRTC regulated only held common carriers: BC Tel, which served British Columbia, in which a U. S. company held a substantial stake Bell Canada, which served much of Ontario and Quebec, the eastern part of the Northwest Territories telephone operations owned by crown corporation Canadian National Railways in Newfoundland, the Northwest Territories and northern B.
C.. Other telephone companies, many of which were publicly owned and within a province's borders, were regulated by provincial authorities until court rulings during the 1990s affirmed federal jurisdiction over the sector, which included some fifty small independent incumbents, most of them in Ontario and Quebec. Notable in this group were: Newfoundland Telephone Maritime Telegraph and Telephone Island Telephone New Brunswick Telephone Manitoba Telephone System SaskTel Alberta Government Telephones Northern Telephone Télébec municipal telephone services in Prince Rupert, B. C. and Thunder Bay The CRTC regulates all Canadian broadcasting and telecommunications activities and enforces rules it creates to carry out the policies assigned to it. The CRTC reports to the Parliament of Canada through the Minister of Canadian Heritage, responsible for the Broadcasting Act, has an informal relationship with Industry Canada, responsible for the Telecommunications Act. Provisions in these two acts, along with less-formal instructions issued by the federal cabinet known as orders-in-council, represent the bulk of the CRTC's jurisdiction.
In many cases, such as the cabinet-directed prohibition on foreign ownership for broadcasters and the legislated principle of the predominance of Canadian content, these acts and orders leave the CRTC less room to change policy than critics sometimes suggest, the result is that the commission is the lightning rod for policy criticism that could arguably be better directed at the government itself. Complaints against broadcasters, such as concerns around offensive programming, are dealt with by the Canadian Broadcast Standards Council, an independent broadcast industry association, rather than by the CRTC, although CBSC decisions can be appealed to the CRTC if necessary. However, the CRTC is sometimes erroneously criticized for CBSC decisions — for example, the CRTC was erroneously criticized for the CBSC's decisions pertaining to the airing of Howard Stern's terrestrial radio show in Canada in the late 1990s, as well as the CBSC's controversial ruling on the Dire Straits song "Money for Nothing".
The commission is not equivalent to the U. S. Federal Communications Commission, which has additional powers over technical matters, in broadcasting and other aspects of communications, in that country. In Canada, Innovation and Economic Development Canada is responsible for allocating frequencies and call signs, managing the broadcast spectrum, regulating other technical issues such as interference with electronics equipment; the CRTC has in the past regulated the prices cable television broadcast distributors are allowed to charge. In most major markets, prices are no longer regulated due to increased competition for broadcast distribution from satellite television; the CRTC regulates which channels broadcast distributors must or may offer. Per the Broadcasting Act the commission gives priority to Canadian signals—many non-Canadian channels which compete with Canadian channels are thus not approved for distribution in Canada; the CRTC argues that allowing free trade in television stations would overwhelm the smaller Canadian market, preventing it from upholding its responsibility to foster a national conversation.
Some people, consider this tantamount to censorship. The CRTC's simultaneous substitution rules require that when a Canadian network licences a television show from a US network and shows it in the same time slot, upon request by the Canadian broadcaster, Canadian broadcast distributors must replace the show on the US channel with the broadcast of the Canadian channel, along with any overlays and commercials; as Grey's Anatomy is on ABC, but is carried in Canada on CTV at the same time, for instance, the cable, satellite, or other broadcast distributor must send the CTV feed over the signal of the carried ABC affiliate where the ABC version is somehow different commercials. Viewers via home antenna who receive both Amer
Bell TV, is the division of BCE Inc. that provides satellite television service across Canada. It launched on September 10, 1997 and as of 2004 it has been providing "Bell TV for Condos", a VDSL service provided to select multidwelling units in Montreal and Toronto. Bell TV provides over 500 digital video and 100 HD and audio channels to, as of May 2010, over 1.8 million subscribers. Its major competitors include satellite service Shaw Direct, as well as various cable and communications companies across Canada, such as Rogers Cable, EastLink, Shaw Communications, Vidéotron and Cogeco. Bell TV services are repackaged and resold by Telus as Telus Satellite TV, in areas where the latter company's Optik IPTV services are unavailable. ExpressVu was conceived in 1994, at the time of American DSS systems launch, as a consortium of Ontario-based Tee-Comm Electronics, Canadian Satellite Communications, Vancouver-based Western International Communications and Bell Canada Enterprises, with a projected startup date of late 1995.
High technology development costs and delays placed Tee-Comm in a severe financial position, prompting the remaining partners to pull out in 1996. Instead, U. S. satellite-TV provider Echostar Dish Network was chosen to provide the receivers and uplink equipment. The Hughes DirecTV system had been optioned to Power Broadcasting, in Canada. Tee-Comm on its own managed to launch the first DBS service in Canada, AlphaStar, in early 1997. ExpressVu launched service in September 1997 as "Dish Network Canada", followed by "ExpressVu Dish Network", in both cases using the Echostar logo. Bell took over full ownership of ExpressVu by 2000; the ExpressVu name was retired in August 2008 along with the Today Just Got Better advertising campaign. Bell's television services as a whole are now called Bell TV; when disambiguation is required, the satellite service is called Bell Satellite TV. Plans have been shelved for any additional ExpressVu satellite expenditures assuming pending CRTC and Industry Canada approval for Dish Network to use all 32 transponders on Nimiq 5.
As a result of this, SES has announced that they will not be replacing the ill-fated AMC-14 now that Dish Network has cut this deal with Telesat & BCE for Nimiq 5 usage. In 2009, Telus reached a deal to resell a re-packaged version of the Bell TV service in parts of Alberta and British Columbia known as Telus Satellite TV; the agreement was designed to allow Telus the ability to "instantly" offer a quadruple play of services in markets where it has not yet deployed its IPTV services, while allowing Bell to increase its television market share in Western Canada. The Telus-branded service co-exists with the Bell-branded version of Bell TV, still offered in the markets that Telus Satellite TV is offered. In 2012, Bell changed satellite plans in Ontario, they are now sold in packages called "Good", "Better" and "Best" to its competitor Rogers Cable in that region. Channels in the "Best" tier can still be purchased in theme packages, existing customers with older plans are grandfathered; this does not affect other regions such as Quebec, where there are different types of plans.
Along with these changes, Bell discontinued sales and rentals of its final standard-definition television receiver, the 4100 model. Customers who still have an older SDTV with an AV input can use an HD receiver, but the quality will be limited to 480i due to technical limitations. Bell TV broadcasts from two geostationary satellites: Nimiq 4 and 6. Nimiq 4 was launched on September 19, 2008, Nimiq 6 was launched on May 17, 2012. Both satellites follow an equatorial path. Nimiq is an Inuktitut word for "that which unifies" and was chosen from a nationwide naming contest in 1998; the two satellites are operated by Telesat Canada. Bell's uplink site is located in North York, Ontario. Nimiq 4, located at 82° W serves Bell's high-definition television content. Nimiq 6, located at 91.1° W serves Bell's standard-definition television and radio content. Each satellite has 32 Ku-band transponders. A transponder has enough bandwidth to broadcast 10 channels; because HDTV requires more bandwidth, some transponders broadcast only 4-5 channels.
LyngSat provides a listing of channels on Nimiq 6 broken down by transponder. Nimiq 1 contains 32 Ku-band transponders. At 91° W. Nimiq 2, launched on December 29, 2002 includes 32 K-band transponders. Nimiq 2 provides HDTV, international programming, all newly released channels, it occupies the 82° W slot. Nimiq 3 went online on August 23, 2004. Called DirecTV3, it is an old DirecTV satellite moved to a new orbital slot near Nimiq 1 to offload some of the transmitting work from the original satellite. In February 2006, Nimiq 3 was moved behind Nimiq 2 to support it, while another satellite, Nimiq 4i, took Nimiq 3's spot behind Nimiq 1. Nimiq 4i was replaced with Nimiq 4iR as it was de-orbited. Both Nimiq 3 and Nimiq 4iR feature 16 Ku-band transponders. Nimiq