A barrack or barracks is a building or group of buildings built to house soldiers. The word may apply to separate housing blocks or to complete complexes, the main object of barracks is to separate soldiers from the civilian population and reinforce discipline and esprit de corps. They have been called discipline factories for soldiers, Early barracks such as those of the Roman Praetorian Guard were built to maintain elite forces. There are a number of remains of Roman army barracks in frontier forts such as Vercovicium, from these and from contemporary Roman sources we can see that the basics of life in a military camp have remained constant for thousands of years. Large, permanent barracks were developed in the 18th century by the two dominant states of the period, France the caserne and Spain the cuartel. The English term ‘barrack’, on the hand, derives from the Spanish word for a temporary shelter erected by soldiers on campaign. Early barracks were multi-story blocks, often grouped in a quadrangle around a courtyard or parade ground, a good example is Berwick Barracks, which was among the first in England to be purpose-built and begun in 1717 to the design of the distinguished architect Nicholas Hawksmoor.
The pavilion plan concept of design was influential in barrack planning after the Crimean War. The first large-scale training camps were built in the Kingdom of France, the British Army built Aldershot camps from 1854. By the First World War, infantry and cavalry regiments had separate barracks and these were inadequate for the enormous armies mobilized after 1914. Hut camps were developed using variations of the eponymous Nissen hut, in many military forces, NCOs and enlisted personnel will frequently be housed in barracks for service or training. Junior enlisted and sometimes junior NCOs will often receive less space and may be housed in bays, while senior NCOs, the term Garrison town is a common expression for any town that has military barracks, i. e. a permanent military presence nearby. Barracks blockhouses were used to house troops in forts in Upper Canada, the Stone Frigate, completed in 1820, served as barracks briefly in 1837–38, and was refitted as a dormitory and classrooms to house the Royal Military College of Canada by 1876.
The Stone frigate is a stone building originally designed to hold gear. The majority of the Portuguese Army bases is referred as a quartel, in a barracks, each of the dormitory buildings is referred as a caserna. Most of them are regimental barracks, constituting the fixed component of the Army system of forces and being responsible for the training, sustenance, in addition to the regimental administrative and training bodies, each barracks can lodge one or more operational units. Many of the Portuguese regimental barracks are of the CANIFA model, the CANIFA barracks were designed to lodge 1,000 or more soldiers. Nevertheless, some soldiers lodgings were built in Britain at this time, the first recorded use of the word barracks in this context was for the Irish Barracks, built in the precinct of the Tower of London in 1669
An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition are made and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination, whether privately or publicly owned. Arsenal and armoury or armory are mostly regarded as synonyms, although differences in usage exist. A sub-armory is a place of storage or carrying of weapons and ammunition. From Italian and French, from Arabic, دار تعبئة, dār a-tabiya, in a second-class arsenal, the factories would be replaced by workshops. The situation of an arsenal should be governed by strategic considerations. If of the first class, it should be situated at the base of operations and supply, secure from attack, not too near a frontier, the importance of a large arsenal is such that its defences would be on the scale of those of a large fortress. The usual subdivision of branches in a great arsenal is into storekeeping, under construction, Gun factory, carriage factory, small-arms factory and tent factory, powder factory, etc. In a second-class arsenal there would be instead of these factories.
Frederick Taylor introduced command and control techniques to arsenals, including the U. S. s Watertown Arsenal, armorer Dresden Armory Halifax Armoury Harpers Ferry Armory Kremlin Armoury Royal Arsenal Royal Armouries Springfield Armory Zeughaus Magazine
Indre By, known as Copenhagen Center or K or Downtown Copenhagen, is an administrative district in central Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. It covers an area of 4.65 square kilometres, has a population of 26,223, and its boundaries pretty much reflect the entire city’s extent during the reign of King Christian IV. At the time it was a city and its borders were made of defensive walls with moats. To ensure water for the moats there was a series of dams, the gates were dismantled in 1856. The locations are now commemorated with milestones erected on the spot, additionally artificial lakes were constructed as part of Christian IVs large building project. These still exist to this day, and are simply referred to as the lakes. The area beyond the lakes, now heavily populated city districts, was used primarily for grazing. It was prohibited to build beyond these original city limits so that the cannons could have clear shot. The fortification system was sold to Copenhagen municipality in 1869 and largely dismantled the year after, evidence of the walls can be found in the street names outlining the central part of the city.
From Kastellet at the northeast point of the district runs Øster Voldgade to the southwest, the street changes names near Nørreport Train Station and continues as Nørre Voldgade. Vester Voldgade starts at Ørsteds Park and runs southeast until it reaches the water of Copenhagen Harbour, the fortification system continues on the other side of the water in the Christianshavn city district. Copenhagen was founded around year 1000 by Sweyn I Forkbeard and his son Canute the Great and it was only a fishing village until the middle of the 12th century when Havn, as the town was called, assumed increasing importance in the Danish kingdom. Around 1160 King Waldemar the Great gave control of Copenhagen to Absalon, whereas other cities in the Danish realm were under the governance of the king, Havn or Købmannehavn as it comes to be known, was given to the Bishop of Roskilde. Bishop Absalon built his fortified Castle at Havn in 1167 on an island outside the harbour itself. In the years that follow, the town grew tenfold in size, the excellent harbour encouraged Copenhagens growth until it became an important centre of commerce.
Købmannehavns economy blossomed due to the income from an enormous herring fishery trade, in 1254, it received its charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen. It was repeatedly attacked by Wend pirates and the Hanseatic League and again the town was besieged and laid waste by the Hanseatic League. In 1369 they tore down the castle, but a new castle—Copenhagen Castle was built in its place, at the same time the Danish king was attempting to take Copenhagen back from the bishop. The crown succeeded in 1416, when King Erik of Pomerania took control of the town, thenceforth Copenhagen belonged to the Danish Crown
Holmen is a water-bound neighbourhood in Copenhagen, occupying the former grounds of the Royal Naval Base and Dockyards. In spite of its name, deceptively in singular, Holmen is a congregation of small islands, forming a north-eastern extension of Christianshavn between Zealand and the northern tip of Amager. Since the early 1990s, the area has instead been redeveloped for use as a new district of the city. The area is characterized by a mixture of residential developments, creative businesses and educational institutions. Holmen is home to the Copenhagen Opera House which was completed in 2005, though technically a part of the central Indre By district of Copenhagen, being a cul-de-sac as districts go, the area has a somewhat quiet and remote reputation and feel to it. Frederiksholm is the area which has seen most new construction since Holmen naval base was closed, many new buildings have been built while old buildings from the areas naval past have been converted for new uses. The existence of Holmen originates in a wish to relocate the Danish Fleet from its home at Bremerholm.
Since the city was growing rapidly, it was no longer practical to have the fleet stationed in the center of the city, being built out of timber, the vessels constituted a major hazard. Furthermore, the sailors disposed of their garbage by throwing it directly into the harbor, in 1680, a plan was conceived to move the fleet out of the city. Responsibility for the plan was given to Admiral Niels Juel, from 1682-92 Christianshavns Vold was extended northwards to protect the area which had been chosen for the fleet. The extension had seven bastions, named for members of the Royal Family, in Carls and Wilhems Bastion, black powder depots were constructed. Built in 1688 and 1690, they are the oldest structures at Holmen, the northernmost bastion was Charlotte Amalies Bastion, and north of this two cannon batteries were established, Batteriet Quintus and Batteriet Neptunus. The latters name came from the ship which was the foundation for the battery. This battery was renamed to Christiani Sixti Batteri, or Christian VIs Battery.
Today it is known as Batteriet Sixtus or just Sixtus, the sinking of ships continued, loaded with mud from the harbor and trash from Copenhagens streets. In certain streets, there could be more than one metre of trash and this efforts gradually formed an island, which was given the name Nyholm. It was to this island that the shipyard was relocated. The first ship which was set to sea from this shipyard was the first Dannebrog in 1692, the construction of all large ships were moved to Nyholm, and at Bremerholm, now called Gammelholm, only smaller vessels were built
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and known as land fill, is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds. The land reclaimed is known as ground or land fill. In a number of jurisdictions, including parts of the United States. In Alberta, for example, reclamation is defined by the government as The process of reconverting disturbed land to its former or other productive uses. In Oceania it is referred to as land rehabilitation. Land reclamation can be achieved with a number of different methods, the most simple method involves simply filling the area with large amounts of heavy rock and/or cement, filling with clay and dirt until the desired height is reached. The process is called infilling and the used to fill the space is generically called infill. Draining of submerged wetlands is often used to land for agricultural use. Deep cement mixing is used typically in situations in which the material displaced by either dredging or draining may be contaminated, the creation of new land was for the need of human activities.
Notable examples include, Much of the coastlines of Mumbai, India and it took over 150 years to join the original seven islands of Mumbai. Much of the coastlines of Mainland China, Hong Kong, North Korea and it is estimated that nearly 65% of tidal flats around the Yellow Sea have been reclaimed. Inland lowlands in the Yangtze valley, including the areas of important cities like Shanghai, Much of the coastline of Karachi, Pakistan. A part of the Hamad International Airport in Qatar, around 36 square kilometres, the entire island of The Pearl-Qatar situated in West Bay, Qatar. The city-state of Singapore, where land is in supply, is famous for its efforts on land reclamation. The Palm Islands, The World and hotel Burj al-Arab off Dubai in the United Arab Emirates The Yas Island in Abu Dhabi and it is one of the six divisions of Malé City. The Eko Atlantic in Lagos, mexico City, the chinampas are a famous example. Parts of Panama City urban and street development are based on reclaimed land, aeroparque Jorge Newbery, in Buenos Aires, Argentina One of the earliest large scale projects was the Beemster Polder in the Netherlands, realized in 1612 adding 70 square kilometres of land.
In Hong Kong the Praya Reclamation Scheme added 20 to 24 hectares of land in 1890 during the phase of construction
Frederikshavn is a Danish town in Frederikshavn municipality, Region Nordjylland, on the northeast coast of the Jutland peninsula in northern Denmark. Its name translates to Frederiks harbour, the town has a population of 23,156, and is an important traffic portal with its ferry connections to Sweden and Norway. The town is known for fishing, and its fishing. The Danish term frederikshavner is used to denote a quality plaice, frederikshavns oldest building, Fiskerklyngen, is originally from the mid-16th century, but the houses now there are from 18th–19th centuries. Frederikshavn was originally called Fladstrand, until 1818 when it received status as a merchant town under the name of Frederikshavn, due to its advantageous proximity to the entrance to the Baltic Sea, Frederikshavn has historically been a naval base of some strategic importance. Peter Tordenskjold barricaded himself here in the fortress that German troops had built in the 17th century. During the Great Northern War the Battle of Fladstrand was fought in the sea between Swedish and Danish naval forces.
The only old military installations remaining to this day are the Gunpowder Tower, constructed in 1688, the Gunpowder Tower has been preserved, and is incorporated in the municipalitys coat-of-arms. Bangsbo Museum Frederikshavn Art Museum Frederikshavn Shipyard Historical Society Tordenskiold Festival, like the rest of North Jutland, was hit with hard unemployment. The towns largest workplace, the shipyard Danyard, closed in the late 1990s and this resulted in more than 2,000 workers being unemployed. Today there is activity at the large ship building area. In summer 2008, the unemployment rate, like the rest of Denmark, as with many provincial municipalities around the world, some of its young people leave to large urban cities. However, the municipality is engaged in many innovative projects which are attracting tourists. The process is expected to be completed by 2015, Frederikshavn is served by Frederikshavn railway station. It is the train station of the Vendsyssel and Skagen railway lines and offers direct InterCity services to Copenhagen, regional train services to Aalborg.
Former footballer Allan Olsen, musician Lucas Bjerregaard, Danish golfer EUC Nord - a technical school located partly in Frederikshavn
Christian VI of Denmark
Christian VI was King of Denmark and Norway from 1730-46. He was the first king of the Oldenburg dynasty to refrain from entering in any war and he was married to Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and was the father of Frederick V. His chosen motto was deo et populo, from 1706, Christian came to understand Danish but used German for everyday speaking and writing. He got an education and acquired more knowledge than his father and grandfather. As Crown Prince he was allowed by his father to find a wife by himself, Sophia Magdalene came from a minor margraviate of the Hohenzollern dynasty where able consciousness was inversely proportional to the funds, half of the land was mortgaged, and her father died young. She had 13 siblings and was considered a match for the Danish prince. In Christians letters, he describes his feelings for the princesss intense religiosity and they were married on 7 August 1721, while Christian was crown prince. The wedding was held at Pretzsch in Saxony, the king was shy and introverted by nature, and stayed away from the public.
For the first ten years of his government he consulted often with his cousin, the count took part in almost everything, from the dismissal of cooks in the Queens kitchen to determining alliance policy. He encouraged the king as long as possible to maintain the English alliance, around 1740, Count Christian Ernsts preference swung towards France and he ceased his influence. This coincided with the situation in Germany no longer allowing him, as a vassal German prince. In 1733, the couple travelled to Norway. A poem/speech by Peter Höyer was performed in his honor when he visited the city of Trondheim on 18 July, the act would be abolished in 1788. The Pietist views of King Christian influenced much of his ecclesiastical polity, on the surface the king was victorious, but both nobility and many common people secretly resisted the kings influence. This did not mean that it was without effect and it influenced much of the poetry of the age, among others, that of the great hymn writer Hans Adolph Brorson.
Another lasting result of the efforts was the introduction of mandatory confirmation in 1736. This resulted in a need for a school system, which was created by decree in 1739 and 1741. There were numerous building activities connected to Christian VI, and he was probably the greatest Danish builder of the 18th century and his queen made a notable effort
Amager is a Danish island in the Øresund. The Danish capital, Copenhagen, is situated on Amager. Amager has a connection across the Øresund to Sweden, the Øresund Bridge and its western part begins with a tunnel from Amager to another Danish island, Peberholm. Copenhagen Airport is located on the island, around 7 km from Copenhagen city centre, Amager is the largest island in the Øresund, and the only one with a large population. As of 2016,192,709 people live on the island, including its northern tip, the northern part is included in the Copenhagen municipality. The middle part comprises Tårnby municipality, and Dragør municipality is located on the southeast part of the island, most of the western part is land that was reclaimed from the sea from the 1930s-1950s. This enlargement, from the sound towards Zealand, is known as Kalveboderne. The enlargement has never been built-up and its soil isnt suitable for agricultural use, however the area between Dragør town and the airport is cultivated land of high quality.
Amager has in the past been referred to as the kitchen of Copenhagen, at the border of the enlargement there is an old beech forest, Kongelunden. Amager has long been populated, and well used, thanks to its rich soil, in 1521, Christian II invited some Dutch farmers to move to Amager and grow vegetables to supply the Danish Court and Copenhagen. It was only in the late 19th century that Copenhagen began to expand onto the island, the area houses such major facilities as the Bella Center, a convention and exposition center, and Fields, the second-largest shopping center in Scandinavia. This project was initiated by the Danish government, the beach area to the east of the island, known as Amager Strandpark, which had fallen into disrepair since its inception in the 1930s, was extensively redeveloped between May 2004 and August 2005. A 2-km-long artificial island, was constructed just off the mainland from which it is separated by a small lagoon, until the 1970s, Amager was used as a place to dump litter, this led to a slang term for the island Lorteøen.
Large parts of Kalvebod Fælled are rich in nature and have many grazing cows and this area allows the citizens of Copenhagen to experience nature, without travelling far from the city. Amager is home to the Amager Bio, a cinema, top bands from the last 40 years have played there, both those of international origin and from Denmark. Various communities are located on Amager, including Islands Brygge, and the towns of Dragør, the Øresund Bridge connects Sweden to Denmark at Amager. The construction of the bridge has had a significant impact on the geography of the island. The Copenhagen Metro connects Amager to central Copenhagen, the metro line from Vanløse to Amager divides into M1 and M2 lines at Christianshavn and continue to Vestamager and Lufthavnen
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Zealand is the largest and most populated island in Denmark with a population of 2,267,659. It is the 96th-largest island in the world by area and the 35th most populous and it is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by five bridges, Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located partly on the shore of Zealand. Other cities on Zealand include Roskilde, Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør, the island is not connected historically to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, which is named after the Dutch province of Zeeland. In Norse mythology as told in the story of Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi and she removed a piece of land and transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area was filled with water and became Mälaren, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun.
Zealand is the most populous Danish island and it is irregularly shaped, and is north of the islands of Lolland, and Møn. The small island of Amager lies immediately east, Copenhagen is mostly on Zealand but extends across northern Amager. A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, and Funen is connected by bridges to the countrys mainland, Jutland. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10, 000+ inhabitants, North Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage
Copenhagen Opera House
The Copenhagen Opera House is the national opera house of Denmark, and among the most modern opera houses in the world. It is one of the most expensive houses ever built with construction costs well over US$500 million. It is located on the island of Holmen in central Copenhagen, the A. P. Møller and Chastine Mc-Kinney Møller Foundation donated the Opera House to the Danish state in August 2000. Architect Henning Larsen and engineers Ramboll and Buro Happold and Theatre Consultant Theatreplan designed the facility, the acoustics were designed by Arup Acoustics and Speirs and Major Associates designed the architectural lighting. A. P. Møller had the say in the design of the building, adding steel to the glass front. Construction began in June 2001 and was completed on October 1,2004 and it opened on January 15,2005, in the presence of Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller, Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen, and Queen Margrethe II. The tenor Plácido Domingo made a gala guest appearance as Sigmund in Wagners Die Walküre on April 7,2006, in a production by Kasper Bech Holten), the Denmark leg of the Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series takes place here.
The Opera is located in Copenhagen just opposite the main castle Amalienborg at the shore of the harbour, the specific part of the island where the Opera was built is named Dokøen, which means the Dock Island. Just a few meters west of the opera, one can see an old dock. The house is administered by the Royal Danish Theatre and is one of the best-equipped in the world and it has a main stage with five other stages directly connected, where large setups can be moved easily in and out. The theatre can seat between 1492 and 1703, depending on the size of the orchestra, the 1492 seats are all individually angled in order to provide the best experience. The orchestra pit is one of the largest in any house, with room for 110 musicians. However, the overhang is very slight and the authorities have permitted this to happen, if the orchestra is small or absent, the pit can be covered and additional seats can be added to the auditorium. Just like the old Royal Danish Theatre in Copenhagen, The Queen has her own box on the side of the auditorium.
Guided tours cover most of the building, including both the auditorium and backstage areas, besides the main stage, the building includes a small stage for experimental theatre, a so-called black box theatre called Takkelloftet. It was named after the original Takkelloftet, a building just south of the Opera 280 meters long, thus the opera maintains a connection to the marine history of its location. Everything on the stage and in the area is totally black. There are up to approximately 200 seats for this stage, in this room, some of the walls are decorated using the same Jura Gelb limestone as outdoor