Osceola County, Florida
Osceola County is a county located in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 268,685, its county seat is Kissimmee. Osceola County is included in Fla.. Metropolitan Statistical Area. Osceola County is named for the Indian leader Osceola, whose name means "Black Drink Cry ". Osceola County was created in 1887. On July 21, 1821, Florida was divided into two counties, named Escambia County to the west and St. John's County to the east. In 1824, the southern part of St. John's County became Mosquito County, with Enterprise as the county seat. In 1844, Brevard County was carved out from Mosquito County; when Florida became a state in 1845, Mosquito County was renamed Orange County. On May 12, 1887, Osceola was named a county, having been created from both Orange and Brevard Counties. Osceola County reached all the way down to Lake Okeechobee until 1917 when Okeechobee County was formed. Since the late 20th century, Osceola County has experienced a significant influx of migrants from the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the unincorporated territory of the United States, in the 2000 U.
S. Census Puerto Rican was the largest self-reported ancestry group. Osceola County is a charter county, a subdivision within the State of Florida. Voters approved the County Charter in March 1992, it took effect on October 1, 1992; the structure of County government under the charter does not depart from the structure of a County government outlined in the Florida Statutes. Osceola County Government is governed by three sets of elected officials, each of which independently directs separate branches of County Government; these include: the five-member County Commission, five separate Constitutional Officers, a number of Judicial Officers. Under State law, the County Commission is responsible for funding the budgets of all Osceola County Government, including the independently elected Constitutional Officers and Judicial Officers, as well as the Commission's own departments; each independent officer has discretion to administer her own programs. The County Commission exercises oversight only over its own departments.
Osceola County has five electoral districts each represented by a commissioner. All the commissioners compose the Board of Commissioners. There is a Commission Auditor and County Attorney. Board of County CommissionersDistrict 1 - Peggy Choudhry District 2 - Viviana Janer District 3 - Brandon Arrington District 4 - Cheryl Grieb District 5 - Fred Hawkins, Jr. County Manager Deputy County Manager Commission Auditor County Attorney Sheriff - Russell Gibson Property Appraiser - Katrina Scarborough Clerk of the Courts - Armando Ramirez Supervisor of Elections - Mary Jane Arrington Tax Collector - Bruce Vickers Public Defender - Bob Wesley Ocseola County Organizational Chart - State Attorney - Aramis Ayala According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,506 square miles, of which 1,327 square miles is land and 178 square miles is water. Orange County - north Brevard County - northeast Indian River County - east Okeechobee County - southeast Highlands County - south Polk County - west Lake County - northwest Kissimmee Gateway Airport As of the census of 2012, there were 287,416 people, 92,526 households residing in the county.
The population density was 203 people per square mile. There were 128,170 housing units at an average density of 60 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 38.2% Non-Hispanic White, 13.0% Non-Hispanic Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 3.0% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 2.5% from two or more races. 47.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, majority of which are Puerto Ricans, who account for 25.0% of the population and are the largest ancestral group in the county. 36.72% of the county population is affiliated with a religious congregation. There are 206 religious congregations in the county. 15.87% are Catholic. There were 60,977 households out of which 36.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.10% were married couples living together, 12.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.10% were non-families. 19.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.18. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.80% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 31.00% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, 11.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,214, the median income for a family was $44,061. Males had a median income of $30,034 versus $23,750 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,536. About 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.70% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over. The School District of Osceola County, Florida serves the county; the county is home to 47 schools, not including colleges. Johnson University Florida Florida Technical College Heritage University & Seminary Stetson University Valencia College - Osceola Campus Hart Memorial Central Library Veterans Memorial Library, St. Cloud Branch Buenaventura Lakes Branch Library Poinciana Branch Library Osceola Library System Kenansville Branch Library Narcoossee Library Annex
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Isaac Brock (musician)
Isaac Kristofer Brock is the lead singer, guitarist and songwriter for the American indie rock band Modest Mouse, as well as his side project band, Ugly Casanova. As a songwriter he is noted for wordplay and frequent use of metaphors, philosophical lyrics, themes of oppressive rural lifestyles, certain phrases and sayings used in the early to mid-20th century and in blue collar environments. Brock was born in Montana. During his childhood, he lived with his mother and sister in Montana and Oregon in hippie communes and churches before moving to Issaquah, Washington when he was 11 years old. Brock was home-schooled for part of his school career; when his mother's house flooded three times, she was forced to move into her future husband's trailer. Brock asked to stay behind in his own room, he lived in the flooded home. After a short period of living in a friend's basement, he moved into the "Shed" built on the land next to his mother and stepfather's trailer; as a young boy he was raised in a Christian religious sect called the Grace Gospel Church.
He told an interviewer from The Guardian that he was asked to speak in tongues when he was six: "I didn't feel the spirit of the fucking Lord rushing through me," he says. "I felt awkward. I thought.'What's the best way to make this stop?' So I ripped off some words from Mary Poppins and said them fast, the deacons are going,'Yeah, all right!'"In 1992, when he was sixteen, Brock moved to Washington, D. C. for the summer where he met his girlfriend. Brock traveled back and forth from the East Coast to Issaquah, where he took a community-college course to get his high school diploma before moving back to D. C. to New York's East Village, the Seattle area. It was there that he, Eric Judy and Jeremiah Green first started practicing music together in the Shed. Although many of his songs use religious themes, Brock describes himself as "not religious at all," adding "I'm 100 percent on the whole Christianity thing being a crock of shit, pretty much." He claims to "toy around with the whole Biblical thing," because it "just has amazing characters" and identifies himself as "pretty much" an atheist.
He has talked about the DUIs he has cutting himself onstage with a pocket knife. His songs have addressed his substance abuse, as in "The Good Times Are Killing Me." Brock admits to past drug use, now says that drugs are "just something I kind of have to fight... I just try and make sure that it's not around, or I'm not around it." In a 2003 interview with Salut Les Copains Magazine, Isaac explained how the decision to quit drugs was influenced by his experiences. "'... I was laying down in this aisle, at Powell's Books, reading an atlas when this meth-head tripped over me.'" Isaac said," ` He called me a mumbled as he wandered off. I saw a reflection of myself and didn't want to be seen like that.'" Brock is a former A&R man for the record label Sub Pop. Brock resides in Portland, Oregon. A portrait of Brock wearing lederhosen and standing in front of a giant boar hung for many years in the office of Portland mayor Sam Adams. Brock made a cameo appearance in season two of the sketch comedy show Portlandia.
His character was shown donating records to a pre-school library. After having signed Lisa Molinaro to his Glacial Pace label in 2010, with her band Talkdemonic, the pair soon entered into a relationship. Molinaro joined Modest Mouse as a multi-instrumentalist and vocalist in 2011. Brock lives in Oregon in a house with many taxidermied animals. According to High Times magazine, Brock has a daughter, born some time in 2018. Brock's main guitars are custom made by Wicks Guitars. Prior to his customs, Brock used a Westone Corsair XA1420, he is known to use various other guitars made by companies such as Peavey and Gibson. His amps are custom made by Soursound, based on a Fender SuperSix, but are modified. In October 2005, Brock started; the label is now independent. Its first signee was Minnesota songwriter Mason Jennings, followed by Love As Laughter, Marcellus Hall, Mimicking Birds, Morning Teleportation, Survival Knife, Nocturnal Habits, Mattress. Official Modest Mouse Website Glacial Pace Recordings Spin.com "Video Vault: Modest Mouse's Isaac Brock"
Modest Mouse is an American rock band formed in 1992 in Issaquah and based in Portland, Oregon. The founding members are lead singer/guitarist Isaac Brock, drummer Jeremiah Green, bassist Eric Judy. Influenced by Pavement, the Pixies, XTC, Talking Heads, the band rehearsed and recorded demos for two years before signing with small-town indie label K Records and releasing numerous singles. Since their 1996 debut This Is a Long Drive for Someone with Nothing to Think About, the band's lineup has centered on Brock and Green; the band achieved mainstream success with their fourth album Good News for People Who Love Bad News and its singles "Float On" and "Ocean Breathes Salty". Judy performed on every Modest Mouse album until his departure in 2012. Guitarist Johnny Marr joined the band in 2006, shortly following percussionist Joe Plummer and multi-instrumentalist Tom Peloso, to work on the album We Were Dead Before the Ship Even Sank. Guitarist Jim Fairchild joined the band in 2009; the band's sixth album Strangers to Ourselves was released on March 17, 2015.
The band's name is derived from a passage from the Virginia Woolf story "The Mark on the Wall", which reads, "I wish I could hit upon a pleasant track of thought, a track indirectly reflecting credit upon myself, for those are the pleasantest thoughts, frequent in the minds of modest mouse-coloured people, who believe genuinely that they dislike to hear their own praises." It was during his teenage years that Brock, who at the time was employed at the local family video store just outside Seattle, met bassist Eric Judy. Brock and Judy discovered drummer Jeremiah Green, who resided near Seattle, at a heavy metal show, at which point they decided to make music together. In 1994, at Calvin Johnson's Dub Narcotic Studios, Modest Mouse recorded its first EP, Blue Cadet-3, Do You Connect?, released by K Records. This was followed by a single, "Broke", recorded by Steve Wold under Sub Pop records at Moon Studios in Olympia, Washington. During this time, Modest Mouse recorded what would have been its first album, Sad Sappy Sucker, but constant delays caused the album to be shelved and forgotten.
It was not until 2001 that it was released. Before the band made its way into the pop music world in 2004, many of Modest Mouse's tours included stops at DIY/punk venues. After moving to Up Records, Modest Mouse released two full-length albums and other recordings including the 1996 LP This Is a Long Drive for Someone with Nothing to Think About. Steve Wold recorded and produced this album along with the next offering, Interstate 8; the 1997 album, The Lonesome Crowded West served as the band's breakthrough. The Lonesome Crowded West gained the band a cult following, is now popularly considered to be one of the defining albums of mid-1990s indie rock. During this time, Nick Kraft became involved with the task of refining the band's sound. Prior to its release, the band had recorded the EP The Fruit. In 1999, Up Records released a singles and rarities collection entitled Building Nothing Out of Something that included the entirety of Interstate 8 except for the songs "Edit the Sad Parts" and "Buttons to Push the Buttons".
In 2000, Modest Mouse released its first album on Epic Records. The album, produced by Califone's Brian Deck during five months of sessions in Chicago, was met with critical acclaim, including a 9.8/10 score from online music magazine Pitchfork Media, despite concerns about releasing material on a major label. The album would subsequently receive further acclaim; the band licensed "Gravity Rides Everything" for a Nissan Quest minivan, a move that Brock has publicly acknowledged as blatantly commercial but necessary to achieve financial stability. Regarding the commercial, Brock stated, "People who don't have to make their living playing music can bitch about my principles while they spend their parents' money or wash dishes for some asshole."In 2001, Modest Mouse released the EP Everywhere and His Nasty Parlour Tricks, a collection of unused songs from the recording sessions of The Moon and Antarctica. In 2002, the band joined Cake, De La Soul, the Flaming Lips, the Hackensaw Boys and Kinky on the Unlimited Sunshine Tour.
In March 2003, Green left the band after suffering a nervous breakdown. The same year, he and Judy appeared on Adam Forkner's first solo album, VVRSSNN. Drummer Benjamin Weikel joined the band, replacing Green, along with Murder City Devils guitarist Dann Gallucci, who had played with Modest Mouse. Prior to starting the band’s writing and recording process, Brock was devastated by the loss of "a couple of the most important people in my life," he said. Following these events, the band released their fourth album, Good News for People Who Love Bad News, on April 6, 2004; the following August, the album was certified Platinum, having two hits with "Float On" and "Ocean Breathes Salty". The album was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album that year, "Float On" was nominated for Best Rock Song; that year, Green returned to the band and Weikel returned to drumming for the Helio Sequence. The public radio program Marketplace used "Float On" as bumper music, which helped propel the group to a broader audience.
In 2006, Johnny Marr joined the band after Gallucci quit amicabl
Sharpen Your Teeth
Sharpen Your Teeth is an album by the indie rock band Ugly Casanova. Brainchild of Modest Mouse lead singer Isaac Brock, Ugly Casanova was his attempt to try new methods and genres outside the realms of Modest Mouse; the album sees Brock performing on more instruments and using a more stripped down method of recording. The story given is that an eccentric character named Edgar Graham met with Modest Mouse while on tour. During their time together and the band recorded a few songs together, Graham disappeared. In an attempt to get Graham to resurface, Brock took the recordings to Sub Pop Records, redid them in the studio, had them released as Sharpen Your Teeth. A follow-up is unlikely due to contractual obligations Brock has with Modest Mouse's label Epic Records, it has since been revealed that Brock fabricated the story himself, using Ugly Casanova as a method of writing music whilst not being recognized as Modest Mouse. "Barnacles" - 5:05 "Spilled Milk Factory" - 4:26 "Parasites" - 3:36 "Hotcha Girls" - 4:59 "" - 0:26 "Diamonds on the Face of Evil" - 3:16 "Cat Faces" - 3:36 "Ice on the Sheets" - 6:33 "Bee Sting" - 0:48 "Pacifico" - 2:31 "Smoke Like Ribbons" - 5:15 "Things I Don't Remember" - 3:29 "So Long to the Holidays" - 5:56 According to the liner notes: Ugly Casanova Tim Rutili Pall Jenkins John Orth Brian Deck Tyler Reilly In September 2015, it was announced that Sub Pop would reissue the album on black and limited edition yellow/white vinyl on October 30, along with four bonus tracks and an unreleased track from the album's recording sessions known as "They Devised a Plan to Fuck Forever"
Megabats constitute the family Pteropodidae of the order Chiroptera. They are called fruit bats, Old World fruit bats, or the genera Acerodon and Pteropus, flying foxes. Megabats are found in tropical and subtropical areas of Eurasia and Oceania. Compared to insectivorous bats, fruit bats are large, with some exceptions, do not navigate by echolocation, they rely on their keen senses of sight and smell to locate food. The family Pteropodidae was first described in 1821 by British zoologist John Edward Gray. Gray placed it within the now-defunct order Fructivorae. However, Gray's spelling was based on a misunderstanding of the suffix of "Pteropus", was subsequently changed to "Pteropididae"; the Greek word pous of Pteropus is from the stem word pod-. French biologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte was the first to use the corrected spelling Pteropodidae in 1838; as of 2011, there were 186 species of megabat. In 1875, Irish zoologist George Edward Dobson was the first to split the order Chiroptera into two suborders: Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera, which are abbreviated to megabats and microbats.
Dobson selected these names to allude to the body size differences of these two groups, with many fruit-eating bats larger than insect-eating bats. Pteropodidae was the only family. A 2001 study by Springer et al. found that the dichotomy of megabats and microbats did not reflect their evolutionary lineages, however. Instead of Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera, they proposed the new suborders Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. Yinpterochiroptera contained species included in Megachiroptera, as well as several families included in Microchiroptera: Megadermatidae, Nycteridae and Rhinopomatidae. Two superfamilies comprise Yinpterochiroptera: Rhinolophoidea—containing the above families in Microchiroptera—and Pteropodoidea, which only contains Pteropodidae. In 1917, Danish mammalogist Knud Andersen divided Pteropodidae into three subfamilies: Macroglossinae and Harpyionycterinae. However, a 1995 study found that Macroglossinae as defined was paraphyletic, meaning that the subfamily did not group all of the descendants of a common ancestor.
Subsequent publications consider Macroglossini as a tribe within Pteropodinae that contains only Macroglossus and Syconycteris. Eonycteris and Melonycteris are within other tribes in Pteropodinae, Megaloglossus was placed in Rousettinae:Myonycterini, Notopteris is of uncertain placement. Other subfamilies and tribes within Pteropodidae have undergone changes recently. In 1997, Bergmans et al. classified the Pteropodids into 6 subfamilies and 9 tribes based on their morphology, or physical characteristics: Subfamily Pteropodinae Tribe Pteropodini Tribe Macroglossini Tribe Notopterini Subfamily Nyctimeninae Subfamily Harpyionyterinae Subfamily Rousettinae Tribe Rousettini Tribe Dobsoniini Subfamily Epomophorinae Tribe Epomophorini Tribe Myonycterini Tribe Scotonycterini Tribe Plerotini Subfamily CynopterinaeA 2011 DNA study concluded that not all of these subfamilies were clades, or consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor, therefore they did not depict the relationships between megabat species.
Three of Bergmans's subfamilies received support: Cynopterinae, Harpyionycterinae, Nyctimeninae. The three other clades recovered in this study consisted of Macroglossini, Epomophorinae + Rousettini, Pteropodini + Melonycteris. A 2016 DNA study focused only on African Pteropodids challenged the 1997 Bergmans classification. All species included in Epomophorinae were moved to Rousettinae, subdivided into additional tribes; the genus Eidolon in the tribe Rousettini of Rousettinae, was moved to its own subfamily, Eidolinae. With these changes, the internal relationships of Pteropodidae are as follows: Subfamily Pteropodinae Tribe Pteropodini Tribe Macroglossini Tribe Notopterini Subfamily Nyctimeninae Subfamily Harpyionyterinae Subfamily Rousettinae Tribe Rousettini (revised—now only includes Rousettus. However, in 2018 the fossils were reexamined and determined to represent a kind of lemur. Megabats are so called for their larger weight and size, weighing up to one kilogram with wingspans reaching over one meter in length.
The tails are short if present, but are effectively absent. The digestive system is structured to a herbivorous diet, sometimes restricted to soft fruit or nectar, is shorter than those of the insectivorous microchiropterans; the tendency while resting amongst this group is to hang by the rear limb with the wings cloaking the body and its head facing forward. The length of the digestive system is short for a herbivore, as the fibrous content is separated by the action of the palate and teeth and discarded; the ingested plant material is nectar and pollen, the small seeds that are
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti