Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE, their contributions to mathematics and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to explain events of the physical world based on natural causes. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries of the Middle Ages but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age; the recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived natural philosophy, transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions. The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape.
Modern science is divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences, which study nature in the broadest sense. There is disagreement, however, on whether the formal sciences constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences. Science is based on research, conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies; the practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, health care, environmental protection. Science in a broad sense existed in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term. Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge, rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge.
In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought; this is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, public works at national scale, such as those which harnessed the floodplain of the Yangtse with reservoirs and dikes, buildings such as the Pyramids. However, no consistent conscious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in every community, other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems. Metallurgy was known in prehistory, the Vinča culture was the earliest known producer of bronze-like alloys, it is thought that early experimentation with heating and mixing of substances over time developed into alchemy. Neither the words nor the concepts "science" and "nature" were part of the conceptual landscape in the ancient near east.
The ancient Mesopotamians used knowledge about the properties of various natural chemicals for manufacturing pottery, glass, metals, lime plaster, waterproofing. The Mesopotamians had intense interest in medicine and the earliest medical prescriptions appear in Sumerian during the Third Dynasty of Ur. Nonetheless, the Mesopotamians seem to have had little interest in gathering information about the natural world for the mere sake of gathering information and only studied scientific subjects which had obvious practical applications or immediate relevance to their religious system. In the classical world, there is no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, well-educated upper-class, universally male individuals performed various investigations into nature whenever they could afford the time. Before the invention or discovery of the concept of "nature" by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows, the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god.
For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, the first people to distinguish "nature" and "convention." Natural philosophy, the precursor of natural science, was thereby distinguished as the knowledge of nature and things which are true for every community, the name of the specialized pursuit of such knowledge was philosophy – the realm of the first philosopher-physicists. They were speculators or theorists interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans; the early Greek philosophers of the Milesian school, founded by Thales of Miletus and continued by his successors A
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical types or the digital equivalents. Stored letters and other symbols are retrieved and ordered according to a language's orthography for visual display. Typesetting requires one or more fonts. One significant effect of typesetting was that authorship of works could be spotted more making it difficult for copiers who have not gained permission. During much of the letterpress era, movable type was composed by hand for each page. Cast metal sorts were composed into words lines paragraphs pages of text and bound together to make up a form, with all letter faces the same "height to paper", creating an surface of type; the form was placed in a press, an impression made on paper. During typesetting, individual sorts are picked from a type case with the right hand, set into a composing stick held in the left hand from left to right, as viewed by the setter upside down; as seen in the photo of the composing stick, a lower case'q' looks like a'd', a lower case'b' looks like a'p', a lower case'p' looks like a'b' and a lower case'd' looks like a'q'.
This is reputed to be the origin of the expression "mind your p's and q's". It might just as have been "mind your b's and d's"; the diagram at right illustrates a cast metal sort: a face, b body or shank, c point size, 1 shoulder, 2 nick, 3 groove, 4 foot. Wooden printing sorts were in use for centuries in combination with metal type. Not shown, more the concern of the casterman, is the “set”, or width of each sort. Set width, like body size, is measured in points. In order to extend the working life of type, to account for the finite sorts in a case of type, copies of forms were cast when anticipating subsequent printings of a text, freeing the costly type for other work; this was prevalent in book and newspaper work where rotary presses required type forms to wrap an impression cylinder rather than set in the bed of a press. In this process, called stereotyping, the entire form is pressed into a fine matrix such as plaster of Paris or papier mâché called a flong to create a positive, from which the stereotype form was electrotyped, cast of type metal.
Advances such as the typewriter and computer would push the state of the art farther ahead. Still, hand composition and letterpress printing have not fallen out of use, since the introduction of digital typesetting, it has seen a revival as an artisanal pursuit. However, it is a small niche within the larger typesetting market; the time and effort required to manually compose the text led to several efforts in the 19th century to produce mechanical typesetting. While some, such as the Paige compositor, met with limited success, by the end of the 19th century, several methods had been devised whereby an operator working a keyboard or other devices could produce the desired text. Most of the successful systems involved the in-house casting of the type to be used, hence are termed "hot metal" typesetting; the Linotype machine, invented in 1884, used a keyboard to assemble the casting matrices, cast an entire line of type at a time. In the Monotype System, a keyboard was used to punch a paper tape, fed to control a casting machine.
The Ludlow Typograph otherwise used hot metal. By the early 20th century, the various systems were nearly universal in large newspapers and publishing houses. Phototypesetting or "cold type" systems first appeared in the early 1960s and displaced continuous casting machines; these devices consisted of glass or film disks or strips that spun in front of a light source to selectively expose characters onto light-sensitive paper. They were driven by pre-punched paper tapes, they were connected to computer front ends. One of the earliest electronic photocomposition systems was introduced by Fairchild Semiconductor; the typesetter typed a line of text on a Fairchild keyboard. To verify correct content of the line it was typed a second time. If the two lines were identical a bell rang and the machine produced a punched paper tape corresponding to the text. With the completion of a block of lines the typesetter fed the corresponding paper tapes into a phototypesetting device that mechanically set type outlines printed on glass sheets into place for exposure onto a negative film.
Photosensitive paper was exposed to light through the negative film, resulting in a column of black type on white paper, or a galley. The galley was cut up and used to create a mechanical drawing or paste up of a whole page. A large film negative of the page is used to make plates for offset printing; the next generation of phototypesetting machines to emerge were those that generated characters on a cathode ray tube. Typical of the type were the Alphanumeric APS2, IBM 2680, I. I. I. VideoComp, Autologic APS5, Linotron 202; these machines were the mainstay of phototypesetting for much of the 1980s. Such machines could be "driven online" by a computer front-end system or took their data from magnetic tape. Type fonts were stored digitally on conventional magnetic disk drives. Computers excel at automatically correcting documents. Character-by-character, computer-aided phototypesetting was, in turn rendered obsolete in the 1980s by digital systems employing a raster image processor to render an entire page to a single high-resolution digital image, now known as imagesetting.
The first commercially successful laser imagesetter, able to make use of a raster image p
Books in the United States
As of 2018, several firms in the United States rank among the world's biggest publishers of books in terms of revenue: Cengage Learning, HarperCollins, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, McGraw-Hill Education, Simon & Schuster, Wiley. See also: English Short Title Catalogue, 15th-18th centuries; the American Library Association formed in 1876, the Bibliographical Society of America in 1904. The national Center for the Book began in 1977. Children's books: United States and List of American children's books American cookbooks See also: Bookselling in the US, Bookstores of the US, List of US booksellers' associations, Antiquarian book trade in the US, List of booksellers in BostonPopular books in the 19th century included Sheldon's In His Steps. 20th century bestsellers included Mitchell's Gone with the Wind, Carnegie’s How to Win Friends and Influence People, Spock’s Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, Harris’ I'm OK – You're OK, Woodward and Bernstein's All the President's Men. Recent bestsellers have included Brown's Da Vinci Code.
The influential "New York Times Best Seller list" first appeared in 1931. The online bookseller Amazon.com began business based in the state of Washington. BookExpo America, trade fair New York Antiquarian Book Fair Book of the Month Club, subscription business, est. 1926 Oprah's est.. 1996 Fellowship of American Bibliophilic Societies, est. 1993. Members include: Book Club of California, San Francisco, California. 1912 The Caxton Club, Illinois. 1895 Florida Bibliophile Society, Bayonet Point, Florida. 1983 The Grolier Club, New York, New York. 1884 The Ticknor Society, Massachusetts. 2002 Some notable collections of books of the United States include: American Antiquarian Society, Massachusetts Library of Congress, Washington DC The nonprofit Internet Archive began scanning books in 2004, in the same year that Google Inc. launched Google Book Search. In 2005, Google began scanning pages of volumes in several large research libraries in the US, as part of its new Google Books Library Project; the Open Content Alliance formed in 2005.
You've Got Mail, 1998 The Ninth Gate, 1999 Portlandia, 2011-, includes satirical sketches set in fictional "Women and Women First" bookstore, Oregon The End of the Tour, 2015, about a book tour Copyright law of the United States African-American book publishers in the United States, 1960–80 American literature Category:American writers Literacy in the United States Reading education in the United States Book censorship in the United States List of most challenged books in the United States One City One Book, initiated in Seattle in 1998 Media of the United States and Category:American media history Joseph Sabin. Bibliotheca Americana: a Dictionary of Books relating to America, from its Discovery to the Present Time. New York. OCLC 13972268. Publishers Weekly, ISSN 0000-0019 1872- G. W. Porter. K. Fortescue, eds.. "Bibliographies of Countries: United States of America". List of Bibliographical Works in the Reading Room of the British Museum. London. OCLC 3816244 – via Internet Archive; the New York Times Book Review, ISSN 0028-7806 1896- Charles Evans, American BibliographyCS1 maint: Date format Booklist, American Library Association, ISSN 0006-7385 1905-.
Alice Bertha Kroeger. "Bibliography: National and Trade: American". Guide to the Study and Use of Reference Books. American Library Association. Henry Walcott Boynton. Annals of American Bookselling, 1638-1850. J. Wiley & Sons – via HathiTrust. Lawrence C. Wroth, The Colonial Printer, Maine: Southworth-Anthoensen Press – via Internet Archive Bureau of the Census, Industry Division, Book Publishing Industry in the United States: 1945, Facts for Industry, OCLC 67889130 Hellmut Lehmann-Haupt; the book in America: a history of the making and selling of books in the United States. Bowker. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Cecil J. McHale, Guide to General Book Publishers in the United States, Ann Arbor, MI New York Review of Books, ISSN 0028-7504 1963- Charles A. Madison. Book Publishing in America. McGraw-Hill. OCLC 729685674. John Tebbel. History of Book Publishing in the United States. Bowker. ISBN 0835204898. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list CS1 maint: Date format Allen Kent. "Printers and Printing: the United States".
Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. 23. Marcel Dekker. ISBN 978-0-8247-2023-0. U. S. Book Publishing Yearbook and Directory, ISSN 0193-6417 1979- Michael Hackenberg, ed. Getting the Books Out: Papers of the Chicago Conference on the Book in 19th-century America, Washington DC: Center for the Book. Chapters include: "Institutional Book Collecting in the Old Northwest, 1876-1900" by Terry Belanger "Copyright and Books in Nineteenth-century America" by Alice D. Schreyer "Dissemination of Popular Books in the Midwest and Far West during the Nineteenth-century" by Madeleine B. Stern "Getting the Books Out: trade sales, parcel sales, book fairs in the nineteenth-century United States" by Michael Winship Margaret A. Blanchard, ed.. History of the Mass Media in the United States: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-91749-4. André Schif
Sweet Pickles is a series of 40 children's books by Ruth Lerner Perle, Jacquelyn Reinach, Richard Hefter and published by Holt, Rinehart & Winston, having sold over 50 million copies. The books are set in the fictional town of Sweet Pickles and are about anthropomorphic animals with different personalities and behavior. There are 26 animals—one for each letter of the alphabet; the books went out of print in the mid-1990s. The authors created Stickybear and the Strawberry Library; the series' name is a pun. The front endpapers of the books portrayed the 26 characters, the back endpapers portrayed a map of the town; the books were advertised with a catchy jingle. There existed a similar series, The Alphapets, on which Ruth Lerner Perle collaborated in the early 1990s; the Sweet Pickles books were read in various episodes of the CBS television series Captain Kangaroo. In 2012, the brand celebrated its 35th anniversary and the books are being re-released as digitally enhanced E-Books. Sound effects and character voices performed by voice actors have been added to the books.
The first 26 Books have been available at all major E-Retailers as of Summer 2012. The E-Books were developed by Bento Box Interactive. Bento Box Interactive is a spin-off company of Bento Box Entertainment; these people living in the town of Sweet Pickles are 26 animals, with their names beginning with each letter of the alphabet. Accusing Alligator Gender: Female Manager of the Tower Apartments. Always blaming everyone for things. Bashful Bear Gender: Male Quiet and shy Clever Camel Gender: Female Owns the town's Fix-It shop, she is known for being able to fix anything. Doubtful Dog Gender: Male Doubts anything and everything, including himself. Enormous Elephant Gender: Female Owner of the town's supermarket. Tends to overeat. Fearless FishGender: Female She is a town daredevil, known for her motorcycle and her special helmet, she delivers the newspaper Goof-off Goose Gender: Female Always putting off her chores for later. Healthy Hippo Gender: Male The town's physician, known for his health tips.
Imitating Iguana Gender: Female She always tries to imitate everyone else. Jealous Jackal Gender: Male Is always wanting everything that everyone else has. Kidding Kangaroo Gender: Male The town's practical joker, tends to annoy everyone with his joking. Loving Lion Gender: Male Loves everyone in town, or tries to. Moody Moose Gender: Male Very emotional, smiling one minute, crying the next. Nasty Nightingale Gender: Female Always doing nasty or hurtful things to everyone in town. Outraged Octopus Gender: Female Very outspoken, not afraid to put a stop to bad things in town. Positive Pig Gender: Female Always believes that no matter what happens, it's all for the best. Questioning Quail Gender: Female She is indecisive, is never able to make up her mind. Responsible Rabbit Gender: Male The town's banker, who never seems to deviate from his busy schedule. Smarty Stork Gender: Male The town's postmaster who seems to have an answer to every question. Temper Tantrum Turtle Gender: Female Throws a tantrum when she doesn't get her own way.
Unique Unicorn Gender: Female The oldest citizen in town, not too old for having fun. Her used catch-phrase is "Things aren't what they used to be." Vain Vulture Gender: Male Always looking at his reflection and thinks he's good looking. Worried Walrus Gender: Male Worries about everything, no matter how innocuous. X-Rating XerusGender: Female She writes signs and doesn't allow anything, she has a stamp in one hand, a pencil in the other. Yakety Yak Gender: Male The town's taxi driver, always chattering and talking. Zany Zebra Gender: Male Known for his unorthodox behavior, isn't afraid to be different. Sweet Pickles is a fictional town with animal residents, whose misadventures impart basic values and social skills to children. A variety of techniques are employed in the series, such as comedy, story-telling, active play. There was one book for each of the 26 Sweet Pickles characters, each representing a letter of the alphabet: Who Stole Alligator's Shoe?: Accusing Alligator blames everything and everybody for anything that happens.
She's not nice, she's as mean as Nightingale. Scaredy Bear: Bashful Bear is so shy he is afraid to try everything, he is known as scaredy bear. Too scared to see horror movies. Fixed by Camel: Clever Camel is practical and she can fix anything, including Kidding Kangaroo. No Kicks for Dog: Doubtful Dog doubts anything and everything, including himself. Elephant Eats the Profits: Enormous Elephant loves to eat and eat and eat and eat. Fish and Flips: Fearless Fish careens around town on her motorcycle wearing her special helmet and tries to prove how fearless she is. Goose Goofs Off: Goof-off Goose is a procrastinator, she is always putting things off. Hippo Jogs for Health: Healthy Hippo always has the latest and greatest answer for keeping fit; this week it's jogging. Me Too Iguana: Imitating Iguana doesn't see how unique she is, wants to be just like everybody else. Jackal Wants Everything: Jealous Jackal is convinced that everyone else is better off than he is. Who Can Trust You, Kangaroo?: Kidding Kangaroo does not know when to stop joking annoying all he sees.
Lion Is Down in the Dumps: Loving Lion would like to love everybody all of the time. Moody Moose Buttons: Moody Moose changes his mood. Nuts to Nightingale: Nasty Nightingale is so mean that she upsets and hurts everyone she meets, she makes everyone cry. Octopus Protests: Outraged Octopus is not afraid to say “No!” when she
Snoopy is Charlie Brown's pet beagle in the comic strip Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz, he can be found in all of the Peanuts movies and television specials, like The Peanuts Movie. Since his debut on October 4, 1950, Snoopy has become one of the most recognizable and iconic characters in the comic strip, is considered more famous than Charlie Brown in other countries; the original drawings of Snoopy were inspired by one of Schulz's childhood dogs. Snoopy is a loyal, innocent and good-natured beagle, prone to imagining fantasy lives, including being an author, a college student known as "Joe Cool", an attorney, a British World War I "flying ace" in the Royal Flying Corps, he is best known in this last persona, wearing an aviator's helmet and goggles and a scarf while carrying a swagger stick. Snoopy can be selfish and lazy at times, mocks his owner, Charlie Brown, but on the whole he shows great love and loyalty for his owner. In the 1990s comic strips, he is obsessed with cookies. All of his fantasies have a similar formula: Snoopy pretends to be something "world famous", fails.
His short "novels" are never published, his Sopwith Camel is shot down by his imaginary rival enemy, the German flying ace the "Red Baron". Schulz said of Snoopy's character in a 1997 interview: "He has to retreat into his fanciful world in order to survive. Otherwise, he leads kind of a miserable life. I don't envy dogs the lives they have to live."Snoopy imagines himself to speak, but never does, other than moans and yipping yelps and sniveling crying. He talks, but to himself, his thoughts are shown in thought balloons. In the animated Peanuts films and television specials, Snoopy's thoughts are not verbalized, his vocal effects were provided by Bill Melendez, who first played the role during Snoopy's appearances on The Tennessee Ernie Ford Show. The only exceptions are in the animated adaptions of the musicals You're a Good Man, Charlie Brown and Snoopy!!! The Musical in which Snoopy's thoughts are verbalized by Robert Towers and Cameron Clarke, respectively. Snoopy's doghouse is shown to be bigger on the inside than the outside.
It is shown in a side view, so you cannot see the inside, except for the May 8, 1960 comic strip in the second frame. Snoopy appeared on the October 4, 1950, two days after the first strip, he was called Snoopy for the first time a month on November 10. On March 16, 1952, his thoughts were first shown in a thought balloon. Snoopy first appeared upright on his hind legs on January 9, 1956, when he was shown ice-skating across a frozen lake. Despite his history of conflicted loyalties, his constant disrespect for Charlie Brown, his inability to remember his name, Snoopy has shown both love and loyalty to his owner, he joins Charlie Brown in walking out of a game of Ha-Ha Herman when Peppermint Patty insults Charlie Brown, unaware that Charlie Brown is within earshot. He helps Charlie Brown recover his autographed baseball when a bully takes it and challenges Charlie Brown to fight him for it; when Charlie Brown has to stop dedicating himself to making Snoopy happy, Snoopy replies, "Don't worry about it.
I was happy." In The Peanuts Movie, Snoopy remains loyal to Charlie Brown and caring for him throughout the movie. In early Peanuts strips, Charlie Brown was not Snoopy's owner, it was not clear who his owner was; the September 29, 1951 strip implied. Charlie Brown was first portrayed as being responsible for Snoopy in the strips of November 1 and 3, 1955. Snoopy tries to kiss Lucy on the cheek and/or nose, which Lucy, afraid of dog germs hates; these actions result in Lucy hurting Snoopy. Despite their rivalry toward each other, each seems to care for the other: in Snoopy, Come Home, Lucy is sad to see him go and is glad when he comes back home. In some strips, Lucy goes to Snoopy for help, such as in the April 16, 1961 strip, wherein a jealous Lucy and Frieda are beating each other up at Schroeder's piano, Lucy ends up winning, shakes hands with Snoopy in the end, looking injured. Snoopy commandeers Lucy's psychiatric booth either in her absence or when she ends up being the one needing help.
Snoopy tries to steal Linus' blanket, leading to slapstick fights and wild chases. Lila was Snoopy's owner before Charlie Brown. Snoopy visits her in the film Snoopy, Come Home and struggles to decide whether to stay with Charlie Brown or go back to Lila. Lila convinces him to leave Charlie Brown so he can live with her again. However, upon arriving at her residence, Snoopy is overjoyed to see a "NO DOGS ALLOWED" sign, returns to live with Charlie Brown. Peppermint Patty refers to Snoopy as a "funny looking kid with a big nose", unaware that he is a beagle. In one instance, she has him serve as her attorney in a case involving the school dress code. In the March 21
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabonidus; the earliest known form of printing as applied to paper was woodblock printing, which appeared in China before 220 AD. Developments in printing technology include the movable type invented by Bi Sheng around 1040 AD and the printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century; the technology of printing played a key role in the development of the Renaissance and the scientific revolution, laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses. Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns, used throughout East Asia, it originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before 220 A.
D. The earliest surviving woodblock printed fragments are from China, they are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty. They are the earliest example of woodblock printing on paper and appeared in the mid-seventh century in China. By the ninth century, printing on paper had taken off, the first extant complete printed book containing its date is the Diamond Sutra of 868. By the tenth century, 400,000 copies of some sutras and pictures were printed, the Confucian classics were in print. A skilled printer could print up to 2,000 double-page sheets per day. Printing spread early to Korea and Japan, which used Chinese logograms, but the technique was used in Turpan and Vietnam using a number of other scripts; this technique spread to Persia and Russia. This technique was transmitted to Europe via the Islamic world, by around 1400 was being used on paper for old master prints and playing cards. However, Arabs never used this to print the Quran because of the limits imposed by Islamic doctrine.
Block printing, called tarsh in Arabic, developed in Arabic Egypt during the ninth and tenth centuries for prayers and amulets. There is some evidence to suggest that these print blocks made from non-wood materials tin, lead, or clay; the techniques employed are uncertain and they appear to have had little influence outside of the Muslim world. Though Europe adopted woodblock printing from the Muslim world for fabric, the technique of metal block printing remained unknown in Europe. Block printing went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was introduced from China. Block printing first came to Europe as a method for printing on cloth, where it was common by 1300. Images printed on cloth for religious purposes could elaborate; when paper became easily available, around 1400, the technique transferred quickly to small woodcut religious images and playing cards printed on paper. These prints produced in large numbers from about 1425 onward. Around the mid-fifteenth-century, block-books, woodcut books with both text and images carved in the same block, emerged as a cheaper alternative to manuscripts and books printed with movable type.
These were all short illustrated works, the bestsellers of the day, repeated in many different block-book versions: the Ars moriendi and the Biblia pauperum were the most common. There is still some controversy among scholars as to whether their introduction preceded or, the majority view, followed the introduction of movable type, with the range of estimated dates being between about 1440 and 1460. Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. Movable type allowed for much more flexible processes than block printing. Around 1040, the first known movable type system was created in China by Bi Sheng out of porcelain. Bi Sheng used clay type, which broke but Wang Zhen by 1298 had carved a more durable type from wood, he developed a complex system of revolving tables and number-association with written Chinese characters that made typesetting and printing more efficient. Still, the main method in use there remained woodblock printing, which "proved to be cheaper and more efficient for printing Chinese, with its thousands of characters".
Copper movable type printing originated in China at the beginning of the 12th century. It was used in large-scale printing of paper money issued by the Northern Song dynasty. Movable type spread to Korea during the Goryeo dynasty. Around 1230, Koreans invented a metal type movable printing using bronze; the Jikji, published in 1377, is the earliest known metal printed book. Type-casting was adapted from the method of casting coins; the character was cut in beech wood, pressed into a soft clay to form a mould, bronze poured into the mould, the type was polished. The Korean form of metal movable type was described by the French scholar Henri-Jean Martin as "extremely similar to Gutenberg's". Eastern metal movable type was spread to Europe between the late 14th century and the early 15th century. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg introduced the first movable type printing system in Europe, he advanced innovations in casting type based on a matrix and hand mould, adaptations to the screw-press, the use of an oil-based ink, the creation of a softer and more absorbent paper.
Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, antimony and bismuth – the same components still used today. Johannes Gutenberg started work on his printing press around 1436, in partnership with Andreas Dritzeh