An electronic keyboard or digital keyboard is an electronic musical instrument, an electronic or digital derivative of keyboard instruments. Broadly speaking, the term electronic keyboard or just a keyboard can refer to any type of digital or electronic keyboard instrument; these include synthesizers, digital pianos, stage pianos, electronic organs and digital audio workstations. However, an electronic keyboard is more a synthesizer with a built-in low-wattage power amplifier and small loudspeakers. Electronic keyboards are capable of recreating a wide range of instrument sounds and synthesizer tones with less complex sound synthesis. Electronic keyboards are designed for home users and other non-professional users, they have unweighted keys. The least expensive models mid - to high-priced models do. Home keyboards have little, if any, digital sound editing capacity; the user selects from a range of preset "voices" or sounds, which include imitations of many instruments and some electronic synthesizer sounds.
Home keyboards have a much lower cost than professional synthesizers. Casio and Yamaha are among the leading manufacturers of home keyboards. An electronic keyboard may be called a digital keyboard, portable keyboard, or home keyboard referring to their digital-based sound generation, light-weight and portable build. In China, Japan and Southeast Asia, electronic keyboards were mistakenly referred to as an organ, due to popularity of home electronic organs in those countries and keyboards/synthesizers being considered a similar instrument. In Russia, most kinds of keyboards were often referred to as a synthesizer with no other term to distinguish them from actual digital synthesizers; the term electronic keyboard may be used to refer to a synthesizer or digital piano on colloquial usage. The major components of a typical modern electronic keyboard are: Musical keyboard: The white and black piano-style keys which the player presses, thus connecting the switches, which trigger the electronic circuits to generate sound.
Most keyboards use a keyboard matrix circuit to reduce the amount of wiring necessary. Electronic keyboards use unweighted synthesizer-style keys to save costs and reduce the weight of the instrument. In contrast, stage piano and digital pianos have weighted or semi-weighted keys, which replicate the feel of an acoustic piano. User interface system: A program which handles user interaction with controllers such as the musical keyboard and buttons; these controllers enable the user to select different instrument sounds, digital effects, other features. The user interface system includes an LCD screen that gives the user information about the synthesized sound she has selected and on tempo, effects that are activated and other features. Computerized musical arranger: A software program which produces rhythms and chords by the means of computerized commands MIDI. Electronic hardware can do this. Most computerized arrangers can play a selection of rhythms. Sound generator: A digital sound module contained within an integrated Read-only memory, capable of accepting MIDI commands and producing electronic sounds.
Electronic keyboards incorporate sample-based synthesis, but more advanced keyboards might sometimes feature physical modeling synthesis. Amplifier and speakers: an internal audio power amplifier a few watts, connected to the sound generator chip; the amplifier is connected to small, low-powered speakers that reproduce the synthesized sounds so that the listener can hear them. Less expensive instruments may have a single mono speaker. More expensive models may have two speakers producing stereo sound. Power supply: Keyboards may or may not have an internal power supply system built to the main circuit board, but most modern keyboards are equipped with an included AC adapter. MIDI terminals: Most keyboards incorporate 5-pin MIDI connections for data communication so the keyboard can be connected with either a computer or another electronic musical instrument, such as a synthesizer, a drum machine or a sound module, allowing it to be used as a MIDI controller. Not all keyboards have conventional MIDI terminals and connector.
The least expensive models may have no MIDI connections. Post-2000s keyboards may have a USB instead, which serve as both input and output in a single connection. In the 2010s, conventional MIDI in/out terminals are only available in professional-grade keyboards, stage pianos and high-end synthesizers, while low-cost home keyboards, digital pianos, budget synthesizers use USB as the only connection available. Flash memory: Some electronic keyboards have a small amount of onboard memory for storing MIDI data and/or recorded songs. External storage device: Usually available on professional-grade keyboards and synthesizers, this allows the user to store data in externally connected storage media such as ROM cartridges, floppy disks, memory cards and USB flash drives. Floppy disks and cartridges were obsolete by the early 2000s, with memory cards starting to replace them shortly afterwards. USB storage was less common at the time, but was popularized by Yamaha's lineup of workstation keyboards in 2005 and has become a standard feature since.
Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. The Scottish Great Highland bagpipes are the best known in the Anglophone world; the term bagpipe is correct in the singular or plural, though pipers refer to the bagpipes as "the pipes", "a set of pipes" or "a stand of pipes". A set of bagpipes minimally consists of an air supply, a bag, a chanter, at least one drone. Many bagpipes have more than one drone in various combinations, held in place in stocks—sockets that fasten the various pipes to the bag; the most common method of supplying air to the bag is through blowing into a blowstick. In some pipes the player must cover the tip of the blowpipe with their tongue while inhaling, but most blowpipes have a non-return valve that eliminates this need. In recent times, there are many instruments that assist in creating a clean air flow to the pipes and assist the collection of condensation. An innovation, dating from the 16th or 17th century, is the use of a bellows to supply air.
In these pipes, sometimes called "cauld wind pipes", air is not heated or moistened by the player's breathing, so bellows-driven bagpipes can use more refined or delicate reeds. Such pipes include the Irish uilleann pipes; the bag is an airtight reservoir that holds air and regulates its flow via arm pressure, allowing the player to maintain continuous sound. The player keeps the bag inflated by blowing air into it through a blowpipe or pumping air into it with a bellows. Materials used for bags vary but the most common are the skins of local animals such as goats, dogs and cows. More bags made of synthetic materials including Gore-Tex have become much more common. A drawback of the synthetic bag is the potential for fungal spores to colonise the bag because of a reduction in necessary cleaning, with the associated danger of lung infection. An advantage of a synthetic bag is that it has a zip which allows the user to fit a more effective moisture trap to the inside of the bag. Bags cut from larger materials are saddle-stitched with an extra strip folded over the seam and stitched or glued to reduce leaks.
Holes are cut to accommodate the stocks. In the case of bags made from intact animal skins, the stocks are tied into the points where the limbs and the head joined the body of the whole animal, a construction technique common in Central Europe; the chanter is the melody pipe, played with two hands. All bagpipes have at least one chanter. A chanter can be bored internally so that the inside walls are parallel for its full length, or it can be bored in a conical shape; the chanter is open-ended, so there is no easy way for the player to stop the pipe from sounding. Thus most bagpipes share a legato sound where there are no rests in the music; because of this inability to stop playing, technical movements are used to break up notes and to create the illusion of articulation and accents. Because of their importance, these embellishments are highly technical systems specific to each bagpipe, take many years of study to master. A few bagpipes have closed ends or stop the end on the player's leg, so that when the player "closes" the chanter becomes silent.
A practice chanter is a chanter without bag or drones, allowing a player to practice the instrument and with no variables other than playing the chanter. The term chanter is derived from the Latin cantare, or "to sing", much like the modern French word chanteur; the note from the chanter is produced by a reed installed at its top. The reed may be a double reed. Double reeds are used with both conical- and parallel-bored chanters while single reeds are limited to parallel-bored chanters. In general, double-reed chanters are found in pipes of Western Europe while single-reed chanters appear in most other regions. Most bagpipes have at least one drone: a pipe, not fingered but rather produces a constant harmonizing note throughout play. Exceptions are those pipes which have a double-chanter instead. A drone is most a cylindrically-bored tube with a single reed, although drones with double reeds exist; the drone is designed in two or more parts with a sliding joint so that the pitch of the drone can be adjusted.
Depending on the type of pipes, the drones may lie over the shoulder, across the arm opposite the bag, or may run parallel to the chanter. Some drones have a tuning screw, which alters the length of the drone by opening a hole, allowing the drone to be tuned to two or more distinct pitches; the tuning screw may shut off the drone altogether. In most types of pipes, where there is one drone it is pitched two octaves below the tonic of the chanter. Additional drones add the octave below and a drone consonant with the fifth
Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. It employs distorted and low-tuned guitars, played with techniques such as palm muting and tremolo picking, deep growling vocals, powerful drumming featuring double kick and blast beat techniques, minor keys or atonality, abrupt tempo and time signature changes, chromatic chord progressions; the lyrical themes of death metal may invoke slasher film-stylized violence, occultism, Lovecraftian horror, mysticism, philosophy, science fiction, politics, they may describe extreme acts, including mutilation, torture, rape and necrophilia. Building from the musical structure of thrash metal and early black metal, death metal emerged during the mid-1980s. Bands such as Venom, Celtic Frost and Kreator were important influences on the genre's creation. Possessed, Necrophagia, Obituary and Morbid Angel are considered pioneers of the genre. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, death metal gained more media attention as popular genre. Niche record labels like Combat and Roadrunner began to sign death metal bands at a rapid rate.
Since death metal has diversified, spawning several subgenres. Melodic death metal combines death metal elements with those of the new wave of British heavy metal. Technical death metal is a complex style, with uncommon time signatures, atypical rhythms, unusual harmonies and melodies. Death-doom combines the deep growled vocals and double-kick drumming of death metal with the slow tempos and melancholic atmosphere of doom metal. Deathgrind and pornogrind mix the complexity of death metal with the intensity and brevity of grindcore. Deathcore combines death metal with metalcore traits. Death'n' roll combines death metal's growled vocals and distorted, detuned guitar riffs with elements of 1970s hard rock and heavy metal. English heavy metal band Venom, from Newcastle, crystallized the elements of what became known as thrash metal, death metal and black metal, with their 1981 album Welcome to Hell, their dark, blistering sound, harsh vocals, macabre, proudly Satanic imagery proved a major inspiration for extreme metal bands.
Another influential band, formed in 1981. Although the band was a thrash metal act, Slayer's music was more violent than their thrash contemporaries Metallica and Anthrax, their breakneck speed and instrumental prowess combined with lyrics about death, violence and Satanism won Slayer a rabid cult following. According to AllMusic, their third album Reign in Blood inspired the entire death metal genre, it had a big impact on genre leaders such as Death and Morbid Angel. Possessed, a band that formed in the San Francisco Bay Area during 1983, is described by Allmusic as "connecting the dots" between thrash metal and death metal with their 1985 debut album, Seven Churches. While attributed as having a Slayer influence and former members of the band had cited Venom and Motörhead, as well as early work by Exodus, as the main influences on their sound. Although the group had released only two studio albums and an EP in their formative years, they have been described by music journalists and musicians as either being "monumental" in developing the death metal style, or as being the first death metal band.
Earache Records noted that "the likes of Trey Azagthoth and Morbid Angel based what they were doing in their formative years on the Possessed blueprint laid down on the legendary Seven Churches recording. Possessed arguably did more to further the cause of'Death Metal' than any of the early acts on the scene back in the mid-late 80's." During the same period as the dawn of Possessed, a second influential metal band was formed in Orlando, Florida: Death. Called Mantas, Death was formed in 1983 by Chuck Schuldiner, Kam Lee, Rick Rozz. In 1984 they released their first demo entitled Death followed by several more; the tapes circulated through the tape trader world establishing the band's name. With Death guitarist Schuldiner adopting vocal duties, the band made a major impact on the scene; the fast minor-key riffs and solos were complemented with fast drumming, creating a style that would catch on in tape trading circles. Schuldiner has been credited by Allmusic's Eduardo Rivadavia for being recognized as the "Father of Death Metal".
Death's 1987 debut release, Scream Bloody Gore, has been described by About.com's Chad Bowar as being the "evolution from thrash metal to death metal", "the first true death metal record" by the San Francisco Chronicle. Along with Possessed and Death, other pioneers of death metal in the United States include Macabre, Massacre, Cannibal Corpse,Obituary, Post Mortem. By 1989, many bands had been signed by eager record labels wanting to cash in on the subgenre, including Florida's Obituary, Morbid Angel and Deicide; this collective of death metal bands hailing from Florida are labeled as "Florida death metal". Morbid Angel pushed the genre's limits both musically and lyrically, with the release of their debut album Altars of Madness in 1989; the album "redefined what it meant to be heavy while influencing an upcoming class of brutal death metal." Death metal spread to Sweden in the late 1980s, flourishing with pioneers such as Carnage, God Macabre, Entombed and Unleashed. In the early 1990s, the rise of melodic death metal was recognized, with bands such as Dark Tranquillity, At the Gates, In Flames.
Following the original death metal innovators, new subgenres began by the end of the decade. British band Napalm Death became associated with death metal, in particular, on their 1990 album Harmony Corruption; this alb
A death growl is a vocal style employed by death metal singers but used in other heavy metal styles, such as metalcore. Death growls are sometimes criticized for their "ugliness". However, the harshness of death growls is in keeping with death metal's abrasive music style and dark and obscene subject matter; the progressively more forceful enunciation of metal vocals has been noted from heavy metal to thrash metal to death metal. Death metal, in particular, is associated with growled vocals. Death metal, which tends to be lyrically and thematically darker and more morbid than other forms of metal, features vocals that attempt to evoke chaos and misery by being "usually deep and unintelligible". Natalie Purcell notes, "Although the vast majority of death metal bands use low, beast-like indiscernible growls as vocals, many have high and screechy or operatic vocals, or deep and forcefully sung vocals." Sociologist Deena Weinstein has noted of death metal: "Vocalists in this style have a distinctive sound and snarling rather than singing the words.
Making ample use of the voice distortion box." Death growls are known as death metal vocals, guttural vocals, death grunts, growled vocals, unclean vocals, harsh vocals, jocularly as Cookie Monster vocals. Voice teachers teach different techniques, but long-term use will still take its toll if done incorrectly – these techniques are designed to reduce rather than eliminate harm; however it has been shown by many vocalists that long-term use of these techniques can occur without causing harm to the voice. The techniques involve using the diaphragm and air pressure on the throat to form the sound, similar to forms of overtone singing; as a person tries to squeeze their throat, the sound gets less intense. Some vocalists tend to use too much pressure on their throats and thus have vocal cord problems/defects; the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre in The Netherlands reported in June 2007 that, because of the increased popularity of growling in the region, it was treating several patients who had performed the techniques incorrectly for edema and polyps on the vocal folds.
Growled vocals may have been a part of Viking music. In the 10th century, Arab-Spanish Sefardi Jewish merchant Abraham ben Jacob visited Denmark and commented on the local music as follows: "Never before I have heard uglier songs than those of the Vikings in Slesvig; the growling sound coming from their throats reminds me of dogs howling, only more untamed."In Hildegard of Bingen's 12th-century allegorical morality play Ordo Virtutum, the role of the Devil uniquely does not employ melodic singing, but is performed in a manner which Hildegard specifies as strepitus diaboli and, taken to mean a low and growling voice. In 1966, The Who released the song "Boris the Spider", which featured death growls sung in basso profondo by bass player John Entwistle; this can be considered one of the first uses of death growl in popular music. The use of growling, "monstrous" vocals for ominous effect in rock music can be traced at least as far back as "I Put a Spell on You" by Screamin' Jay Hawkins in 1956.
Mike Oldfield's "Tubular Bells, Part Two," from 1973, contains a section from 11:55 to 16:30 featuring extensive use of guttural vocals which are close in style to the modern "death growl", however this effect was created by manipulating tape speed. In 1969 and the early 1970s, the song "21st Century Schizoid Man" by King Crimson is notable for its distorted vocals sung by Greg Lake; the songs "Iron Man" by Black Sabbath and "One of These Days" by Pink Floyd both contain brief passages of ominously growled, low-pitched vocals against a heavy background of rock riffs. Other examples are Roger Waters' screams in some Pink Floyd songs, such as "Take Up Thy Stethoscope and Walk", "Careful with That Axe, Eugene". Punk rock bands like The Clash, Stiff Little Fingers, 999 regularly employed gruff sounding vocals, however nothing like the death growl common in metal music today. On the other hand, the low, aggressive pitch of Lemmy from Motörhead was not unlike the growl and can be thought to presage the current style.
Kate Bush employed raspy guttural vocals on the track Get Out of My House from her 1982 album The Dreaming The advent of the growl as it is used today coincided with the gradual emergence of death metal, it is thus difficult to pinpoint a specific individual as the inventor of the technique. Different vocalists developed the style over time; the band Death with its two vocalists—initially Kam Lee and subsequently Chuck Schuldiner—have been cited as among the first. Possessed are considered by some to be one of the earliest bands to employ growls, as are Necrophagia and Master. Around the same time, bands such as Hellhammer, with Tom G. Warrior on vocals, seminal act Massacre employed a variation of the growl. Massacre vocalist Kam Lee's growls were guttural, low pitched and unintelligible compared to other death metal vocalists of the mid 1980s; this influenced the British Grindcore band Napalm Death. The vocalists from Napalm Death—consecutively Nic Bullen, Lee Dorrian and Mark "Barney" Greenway—further developed the style in the late 1980s, adding more aggression and deeper guttural elements to it, while speeding up delivery of the lyrics.
Another vocalist who deepened his voice into the growling used today on death metal and grindcore was Chris Barnes, ori
Facebook, Inc. is an American online social media and social networking service company. It is based in California, it was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies along with Amazon and Google; the founders limited the website's membership to Harvard students and subsequently Columbia and Yale students. Membership was expanded to the remaining Ivy League schools, MIT, higher education institutions in the Boston area. Facebook added support for students at various other universities, to high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in this requirement, depending on local laws; the name comes from the face book directories given to American university students. Facebook held its initial public offering in February 2012, valuing the company at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.
It began selling stock to the public three months later. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements; the Facebook service can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers and smartphones. After registering, users can create a customized profile revealing information about themselves. Users can post text and multimedia of their own devising and share it with other users as "friends". Users can use various embedded apps, receive notifications of their friends' activities. Users may join common-interest groups. Facebook had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018. It receives prominent media coverage, including many controversies such as user privacy and psychological effects; the company has faced intense pressure over censorship and over content that some users find objectionable. Facebook offers other services, it independently developed Facebook Messenger. Zuckerberg built; the site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person".
Facemash attracted 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours. The site was sent to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days by Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy; the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam, he uploaded all art images to a website, each of, accompanied by a comments section shared the site with his classmates. A "face book" is a student directory featuring personal information. In 2003, Harvard had only a paper version along with private online directories. Zuckerberg told the Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard.... I think. I can do it better than they can, I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is available... the benefits are many."
Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook" located at thefacebook.com. Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed; the three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares. Membership was restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia and Yale. and to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, Washington and successively most universities in the United States and Canada.
In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. In June 2004, the company moved to California, it received its first investment that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com for US$200,000. The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation. In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005. Eligibility expanded to include employees including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address. By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages. Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced th
Waves Are Dancing
Waves Are Dancing is the second studio album by Ukrainian folk metal band Holy Blood, released in 2005. The band's and their label's best selling album, Waves saw the band moving further towards the melodic folk metal style while still keeping the black metal elements the thin and high-pitched shrieking vocals. In 2010, HM Magazine ranked it #88 on the Top 100 Christian metal albums of all-time list; the musical output is dominated by recorder melodies and keyboards, there are ethereal female vocals and folk choir singing. Waves opens with the sound of ocean waves followed by acoustic guitars and joined by a flute; the first song after the intro, "To Heaven" emphasizes on fast riffing, blast beats, shrieking vocals, group vocals. "The Spring" opens with the sound of insects and a flute, only to have the brutal guitars, double bass, aggressive vocals shatter the calmness. "Jerusalem" includes some choir-type vocals, some growled vocals, chanted male vocals to go along with the black vocals of earlier songs.
"I Flow Toward the Fate" starts in an intense manner, a little bit into the song have been incorporated some subtle female vocals. "In the Last Battle" incorporates subtle female vocals as well. "In the Last Battle" integrates dueling chanting, black vocals and male choir vocals to complement the female vocals. This tracks has some peculiar guitar work and has a virtuoisic guitar solo. A music video was shot for "The Spring," and the video was included for the album as a bonus multimedia disc; the album was critically acclaimed. In a 2005 interview, the band's label Bombworks Records' owner claimed that Waves are Dancing is the label's best selling release; the title track was praised for its stylish and epic output. Certain critics considered the band to be on the same level of quality as some of the leading groups in the folk metal genre. However, the vocals of Fedor Buzilevich received most of the criticism: one critic wrote that the vocals, "although personal, are intolerable", claimed that the album would have been more enjoyable without the thin shrieking.
Matt Morrow of The Whipping Post wrote that "Holy Blood gave us a great first impression with The Wanderer, but my opinion is that Waves are Dancing is a much more solid album with better quality songs and a more mature sound." All music by Holy Blood. Fedor Buzilevich – lead vocals, flute Sergiy Nagorniy – lead guitar Artem Stupak – rhythm guitar Eugeniy Tsesaryov – bass Dmitry Titorenko – drums Vera Knyazyova – keyboards, vocals
Unblack metal is a religious philosophy within black metal whose artists are either directly against the Satanism prevalent in black metal, or promote Christianity in their lyrics and imagery. Unblack metal artists are controversial within the black metal subculture, because black metal's pioneers those of the Second Wave, were anti-Christian, it is suggested that Christianity contradicts black metal's dark nature and the individualistic and misanthropic ideals of many bands. The exact beginning of the unblack metal movement is disputed; the Australian band Horde's 1994 album Hellig Usvart brought the concept and the term holy unblack metal to media attention, while the Norwegian band Antestor was formed in 1990 as a death/doom act and released its demo The Defeat of Satan in 1991, before they began shifting towards black metal on their 1994 album Martyrium. Unblack metal is viewed as an ideological genre derived from black metal that focuses on Christian lyrical themes. Unblack metal incorporates black metal's fast tempos, shrieked vocals distorted guitars, tremolo picking, double-kick drumming and unconventional song structure.
Garry Sharpe-Young's 2001 encyclopedia A-Z of Black Metal states that "opping the lot are Christian'Unblack' acts who for all intents and purposes look like, sound like and employ the imagery of Black Metal whilst hidden in the unpenetrable vocal growls and distortions are the proclamations of Jesus Christ". Some unblack metal artists such as Horde write lyrics; this remained a dominant theme throughout most of the 1990s. In the late 1990s, groups began to write more philosophical and ideological lyrics; these include stories of conversion, struggles with faith and the darker side of living a Christian life. Unblack metal bands may justify their use of the black metal style with reasons ranging from genuine appreciation of the musical genre, to evangelization towards the anti-Christian black metal scene, i.e. "bringing light into darkness". The 1970s occult boom influenced many early heavy metal bands lyricwise. In the early 1980s, several bands dealt such themes in a more extreme manner, including Venom, Mercyful Fate and Bathory.
During the mid-1980s, heavy metal music divided into many subgenres, black metal emerged as one of them, taking its name from a Venom album of the same title. In the 1980s, the term was imprecise with regards to musical attributes referring to all metal bands with Satanic lyrical themes. Although Christian metal bands had existed since the late 1970s, a clear contrast with black metal occurred in 1984 with the doom metal band Trouble who released the Bible-based album Psalm 9. Metal Blade Records marketed them as "white metal" as opposed to black metal. Singer Eric Wagner has explained that "back in the early 1980s, all the metal was kind of Satanic," and he has implied that Metal Blade invented the term in the first place: "I think it was more like Metal Blade trying to be cute or something, with everything being called black metal, so why not call us white metal, a bunch of crap." While there were Christian extreme metal bands in the late 1980s and early 1990s, Christian black metal did not exist until 1994.
The Australian band Horde's debut album Hellig Usvart and released in 1994, is credited for being the first unblack metal album, although the sole member "Anonymous" has stated that, "there were similar bands prior to Horde in Norway," referring to Antestor who formed in 1990. Prior to 1993, they were a death-doom band called Crush Evil. Antestor's debut album Martyrium was recorded in 1994 and marked a shift into unblack metal territory. However, due to issues with the band's record label at the time, the album was not released until 2000. Euronymous of Mayhem threatened to force Crush Evil to disband, but was murdered by Varg Vikernes in 1993. Hellig Usvart caused great controversy in the black metal scene, death threats were sent to Nuclear Blast Records headquarters demanding them to release the members' names, it was discovered that the only actual member was the former Mortification/Paramaecium drummer Jayson Sherlock from Australia. The term "unblack metal" was derived from "holy unblack metal", a wordplay on Darkthrone's "unholy black metal" term.
Media became interested in this controversy. On 6 June 1995, the Norwegian weekly newspaper Morgenbladet published an article about the phenomenon of unblack metal, describing Horde's album as "an abrupt satire of the Norwegian black metal movement". Antestor was interviewed, with vocalist Kjetil Molnes stating "We identify ourselves as black metal as a music style, not black metal as an ideology or belief."The Swedish band Admonish was formed around 1994 or 1995, was the first unblack metal band in Sweden. They gained notoriety for calling their style "Christian black metal" on their website; this caused some debate in the metal underground and soon an anti-Admonish website was started. While the band did not release any material until 2005, the magazine Metal Hammer called Admonish "one of the leading Christian black metal bands" in a 1990s issue which focused on black metal. After 1995, influenced by Horde, other unblack metal bands started releasing their first demos; the Indonesian group Kekal soon became associated with the movement.
Eduardo Rivadavia of AllMusic wrote that "Kekal are one of the first heavy metal bands from Jakarta, Indonesia, to make international inroads, they may just be the first to profess Christian