2010 Hungarian presidential election
An indirect presidential election was held in Hungary on 29 June 2010. The Prime Minister's nominee Pál Schmitt was elected by an absolute majority. Following the Hungarian parliamentary election, 2010, Fidesz came out with an overwhelming majority of seats. With a two-thirds majority requirement needed to elect the president, Fidesz was expected to win since it had the necessary numbers. Nominations were due by midday of 25 June 2010. Fidesz nominated speaker of parliament Pál Schmitt on 23 June 2010. Jobbik intended to nominate Krisztina Morvai, Politics Can Be Different wished to nominate incumbent President László Sólyom, but neither had enough MPs to do so. Once elected, the new president would take office on 5 August 2010. Most Hungarians said. Forty-eight percent of respondents said that the president's independence from the government is among the most important considerations for the office, though 46 percent said it is important that the president be able to work well with the prime minister.
However, polling suggested that should the election be a popular one, Schmitt would get 32 percent of the vote, outgoing President László Sólyom would get 24 percent, Socialist Party nominee András Balogh would get 14 percent and Jobbik's Krisztina Morvai would get 6 percent. Twenty-four percent said they would not vote for any of the candidates or declined to answer the question. Several Fidesz MP's expressed concern over the electoral outcome saying that though Schmitt was "a charmer and capable person," they didn't feel he was right for the job because any mistake he may make would reflect poorly on Prime Minister Viktor Orbán, who had selected him; the President of the European Parliament Jerzy Buzek welcomed the election of Schmitt
The Movement for a Better Hungary known as Jobbik, is a Hungarian political party with radical and nationalist roots. At its beginnings the party described itself as "a principled and radically patriotic Christian party", whose "fundamental purpose" is the protection of "Hungarian values and interests." The party has been described as an "anti-Semitic organization" by The Independent and a "neo-Nazi party" by the president of the European Jewish Congress. Philosopher Ágnes Heller, a Holocaust survivor, says that Jobbik has never been a neo-Nazi party, although she described them as far-right and racist. Since 2014 Jobbik has started to re-define itself as a conservative people's party and changed the controversial elements of its communication. According to the party's Manifesto on the guidelines of a future government, Jobbik represents all Hungarian citizens and people and aims to build a modern national identity, while rejecting the chauvinism of the 20th century. After the Hungarian parliamentary elections on 8 April 2018, the party polled 1,092,806 votes, securing 19.06% of the total, making them Hungary's second largest party in the National Assembly.
The Movement for a Better Hungary more goes under its abbreviated name Jobbik, in fact a play on words. The word jobb in Hungarian has two meanings, the adjective for "better" and the direction "right"; this is similar to the English phrase "right choice", which could mean both "a choice on the right side of the political spectrum" and "a correct choice". The party describes itself as a modern conservative people's party. Earlier, the party defined itself as "a principled and radically patriotic Christian party", whose "fundamental purpose" was the protection of "Hungarian values and interests". Since Jobbik has implemented major changes in its program and policies, due to its growing popularity and broadening supporter groups. Earlier Jobbik's ideology has been described by political scholars as right-wing populist, whose strategy "relies on a combination of ethno-nationalism with anti-elitist populist rhetoric and a radical critique of existing political institutions". For its part, Jobbik rejects the common classification of the political spectrum in right.
The party sees itself as patriotic. The party has always rejected the term'far-right', instead labeled itself as'radical right-wing', it has criticised media companies for labelling them as'far-right' and has threatened to take action towards those who do. In 2014, the Supreme Court of Hungary ruled that Jobbik cannot be labeled "far-right" in any domestic radio or television transmissions, as this would constitute an opinion because Jobbik has refuted the'far-right' label. Since 2014 the party has not used the "radical right-wing" term to define itself, stating that Jobbik aims to represent all Hungarian people, not the right-wing of the political spectrum. At its beginnings, Jobbik described itself as rejecting "global capitalism" and European Union, because they felt disappointed with the conditions of the Hungarian EU accession. While the party also opposed Zionism, the party's leader, Gabor Vona, stated in February 2017 that he has "never questioned Israel’s existence" and that the party supports a two-state solution to the Israel-Palestine conflict.
In July 2018, the party voted in the European Parliament in favour of greater security coordination with Israel. At some level the party adheres to Pan-Turanism, an ideology that asserts that Hungarians originate from the Ural–Altaic race; the party supports closer ties with Turkey, with Vona criticizing the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt and praising Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan as a "very strong leader". According to Gábor Vona, the president of Jobbik, after 2014 the party has grown out of its "adolescence" and reached its adulthood. Since Jobbik defines itself as a national people's party and has changed its views on the European Union, while in the internal politics the party has started to emphasize the opening towards the different groups of the Hungarian society. At the same time Gábor Vona distanced the party from "wrong statements" that it had made in the past. Jobbik, according to the recent remarks from the party, does not regard ideological issues as a primary goal anymore but puts focus on the elimination of social tensions and controversies as well as on the fight against the growing corruption in the public sphere and administration.
In summer of 2016 Gábor Vona, the president of Jobbik, declared a new style of politics, called "modern conservativism" with the aim to exceed the pointless debates between the right- and the left-wing and to induct cooperation among Hungarians with different political backgrounds. According to Vona, the goal of "modern conservativism" is, beyond politics, to build a society that can, by its proactivity, be a basis for a more democratic political functioning; as a historical precedent, he referred to the ideals of István Széchenyi, considered as one of the greatest statesmen of the Hungarian history. Since its formation, Jobbik had a critical stance towards the European Union; the party regarded the accession of Hungary a failure, looked on the EU as an organization that did not serve the interests of the Hungarians. However in this period, the party did not refuse the idea of a radically reformed European confederation. After the Brexit and the continuous debates on the future of the European Union, the party has reassessed its views on the EU and started to emphasize that by adequate policies a reform of the EU, that
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
2014 Hungarian parliamentary election
The 2014 Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 6 April 2014. This parliamentary election was the 7th since the 1990 first multi-party election; the result was a victory for the Fidesz–KDNP alliance, preserving its two-thirds majority, with Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister. It was the first election under the new Constitution of Hungary which came into force on 1 January 2012; the new electoral law entered into force that day. For the first time since Hungary's transition to democracy, the election had a single round; the voters elected 199 MPs instead of the previous 386 lawmakers. After the 2010 parliamentary election, Fidesz won a landslide victory, with Viktor Orbán being elected as Prime Minister; as a result of this election, his government was able to alter the National Constitution, as he garnered a two-thirds majority. The government was able to write a constitutional article that favored traditional marriages, as well as one that lowered the number of MPs elected from 386 to 199.
Orbán and his government remained popular in the months leading to the election. This was because of high GDP growth, increased industrial output, a growth in the tourism sector. In 2010, a new government led by Fidesz initiated a drafting process for a new constitution. On 18 April 2011, parliament approved the constitution on a 262–44 vote, with Fidesz and their Christian Democrat coalition partners in favor and Jobbik opposed; the Hungarian Socialist Party and Politics Can Be Different, citing the ruling party's unwillingness to compromise on issues and their inability to change the outcome, boycotted both the drafting process and the vote. On 25 April, President Pál Schmitt signed the document into law, it entered into force on the first day of 2012; the enactment came halfway through Hungary's six-month Presidency of the Council of the European Union. A new electoral law was passed on 23 December 2011; the Fidesz and its coalition partner Christian Democratic People's Party unilaterally approved the new bill, using their two-thirds majority, ignoring the left-wing opposition's protests, while Jobbik voted against it.
The NGO Political Capital noted in its analysis that the newly-adopted law "shifts the election system towards the majoritarian principle", which may be the cause of possible future "disproportional" outcomes in favour of individual parliamentary seats, resulting an emergence of voting method like first-past-the-post voting. Political Capital emphasized that this tendency "however not be interpreted as an injury to democracy." On 26 November 2012, Fidesz used its supermajority to pass legislation revising eligibility for voting. Accordingly, the citizens, who had to right to vote, should have been involved in a pre-registration process no than 15 days before polling day "in order to spare politically indifferent citizens from the election campaign", as Fidesz officials said. According to critics, this process would have made it harder to vote the party out of power, while threatened free suffrage with the determination of the time limit. Four members of the Democratic Coalition, including its leader, former Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány, had participated in a week-long hunger strike, protesting against the proposed voter registration plan, while President János Áder, who took the office after the resignation of Schmitt and himself was a Fidesz member, sent the bill to the Constitutional Court.
On 3 January 2013, the Court ruled that the law curtailed voting rights to an "unjustifiable degree", due to the fact that the requirement for voters to register prior to going to the polls applies to every voter. The court argued the limitation of campaign advertisings into the public broadcasting, the proposed bans of political advertisements on cinemas during the campaign as well as prohibition of opinion polls in the last six days of the campaign "threatens" the freedom of speech in Hungary, in addition to its unconstitutional nature. After the court's decision the head of the Fidesz parliamentary group, Antal Rogán, announced his party "would drop the proposal" and they will not introduce it for the 2014 parliamentary election, despite the fact that some party members had considered just before the court's ruling, possible that constitutional amendments can take place in order to pass the bill. After the 2010 local elections, held on 3 October, Katalin Szili, former Speaker of the National Assembly founded the Social Union party and became its first chairperson.
As a result, she quit the Hungarian Socialist Party and the party's parliamentary group, continuing her work as a formally independent MP. In October 2011, a group of members of the MSZP around former Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány left the party and founded the Democratic Coalition after one year of tension and disagreement. Ten members of the parliament, including Gyurcsány left the MSZP parliamentary group and became independent MPs. Gyurcsány said the cause of secession was that the MSZP "had failed in its efforts to transform itself", his former Socialist colleagues condemned his step, as Gyurcsány signed a statement not to quit the party, swearing allegiance to the new party leadership just one week before leaving. At the introduction of his new movement, Gyurcsány called the new constitution as "illegitimate", charged that all branches of power such as the Constitutional Court, Chief Prosecutor Péter Polt and other units of the judicial system "exclusively serve Viktor Orbán". Since its establishment and 2010 national election, LMP was kept under pressure by the Hungarian Socialist Party to achieve some kind of electoral compromise and cooperation against Viktor Orbá
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, normal, or desirable supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics, or tradition. Hierarchy and inequality may be viewed as natural results of traditional social differences or the competition in market economies; the term right-wing can refer to "the conservative or reactionary section of a political party or system". The political terms "Left" and "Right" were first used during the French Revolution and referred to seating arrangements in the French parliament: those who sat to the right of the chair of the parliamentary president were broadly supportive of the institutions of the monarchist Old Regime; the original Right in France was formed as a reaction against the "Left" and comprised those politicians supporting hierarchy and clericalism. The use of the expression la droite became prominent in France after the restoration of the monarchy in 1815, when it was applied to the Ultra-royalists.
The people of English-speaking countries did not apply the terms "right" and "left" to their own politics until the 20th century. Although the right-wing originated with traditional conservatives and reactionaries, the term extreme right-wing has been applied to movements including fascism and racial supremacy. From the 1830s to the 1880s, there was a shift in the Western world of social class structure and the economy, moving away from nobility and aristocracy towards capitalism; this general economic shift toward capitalism affected centre-right movements such as the British Conservative Party, which responded by becoming supportive of capitalism. In the United States, the Right includes both social conservatives. In Europe, economic conservatives are considered liberal and the Right includes nationalists, nativist opposition to immigration, religious conservatives, a significant presence of right-wing movements with anti-capitalist sentiments including conservatives and fascists who opposed what they saw as the selfishness and excessive materialism inherent in contemporary capitalism.
The political term right-wing was first used during the French Revolution, when liberal deputies of the Third Estate sat to the left of the president's chair, a custom that began in the Estates General of 1789. The nobility, members of the Second Estate sat to the right. In the successive legislative assemblies, monarchists who supported the Old Regime were referred to as rightists because they sat on the right side. A major figure on the right was Joseph de Maistre, who argued for an authoritarian form of conservatism. Throughout the 19th century, the main line dividing Left and Right in France was between supporters of the republic and supporters of the monarchy. On the right, the Legitimists and Ultra-royalists held counter-revolutionary views, while the Orléanists hoped to create a constitutional monarchy under their preferred branch of the royal family, a brief reality after the 1830 July Revolution; the centre-right Gaullists in post-World War II France advocated considerable social spending on education and infrastructure development as well as extensive economic regulation, but limited the wealth redistribution measures characteristic of social democracy.
In British politics, the terms "right" and "left" came into common use for the first time in the late 1930s in debates over the Spanish Civil War. The Right has gone through five distinct historical stages: the reactionary right sought a return to aristocracy and established religion; the meaning of right-wing "varies across societies, historical epochs, political systems and ideologies". According to The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, in liberal democracies, the political right opposes socialism and social democracy. Right-wing parties include conservatives, Christian democrats, classical liberals, nationalists and on the far-right. Roger Eatwell and Neal O'Sullivan divide the right into five types: reactionary, radical and new. Chip Berlet argues that each of these "styles of thought" are "responses to the left", including liberalism and socialism, which have arisen since the 1789 French Revolution; the reactionary right looks toward the past and is "aristocratic and authoritarian".
The moderate right, typified by the writings of Edmund Burke, is tolerant of change, provided it is gradual and accepts some aspects of liberalism, including the rule of law and capitalism, although it sees radical laissez-faire and individualism as harmful to society. The moderate right promotes nationalism and social welfare policies. Radical right is a term developed after World War II to describe groups and ideologies such as McCarthyism, the John Birch Society and the Republikaner Party. Eatwell stresses that this use has "major typological problems" and that the term "has been applied to democratic developments"; the radical right includes various other subtypes. Eatwell argues that the extreme right' has four traits: "1) anti-democracy; the New Right consists of the liberal conservatives, who stress small government, free markets and individual initiative. Other authors make a distinction between the cent
President of Hungary
The President of the Republic of Hungary is the head of state of Hungary. The office has a ceremonial role, but may veto legislation or send legislation to the Constitutional Court for review. Most other executive powers, such as selecting Government ministers and leading legislative initiatives, are vested in the office of the Prime Minister instead; the current President of the Republic is János Áder, who took office on 10 May 2012. The Constitution of Hungary provides that the National Assembly elects the President of the Republic for a term of five years, renewable only once. According to Article 12 of the Constitution, the President, when exercising their function, can not exercise "a public, economic or social function or mission", they may not engage in "any other paid professional activity, may not receive remuneration for any other activity, other than activities subject to copyright". According to Article 10, any Hungarian citizen aged at least 35 years may be elected president. Called by the President of the National Assembly, the presidential election must be held between 30 and 60 days before the end of the term of the incumbent president, or within 30 days if the office is vacated.
The Constitution states that candidatures must be "proposed in writing by at least one fifth of the members of the National Assembly". They shall be submitted to the President of the National Assembly before the vote. A member of the National Assembly may nominate only one candidate; the secret ballot must be completed within 2 consecutive days at the most. In the first round, if one of the candidates obtains more than 2/3 of the votes of all the members of the National Assembly, the candidate is elected. If no candidate obtains the required majority, the second round is organized between the two candidates who obtained the most votes in the first round; the candidate obtaining the majority of the votes cast in the second round shall be elected president. If the second round is unsuccessful, a new election must be held after new candidatures are submitted. According to Article 11, the President of the Republic must take an oath before the National Assembly; the oath is as follows: Én, hogy Magyarországhoz és annak Alaptörvényéhez hű leszek, jogszabályait megtartom és másokkal is megtartatom.
Isten engem úgy segéljen! I, swear to be faithful to Hungary and its Constitution, to respect and enforce its legal rules by others. May God help me! According to the Constitution, "the Head of State of Hungary is the President of the Republic who expresses the unity of the nation and oversees the democratic functioning of State institutions". Commander-in-Chief of the Hungarian Defence Force, he "represents Hungary", "may participate in the sittings of the National Assembly and take the floor", "initiate laws" or a national referendum, it determines the date of elections, participates in "decisions concerning particular states of law", convokes the National Assembly after the elections, can dissolve it, check the conformity of a law by the Constitutional Court. It "proposes the names of the Prime Minister, the President of the Curia, the Principal Public Prosecutor and the Commissioner of Fundamental Rights", the sole nominator of judges and the President of the Budget Council. With the "countersignature of a member of the government", he appoints the ministers, the president of the National Bank, the heads of independent regulatory entities, university professors, mandate ambassadors and university rectors", "awards decorations and titles".
But it can refuse these appointments "if the statutory conditions are not fulfilled or if it concludes for a well-founded reason that there would be a serious disturbance to the democratic functioning of the State institutions". With the agreement of the government, it "exercises the right of individual pardon", "decides matters of organization of territory" and "cases concerning the acquisition and deprivation of citizenship". According to Article 12 of the Constitution, "the President of the Republic is inviolable". All criminal proceedings against them can only take place after the end of their mandate. However, Article 13 of the Constitution provides for the removal of the President; this can only take place if the President "intentionally violates the Constitution or another law in the performance of their duties, or if they commit an offense voluntarily". In such a case, the motion for removal should be proposed by at least 1/5 of the members of the National Assembly; the indictment procedure is initiated by a decision taken by secret ballot by a majority of 2/3 of the members of the National Assembly.
Subsequently, in proceedings before the Constitutional Court, it is determined whether the President should be relieved of their duties. If the Court establishes the responsibility of the President, the President shall be removed from office. According to Article 12, the term of office of the President of the Republic ends: When the term of office is completed. According to Article 12, the National Assembly must decide by a majority of 2/3 of
Government of Hungary
The Government of Hungary exercises executive power in Hungary. It is led by the Prime Minister, is composed of various ministers, it is the principal organ of public administration. The Prime Minister is elected by the National Assembly and serves as the head of government and exercises executive power; the Prime Minister is the leader of the party with the most seats in parliament. The Prime Minister has the exclusive right to dismiss them. Cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees, survive a vote in the National Assembly, be formally approved by the President; the cabinet is responsible to the parliament. Since the fall of communism, Hungary has a multi-party system; the last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 8 April 2018. This parliamentary election was the 8th since the 1990 first multi-party election; the result was a victory for Fidesz–KDNP alliance, preserving its two-thirds majority with Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister.
It was the second election according to the new Constitution of Hungary which went into force on 1 January 2012. The new electoral law entered into force that day; the voters elected 199 MPs instead of previous 386 lawmakers. List of cabinets since 1989: Following the Hungarian parliamentary election, 2014, the current prime minister, Viktor Orbán is serving with his government since 6 June 2014; the Minister of Interior of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet and the head of the Ministry of Interior. The current foreign minister is Sándor Pintér. Between 2006 and 2010 the ministry was split into the Ministry of Local Government and the Ministry of Justice and Law. In 2010 the prior organization was restored. Ministry of Local Government Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet and the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the current foreign minister is Péter Szijjártó. The Minister of National Economy of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet and the head of the Ministry of National Economy.
The current minister of national economy is Mihály Varga. Hungarian Government Third Republic Politics of Hungary Foreign relations of Hungary