John Connolly (bishop)
John Connolly, O. P. was an Irish-born prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. A Dominican friar, he served as the second Bishop of New York from 1814 until his death in 1825. John Connolly was born in Ireland. Dominican historian Victor O'Daniel reports that Connolly's family had a tenant farm on the Hill of Slane. After receiving his early education in his native country, he continued his studies in Belgium, entered the Order of Friars Preachers, more known as the Dominican friars, at an early age, he was subsequently sent to Rome, where he was ordained to the priesthood on September 24, 1774. Among the various capacities he filled in Rome, Connolly served as a professor at the Dominican convent of St. Clement, of which institution he became prior, he was an agent of the Irish bishops, saved the English and Irish colleges—as well as his own convent and library—from being plundered by the French invaders. On October 4, 1814, Connolly was appointed the second Bishop of New York in the United States by Pope Pius VII.
He received his episcopal consecration on the following November 6 from Cardinal Cesare Brancadoro, with Archbishops Giovanni Francesco Guerrieri and Giovanni Marchetti serving as co-consecrators, in Rome. Connolly stopped in Ireland on the way. At St. Kieran's College in Kilkenny, he attempted to recruit priests for his new diocese, he did not reach New York until November 24, 1815. He arrived on board the Sally from a transatlantic trip that took all of sixty-seven days, Connolly had been presumed lost at sea. Since the first Bishop of New York, R. Luke Concanen, O. P. had been impeded from sailing for New York due to the embargo of Europe in place, Connolly was the first bishop of the diocese to minister to his flock. He is described as having been a "small-sized man" and a person of more than ordinary mildness and gentleness of character, who would travel the city on foot to attend to the poor and sick. According to historian Peter Guilday, "It may well be doubted if, in the entire history of the Catholic Church in the United States, any other bishop began his episcopal life under such disheartening conditions."
At the time of Connolly's arrival, the diocese covered all of New York and part of New Jersey, with four priests, three churches, 15,000 Catholics, most of them Irish, along with some English and Germans. There were three churches: St. Peter's on Barclay Street, St. Patrick's on Mulberry St. and St. Mary's in Albany. During his tenure, he erected churches in Utica and Rochester, founded an orphanage, introduced the Sisters of Charity, he traveled over 1,000 miles on horseback and bringing the sacraments to half-starved immigrants from Ireland, who were building the Erie Canal. Connolly died on February 6, 1825 at age 74, he is interred at St. Patrick's Old Cathedral He body was displaced to a vault by the trustees to make way for that of an influential layman, it was not rediscovered until the building was renovated in 1976. Terence Cardinal Cooke had it reinterred in St. Patrick's Old Cathedral
Broadway is a road in the U. S. state of New York. Broadway runs from State Street at Bowling Green for 13 mi through the borough of Manhattan and 2 mi through the Bronx, exiting north from the city to run an additional 18 mi through the municipalities of Yonkers, Hastings-On-Hudson, Dobbs Ferry and Tarrytown, terminating north of Sleepy Hollow in Westchester County, it is the oldest north–south main thoroughfare in New York City, dating to the first New Amsterdam settlement, although most of it did not bear its current name until the late 19th century. The name Broadway is the English-language literal translation of Brede weg. Broadway in Manhattan is known as the heart of the American theatre industry, is used as a metonym for it. Broadway was the Wickquasgeck Trail, carved into the brush of Manhattan by its Native American inhabitants. Wickquasgeck means "birch-bark country" in the Algonquian language; this trail snaked through swamps and rocks along the length of Manhattan Island. Upon the arrival of the Dutch, the trail soon became the main road through the island from Nieuw Amsterdam at the southern tip.
The Dutch explorer and entrepreneur David Pietersz. de Vries gives the first mention of it in his journal for the year 1642. The Dutch named the road "Breede Weg". Although current street signs are labeled as "Broadway", in a 1776 map of New York City, Broadway is explicitly labeled "Broadway Street". In the mid-eighteenth century, part of Broadway in what is now lower Manhattan was known as Great George Street. An 1897 City Map shows a segment of Broadway as Kingsbridge Road in the vicinity of what is now the George Washington Bridge. In the 18th century, Broadway ended at the town commons north of Wall Street, where traffic continued up the East Side of the island via Eastern Post Road and the West Side via Bloomingdale Road; the western Bloomingdale Road would be widened and paved during the 19th century, called "Western Boulevard" or "The Boulevard" north of the Grand Circle, now called Columbus Circle. On February 14, 1899, the name "Broadway" was extended to the entire Broadway/Bloomingdale/Boulevard road.
Broadway once was a two-way street for its entire length. The present status, in which it runs one-way southbound south of Columbus Circle, came about in several stages. On June 6, 1954, Seventh Avenue became southbound and Eighth Avenue became northbound south of Broadway. None of Broadway became one-way, but the increased southbound traffic between Columbus Circle and Times Square caused the city to re-stripe that section of Broadway for four southbound and two northbound lanes. Broadway became one-way from Columbus Circle south to Herald Square on March 10, 1957, in conjunction with Sixth Avenue becoming one-way from Herald Square north to 59th Street and Seventh Avenue becoming one-way from 59th Street south to Times Square. On June 3, 1962, Broadway became one-way south of Canal Street, with Trinity Place and Church Street carrying northbound traffic. Another change was made on November 10, 1963, when Broadway became one-way southbound from Herald Square to Madison Square and Union Square to Canal Street, two routes – Sixth Avenue south of Herald Square and Centre Street, Lafayette Street, Fourth Avenue south of Union Square – became one-way northbound.
At the same time as Madison Avenue became one-way northbound and Fifth Avenue became one-way southbound, Broadway was made one-way southbound between Madison Square and Union Square on January 14, 1966, completing its conversion south of Columbus Circle. In 2001, a one-block section of Broadway between 72nd Street and 73rd Street at Verdi Square was reconfigured, its easternmost lanes, which hosted northbound traffic, were turned into a public park when a new subway entrance for the 72nd Street station was built in the exact location of these lanes. Northbound traffic on Broadway is now channeled onto Amsterdam Avenue to 73rd Street, makes a left turn on the three-lane 73rd Street, a right turn on Broadway shortly afterward. In August 2008, two traffic lanes from 42nd to 35th Streets were taken out of service and converted to public plazas. Additionally, bike lanes were added on Broadway from 42nd Street down to Union Square. Since May 2009, the portions of Broadway through Duffy Square, Times Square, Herald Square have been closed to automobile traffic, except for cross traffic on the Streets and Avenues, as part of a traffic and pedestrianization experiment, with the pavement reserved for walkers and those lounging in temporary seating placed by the city.
The city decided that the experiment was successful and decided to make the change permanent in February 2010. Though the anticipated benefits to traffic flow were not as large as hoped, pedestrian injuries dropped and foot traffic increased in the designated areas; the current portions converted into pedestrian plazas are between West 47th Street and West 42nd Street within Times and Duffy Squares, between West 35th Street and West 33rd Street in the Herald Square area. Additionally, portions of Broadway in the Madison Square and Union Square have been narrowed, allowing ample pedestrian plazas to exist along the side of the road. In May 2013, the NYCDOT decided to redesign Broadway between 35th and 42nd Streets for the second time in five years, owing to poor connections between pedestrian plazas and decreased vehicular traffic. With the new redesign, the bike lane is now on the right side of the street.
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Terrazzo is a composite material, poured in place or precast, used for floor and wall treatments. It consists of chips of marble, granite, glass, or other suitable material, poured with a cementitious binder, polymeric, or a combination of both. Metal strips divide sections, or changes in color or material in a pattern. Additional chips may be sprinkled atop the mix. After it is cured it is ground and polished smooth or otherwise finished to produce a uniformly textured surface. Although the history of terrazzo can be traced back to the ancient mosaics of Egypt, its predecessors come from Italy; the form of terrazzo used today derives from the 18th century pavimento alla Veneziana and the cheaper seminato. Pavimento alla Veneziana had workers place marble fragments next to each other in a mortar base. Terrazzo is related to the technique seminato for which workers tossed larger marble chips into the cement, ground and polished. Together, these methods create the generic form of terrazzo that involves pieces of stone that are bonded to a cement bed.
Terrazzo was first introduced in the United States in the late 1890s, but did not achieve popularity until the 1920s. Until it was hand polished with a long handled tool called a galera. Due to its likelihood of cracking, terrazzo was used at a small scale in comparison to the large expanses we see today. Two inventions resulted in its rise in popularity: the electric grinding machine; the invention of divider strips by L. Del Turco and Bros. in 1924 contained the cracking of terrazzo by allowing the material greater space to expand and shrink after installation. This invention made terrazzo a durable and reliable material in addition to allowing for further design work within the floor. Installers use the dividing strips as guides; the electric grinding machine and mechanization of the production process cut down on costs and time making terrazzo an affordable flooring option. Art Deco and Moderne styles from the 1920s to 1940s favored terrazzo with the dividers allowing for straight or curved lines that increased the decorative potential.
The popularity of terrazzo lead to an increase in installers in the 1920s. The National Terrazzo and Mosaic Organization was formed in 1931 to further professionalize the practice of terrazzo installation. One of the most well known examples of terrazzo is the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Created in 1958, the walk honors celebrities in the form of a terrazzo star that displays their name. Archaeologists have adopted the term terrazzo to describe the floors of early Neolithic buildings in Western Asia constructed of burnt lime and clay, colored red with ochre and polished; the embedded crushed limestone gives it a mottled appearance. The use of fire to produce burnt lime, used for the hafting of implements, predates production of fired pottery by a thousand years. In the early Neolithic settlement of Çayönü in eastern Turkey about 90 m2 of terrazzo floors have been uncovered; the floors of the PPN B settlement of Nevalı Çori measure about 80 m2. They are 15 cm thick, contain about 10–15% lime; these floors are impenetrable to moisture and durable, but their construction involved a high input of energy.
Gourdin and Kingery estimate that the production of any given amount of lime requires about five times that amount of wood. Recent experiments by Affonso and Pernicka have shown that only twice the amount is needed, but that would still amount to 4.5 metric tonnes of dry wood for the floors in Çayönü. Other sites with terrazzo floors include Nevalı Çori, Göbekli Tepe and Kastros. Terrazzo artisans create walls, floors and panels by exposing marble chips and other fine aggregates on the surface of finished concrete or epoxy-resin. Much of the preliminary work of terrazzo workers is similar to that of cement masons. Marble-chip, cementitious terrazzo requires three layers of materials. First, cement masons or terrazzo workers build a solid, level concrete foundation, 3 to 4 inches deep. After the forms are removed from the foundation, workers add a 1 inch layer of sandy concrete. Before this layer sets, terrazzo workers embed metal divider strips in the concrete wherever there is to be a joint or change of color in the terrazzo.
For the final layer, terrazzo workers blend and place into each of the panels a fine marble chip mixture that may be color-pigmented. While the mixture is still wet, workers toss additional marble chips of various colors into each panel and roll a weighted roller over the entire surface. In the 1970s, polymer-based terrazzo is called thin-set terrazzo. Polyester and vinyl ester resins were used as the binder resin. Today, most of the terrazzo installed is epoxy terrazzo; the advantages of this material over cementitious terrazzo include a wider selection of colors, 1⁄4 to 3⁄8 inch installation thickness, lighter weight, faster installation, impermeable finish, higher strength, less susceptibility to cracking. The disadvantage of epoxy resin–based terrazzo is that it can only be used for interior, not exterior, applications. Epoxy-based terrazzo will lose its color and peel when used outdoors, whereas cement-based terrazzo will not. In addition to marble aggregate blends, other aggregates have been used, such as mother of pearl and abalone shell.
Recycled aggregates include: glass, porcelain and metal. Shapes and medallions can be fabricated on site by bending divider strips, or off site by water-jet cutting. Whe
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York is a Latin Catholic archdiocese in New York State. It encompasses the boroughs of Manhattan, the Bronx and Staten Island in New York City and the counties of Dutchess, Putnam, Sullivan and Westchester in New York; the Archdiocese of New York is the second-largest diocese in the United States, encompassing 296 parishes that serve around 2.8 million Catholics in addition to hundreds of Catholic schools and charities. The Archdiocese operates the well-known St. Joseph's Seminary referred to as Dunwoodie; the Archdiocese of New York is the metropolitan see of the ecclesiastical province of New York which includes the suffragan dioceses of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, Rockville Centre and Syracuse. The Latin name of the archdiocese is Archidioecesis Neo-Eboracensis, the corporate name is Archdiocese of New York, it publishes Catholic New York, the largest of its kind in the United States. The ordinary of the Archdiocese of New York is an archbishop whose cathedra is The Cathedral of St. Patrick in Manhattan, New York.
The Archbishop of New York is the metropolitan of the larger Ecclesiastical Province of New York, which consists of the eight dioceses that comprise the State of New York with the exception of a small portion that belongs to the Province of Hartford. As such, the metropolitan archbishop possesses certain limited authority over the suffragan sees of the province. R. Luke Concanen became the first Bishop of the Diocese of New York in 1808; the current Archbishop of New York is Timothy Michael Cardinal Dolan. The territory that now makes up the Archdiocese of New York was part of the Prefecture Apostolic of United States of America, established on November 26, 1784. On November 6, 1789, the Prefecture was elevated to a diocese and the present territory of the Archdiocese of New York fell under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Baltimore, headed by the first American bishop, John Carroll. At the time, there was a dearth of priests to minister to the large territory; the first Roman Catholic Church in New York City was St. Peter's on Barclay Street.
The land was purchased from Trinity Church with community donations and a gift of 1,000 pieces of silver from King Charles III of Spain. The church was built in the federal style. Among its regular worshippers were Venerable Pierre Toussaint. On April 8, 1808, the Holy See raised Baltimore to the status of an Archdiocese. At the same time, the dioceses of Philadelphia, Boston and New York were created as suffragan dioceses of Baltimore. At the time of its establishment, the Diocese of New York covered all of the State of New York, as well as the northeastern New Jersey counties of Sussex, Morris, Somerset and Monmouth. Since the first appointed bishop could not set sail from Italy due to the Napoleonic blockade, a Jesuit priest, Anthony Kohlmann, was appointed administrator, he was instrumental in organizing the diocese and preparing for the Cathedral of St. Patrick to be built on Mulberry Street. Among the difficulties faced by Catholics at the time was anti-Catholic bigotry in general and in the New York school system.
A strong Nativist movement sought to keep Catholics out of the country and to prevent those present from advancing. On April 23, 1847 territory was taken from the diocese to form the dioceses of Buffalo; the diocese was elevated to an archdiocese on July 19, 1850. On July 29, 1853 territory was again taken from the diocese, this time to form the Diocese of Newark and the Diocese of Brooklyn; the Bahamas were made a part of the Archdiocese of New York, establishing the first permanent Catholic presence, on July 25, 1885 due to their proximity to New York's busy port. Churches and schools were constructed and administered until The Bahamas' eventual dissociation to form the Prefecture Apostolic of Bahama on March 21, 1929. By 1932, The Bahamas were no longer under the spiritual jurisdiction of New York; as of 2014 the Catholic population of the Archdiocese is 2,634,624. These Catholics were served by 913 priests of religious orders. Laboring in the diocese were 359 permanent deacons, 1,493 religious brothers, 3,153 nuns.
For comparison, in 1929, the Catholic population of the Archdiocese was 1,273,291 persons. There were 1,314 clergy ministering in 444 churches. There were 170,348 children in Catholic educational and welfare institutions. In 1959, there were 7,913 nuns and sisters ministering in the Archdiocese, representing 103 different religious orders. January 4 - Memorial of Elizabeth Ann Seton, native of New York January 5 - Memorial of John Neumann, ordained a priest of New York February 18 - Anniversary of Archbishop Dolan's elevation to Cardinal by Pope Benedict XVI February 23 -Anniversary of Archbishop Dolan's appointment to the Archdiocese by Pope Benedict XVI March 17 - Solemnity of Saint Patrick, Patronal Feast of both the Archdiocese and the Cathedral April 8 - Anniversary of the establishment of the Diocese of New York April 15 - Anniversary of Archbishop Dolan's Installation May 5 - Memorial of Blessed Edmund Rice, founder of the Irish Christian Brothers July 14 - Memorial of Saint Kateri Tekakwitha, born near Albany in territory, once part of the Diocese of New York September 5 - Memorial of Saint Teresa of Calcutta, who did missionary work in the Bronx October 5 - Anniversary of Dedication of the Cathedral of Saint Patrick November 13 - Memorial of Frances Xavier Cabrini, mi
Edward Michael Egan was an American Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Bridgeport from 1988 to 2000, as Archbishop of New York from 2000 to 2009, he was elevated to the cardinalate in 2001. The third of four children, Edward Egan was born in Oak Park, the son of Thomas J. and Genevieve Egan. His father was a sales manager and his mother was a homemaker and former teacher. In 1943, Egan and his older brother contracted polio, causing them to miss two years of school while convalescing at home, he graduated from Archbishop Quigley Preparatory Seminary, where he had been student body president and editor of the student newspaper and yearbook, in 1951. Egan entered St. Mary of the Lake Seminary, from where he obtained a Bachelor's degree in philosophy, he was sent to continue his formation for the priesthood at the Pontifical North American College in Rome, taking his academic courses in theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. Egan was ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop Martin John O'Connor on December 15, 1957, earned a Licentiate of Sacred Theology from the Gregorian in 1958.
Upon his return to the United States, he served as associate pastor of Holy Name Cathedral, assistant chancellor for the Archdiocese, secretary to Cardinal Albert Gregory Meyer until 1960. During this time, he taught evening classes for potential Catholic converts and served as a chaplain at Wesley Memorial Hospital. In 1960, Egan returned to the Gregorian in Rome to pursue his doctoral studies. During his studies, he became assistant vice-rector and repetitor of moral theology and canon law at the Pontifical North American College, he received his doctorate in canon law summa cum laude in 1964. Egan, returning to the Archdiocese of Chicago, became secretary to John Cardinal Cody; as his secretary, he "saw Cardinal Cody take the heat for good causes" such as the Civil Rights Movement and desegregation. Egan was appointed Secretary of the Archdiocesan Commissions on Ecumenism and Human Relations, sitting on several interfaith organizations and establishing dialogue with Jews and Protestants alike.
From 1969 to 1971, he served as co-chancellor for the Archdiocese. Egan once again returned to Rome in 1971, when Pope Paul VI named him an auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. While serving on the Roman Rota, he was a professor of canon law at the Gregorian and of civil and criminal procedure at the Studio Rotale. Egan served as a commissioner of the Congregation for the Sacraments and Divine Worship and a consultor of the Congregation for the Clergy as well. In 1982, he was chosen to be one of the six canonists who reviewed the new Code of Canon Law with Pope John Paul II before its promulgation in 1983. On April 1, 1985, Egan was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of New York and Titular Bishop of Allegheny by John Paul II, he received his episcopal consecration on the following May 22 from Cardinal Bernardin Gantin, with Archbishop John Joseph O'Connor and Bishop John Richard Keating serving as co-consecrators, in Rome. He selected as his episcopal motto: "In the Holiness of the Truth"; as an auxiliary, he served as Vicar for Education in the Archdiocese from 1985 to 1988.
Egan was named the third Bishop of Bridgeport, Connecticut, on November 5, 1988. He was formally installed on December 14 of that year. During his tenure, he oversaw the reorganization of Catholic schools, he raised $45 million for diocesan schools through a fundraising campaign, "Faith in the Future." The diocesan Catholic Charities under his tenure became the largest private social service agency in Fairfield County. With regard to the 12 Hispanic parishes in the diocese, he brought Spanish priests to Bridgeport from Colombia, he established a home for retired priests and a school for children with special needs. Within the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, he served as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Pontifical North American College and of the Committee on Science and Human Values, he was a member of the Committee on Canonical Affairs, the Committee on Education, the Committee on National Collections, the Committee on Nominations, served two terms on the Conference's Administrative Board.
Egan was appointed Archbishop of New York on May 11, 2000, installed in that position on June 19, 2000. Soprano Renée Fleming sang at the ceremony. On becoming archbishop of New York, Egan made it a priority to encourage vocations to the priesthood. Besides private initiatives, each year on the Feast of St. Joseph he offered a Mass to which high school and college men attracted to the priestly vocation were invited, he appointed two priests as vocation directors to aid him in promoting the vocation to the priesthood. He was elevated to the Cardinalate by Pope John Paul II at the Consistory of February 21, 2001 becoming the Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Ioannis et Pauli; this was the same title held by all of the archbishops of New York since Cardinal Francis Spellman in 1946 was given the title by Pope Pius XII, who had held it himself when he was Cardinal Pacelli. A main concern of the Cardinal was the archdiocesan seminary in New York. In March 2001, he announced his decision to restructure the seminary faculty.
A Staten Island pastor, Peter Monsignor Finn, was chosen as seminary rector. Among others, the Cardinal added Avery Dulles, S. J. Sister Sara Butler, M. S. B. T. and Father John Augustine DiNoia, O. P. to the faculty. The minor seminary in Riverdale, New York was moved to the campus of the major seminary. To maintain regular con
96th Street (Manhattan)
96th Street is a major two-way street on the Upper East Side and Upper West Side sections of the New York City borough of Manhattan, running from the East River at the FDR Drive to the Henry Hudson Parkway at the Hudson River. It is one of the 15 hundred-foot-wide crosstown streets mapped out in the Commissioner's Plan of 1811 that established the numbered street grid in Manhattan. East and West 96th Street are separated by Central Park, whose West 96th Street pedestrian gate is called "Gate of all Saints" and whose East 96th Street gate is called "Woodmans Gate". A sunken roadway through the park called the 97th Street Transverse road or Transverse Road #4, connects the East and West Sides via 96th and 97th Streets. On Manhattan's West Side, 96th Street is the northern boundary of the New York City steam system, the largest such system in the world, which pumps 30 billion pounds of steam into 100,000 buildings south of the street. From the FDR Drive to First Avenue, 96th Street is the northern border of Zone A, a flood evacuation zone.
When Hurricane Sandy hit New York City in 2012, residents on neighboring blocks found out they, were in a flood zone, the city revised its zone borders outward. Residents of the public housing projects as well as high rise apartments in the zone were left without power, although it was restored to most of the area after a day or two. 96th Street rises after Second Avenue, climbs from Third Avenue to Lexington Avenue – called "Carnegie Hill" – before leveling off at Central Park. The street is the traditional dividing line between Yorkville and the Upper East Side to the south and Spanish Harlem or East Harlem to the north. East 96th Street near Second and Third Avenues, underwent significant gentrification in the late 1980s. By 2005, a wave of speculation for Harlem real estate pushed a corridor of luxury condos and coops up First Avenue from 96th Street as well; the construction of the Second Avenue Subway, which built a station on the street, has disrupted lives and businesses along 96th Street, but its opening in 2017 is expected to further increase residential and commercial development in East Harlem, as well as increasing housing value in Yorkville.
The Islamic Cultural Center of New York opened at Third Avenue and East 96th Street in 1991. Like all mosques, it is oriented toward Mecca, which required a slight shift in orientation from the neighboring buildings. On the West Side, 96th Street runs through a natural valley passing under Riverside Drive and leading down to the former Stryker's Bay, it is regarded as the southern border of the nearby Manhattan Valley area. Broadway at West 96th Street was home to two ornate theaters – the Riverside and the Riviera / Japanese Gardens – each designed in the early 20th century, both gone by 1976. In the mid 1980s, parts of West 96th Street began to convert from rental units to cooperative housing. At the time, crime remained a problem; as late as the early 1990s, drug dealing was rampant on 96th Street between Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue, Larry Hogue, a homeless crack addict known as the "Wild Man of 96th Street" terrorized the street for several years until being forced into treatment and extended state custody.
In 2009, Hogue escaped from custody and returned to West 96th Street before being found and returned to treatment. The decision by the city to continue locating homeless and drug addicted residents in large former Single Room Occupancy hotels within a several block radius of West 96th Street and Broadway continues to be controversial. Homelessness continues to be visible in the area; the rapid development of Columbus Avenue from 96th to 100th Street around 2009 resulted in a burgeoning concentration of large, national chain stores. New York City Subway service is available at these stations: 96th Street, serving the 1, 2, 3 trains at Broadway 96th Street, serving the A, B, C trains at Central Park West 96th Street, serving the 4, 6, <6> trains at Lexington Avenue 96th Street, serving the N, Q, R trains at Second AvenueThe M96 bus line serves a majority of the street, the M106 serves the western portion of the street and connects it with East 106th Street. In the 1989 film When Harry Met Sally...
Harry and Sally are seen buying their Christmas tree from The Plant Shed, a long-established neighborhood store on West 96th Street, near Broadway. A year no longer a couple, Sally is seen buying her tree there and trudging home alone with the tree dragging behind her. In the How I Met Your Mother episode "Last Time in New York", Ted references some misspelled graffiti on the intersection of 96th Street and Amsterdam Avenue; the graffiti read, "YOUR A P***S", which Ted corrects to "YOU'RE A P***S". In the 2008 musical "In the Heights"' opening song In the Heights, Usnavi references 96th street when he breaks the fourth wall, while describing how to get to Washington Heights, Manhattan. In the 1973 movie "The Seven-Ups" a famous car chase scene with actor Roy Scheider includes a sequence filmed on West 96th Street from Central Park West to West End Avenue. Notes Media related to 96th Street at Wikimedia Commons