J. C. Penney
J. C. Penney Company, Inc. is an American department store chain with 864 locations in 49 U. S. states and Puerto Rico. In addition to selling conventional merchandise, J. C. Penney stores house several leased departments such as Sephora, Seattle's Best Coffee, auto centers, optical centers, portrait studios, jewelry repair. Most J. C. Penney stores are located in suburban shopping malls. Before 1966, most of its stores were located in downtown areas; as shopping malls became more popular during the half of the 20th century, J. C. Penney followed the trend by relocating and developing stores to anchor the malls. In more recent years, the chain has continued to follow consumer traffic, echoing the retailing trend of opening some freestanding stores, including some next door to competitors. Certain stores are located in power centers; the company has been an Internet retailer since 1998. It has streamlined its catalog and distribution while undergoing renovation improvements at store level. James Cash Penney was born in Missouri.
After graduating from high school, Penney worked for a local retailer. He relocated to Colorado at the advice of a doctor, hoping that a better climate would improve his health. In 1898, Penney went to work for Thomas Callahan and Guy Johnson, who owned dry goods stores called Golden Rule stores in Colorado and Wyoming. In 1899, Callahan sent Penney to Evanston, Wyoming, to work with Johnson in another Golden Rule store. Callahan and Johnson asked Penney to join them in opening a new Golden Rule store. Using money from savings and a loan, Penney joined the partnership and moved with his wife and infant son to Kemmerer, Wyoming, to start his own store. Penney opened the store on April 14, 1902, he participated in the creation of two more stores and purchased full interest in all three locations when Callahan and Johnson dissolved their partnership in 1907. In 1909, Penney moved his company headquarters to Salt Lake City, Utah to be closer to banks and railroads. By 1912, Penney had 34 stores in the Rocky Mountain States.
In 1913, all stores were consolidated under the J. C. Penney banner; the so-called "mother store", in Kemmerer, opened as the chain's second location in 1904. It still operates, as of 2018, albeit with shorter hours than many other locations, is closed on Sundays. In 1913, the company was incorporated under the new name, J. C. Penney Company, with William Henry McManus as a co-founder. In 1914, the headquarters was moved to New York City to simplify buying and transportation of goods. By 1917, the company operated 175 stores in 22 states in the United States. J. C. Penney acquired The Crescent Corset Company in 1920, the company's first wholly owned subsidiary. In 1922, the company's oldest active private brand, Big Mac work clothes, was launched; the company opened its 500th store in 1924 in Hamilton, James Cash Penney's hometown. By the opening of the 1,000th store in 1928, gross business had reached $190,000,000. In 1940, Sam Walton began working at a J. C. Penney in Iowa. Walton went on to found future retailer Walmart in 1962.
By 1941, J. C. Penney operated 1,600 stores in all 48 states. In 1956, J. C. Penney started national advertising with a series of advertisements in Life magazine. J. C. Penney credit cards were first issued in 1959. In 1962, J. C. Penney entered discount merchandising with the acquisition of General Merchandise Company which gave them The Treasury stores; these discount operations proved unsuccessful and were shuttered in 1981. In 1963, J. C. Penney issued its first catalog; the company operated in-store catalog desks in eight states. The catalogs were distributed by the Milwaukee Catalog distribution center; the company dedicated its first full-line, shopping center department store in 1961. This store was located in Audubon, New Jersey; the second full-line shopping center store was dedicated, at King of Prussia Plaza, in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania in late 1962. Those stores expanded the lines of merchandise and services that an average J. C. Penney carried to include appliances, sporting goods, garden merchandise, beauty salons, portrait studios, auto parts, auto centers.
J. C. Penney expanded to include Hawaii in the 1960s; the company opened stores in Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska in 1962. The Penney Building in Anchorage collapsed and was damaged beyond repair in the 1964 Alaska earthquake; the company rebuilt the store as a shorter building on a larger footprint and followed up by building Anchorage's first public parking garage, which opened in 1968. In 1966, J. C. Penney "finished" its national expansion with the opening of its Honolulu, Hawaii store, at Ala Moana Center; the Penney store at Plaza Las Américas mall in San Juan, Puerto Rico, which opened in 1968, featured three levels and 261,500 square feet. It was the largest J. C. Penney until a 300,000-square-foot store was dedicated at Greater Chicago's Woodfield Mall in 1971; the Woodfield Mall store served as the largest in the chain until a replacement store opened at Plaza Las Américas in 1998, 350,000 square feet in size. In 1969, the company acquired Thrift Drug, a chain of drugstores headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
It acquired Supermarkets Interstate, an Omaha-based food retailer which operated leased departments in J. C. Penney stores, The Treasury stores, Thrift Drug stores. On February 12, 1971, James Cash Penney died at the age of 95. Out of respect for his death, the company's stores were closed for the morning of February 16 during his funeral; that year, the company's revenues reached $5 billion
Round One Entertainment
Round One Entertainment Inc. is a Japan-based amusement store chain. The amusement centers offer a variety of bowling, video game arcade cabinets and redemption games, billiards and ping pong while serving a variety of food and beverages. There is a larger version of their store known in Japan known as SpoCha, abbreviated for Sports Challenge, that offers a variety of items and indoor/outdoor activities such as batting cages, volleyball, futsal, driving range, etc. In the U. S. there are stores open in California, Georgia, Maine, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Washington, New York, Michigan, North Carolina, New Mexico with more planned to open in Arizona, Kentucky and Wisconsin. Round 1 plans to expand at a rate of 10 stores per year. Round One locations in the United States offer many exclusive Japanese arcade games; these include beatmania IIDX 24: Sinobuz, Sound Voltex IV: HEAVENLY HAVEN, Groove Coaster, Initial D Arcade Stage 8. Round One and Dave & Buster's are the only two entertainment centers in the United States that have e-AMUSEMENT, an online service integrated into some Konami arcade games.
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Puerto Ricans in Holyoke
As of the 2010 census, Massachusetts had the largest Puerto Rican population, per capita, of any city in the United States outside Puerto Rico proper, with 44.7% or 17,826 residents being of Puerto Rican heritage, comprising 92.4% of all Latinos in the community. From a combination of farming programs instituted by the US Department of Labor after World War II, the housing and mills that characterized Holyoke prior to deindustrialization, Puerto Ricans began settling in the city in the mid-1950s, with many arriving during the wave of Puerto Rican immigration to the Northeastern United States in the 1980s. A combination of white flight as former generations of mill workers left the city, a sustained influx of migrants in subsequent generations transformed the demographic from a minority of about 13% of the population in 1980, to the largest single demographic by ancestry in a span of three decades. In time the city has become a center of Puerto Rican culture on the mainland, with at least one member of the Senate of Puerto Rico being an alumnus of Holyoke Community College, the city being honored by both the Puerto Rican Cultural Center in the Chicago, in New York City's National Puerto Rican Day Parade.
Following the passage of the Foraker Act, a United States designated colonial government was formed, as the island had been annexed by the Americans following the Spanish–American War. Soon after this government was instituted, several delegations were sent from Puerto Rico to various cities in the United States that were seen as potential trading partners on the mainland. Among the first of these delegations of legislature members and trade representatives, was one which would visit Springfield in 1901. In the following year the newly formed Puerto Rican government would offer to make the first assistant of that city's Mechanic Arts High School, Arthur D. Deane, the supervisor of the island's industrial training. Deane would decline this offer but accepted one as a temporary agent to the Puerto Rico Department of Education and making a report back to the agency in January 1902 on steps needed to establish Puerto Rico's first industrial arts programs. In 1901, former Holyoke mayor and congressman William Whiting invited the first civilian colonial governor Charles H. Allen to the city.
Allen, an infamous figure in Puerto Rico's history as an American colony, was a former congressman from Lowell and Assistant Secretary of the Navy during the Spanish–American War, appointed to head the island's new government by President McKinley, whom he had accompanied to Mount Tom two years earlier. During his visit Allen touted the construction of roads, completed with no-bid contracts as a resounding success, while praising the tariff situation around the island's sugar industry as ideal, he would emphasize the sugar growing capacity of the island and lament that less than half of the island's arable land was in production. During his short tenure as governor and the years that followed, he wasted no time in changing this to suit his own interests. By 1907 Allen would position himself as the robber baron of sugarcane, controlling an estimated 98% of the United States' sugar capacity through his American Sugar Refining Company, which vastly reshaped the economy of the island. By 1930, an estimated 45% of all arable land on Puerto Rico was dedicated to sugar plantations under Allen's control.
At the time of his visit to the city a writer for The Republican would close the description of Allen's reception optimistically, comparing Holyoke with San Juan, remarking that the two cities were the same population at that time. While the first Puerto Rican immigrants wouldn't arrive in Holyoke en masse until after the Second World War, its own history in Puerto Rican culture begins with Sixto Escobar's mainland debut at the Valley Arena. On May 7, 1934, Escobar defeated bantamweight contender and Canadian flyweight titleholder Bobby Leitham, in a fight that made headlines in local papers and was seen as a dramatic upset in the world of boxing. A few weeks on May 22, Escobar faced his second opponent on the mainland, Joey Archibald, at the same venue, beating him handily before moving on to a rematch with Leitham in Montreal; these two matches marked an early chapter in a storied career. At the end of World War II, the government of Puerto Rico began the Puerto Rican Farm Labor Program, coordinating with the US Department of Labor to bring seasonal farm workers into the mainland, not unlike the Mexican Bracero program.
Between 1947 and 1990 the program would bring in 421,238 Puerto Rican agricultural laborers to the United States. Many of these workers found work in Connecticut and the Pioneer Valley working for the Shade Tobacco Growers Agricultural Association. Holyoke's history in Puerto Rican settlements first began around the mid 1950s, when a landlord named Domingo Perez, purportedly became the city's first Puerto Rican resident. By 1956 an article in The Republican reported on 1,000 Puerto Ricans in a self-described immigrant colony in the Greater Springfield area; the first to settle in the area were met with racial discrimination and open hostility, with one Boricua restaurateur describing their people being "treated like animals" at the time. This same family had followed a similar route many others would, having moved to the area from New York where they had settled in 1948. By 1958, the Springfield Union, a local newspaper, had begun referring to a Puerto Rican community in The Flats neighborhood of Holyoke known as Ward 1.
One of the biggest challenges with making inroads with existing communities was the language barrier of the first arrivals, with many only speaking Spanish. Some of the earliest program
In retail, an "anchor tenant", sometimes called an "anchor store", "draw tenant", or "key tenant", is a larger tenant in a shopping mall a department store or retail chain. With their broad appeal, they are intended to attract a significant cross-section of the shopping public to the center, they are offered steep discounts on rent in exchange for signing long-term leases in order to provide steady cash flows for the mall owners. When the planned shopping centre format was developed by Victor Gruen in the early to mid-1950s, signing larger department stores was necessary for the financial stability of the projects, to draw retail traffic that would result in visits to the smaller shops in the centre as well. Anchors have their rents discounted, may receive cash inducements from the centre to remain open. Early on, grocery stores were a common type of anchor store. However, research on consumer behavior revealed that most trips to the grocery store did not result in visits to surrounding shops.
Large supermarkets remain common anchor stores within power centers however. As of 2005, the declining popularity of old-line department stores makes it necessary for mall management companies to consider re-anchoring with other retail alternatives, or mix commercial development with residential development to guarantee a captive clientele; the challenges faced by the traditional large department stores have led to a resurgence in the use of supermarkets and gyms as anchors. The International Council of Shopping Centers makes the presence of anchors one of the main defining characteristics of the two largest categories of centres, the regional center with 400,000 to 800,000 square feet in gross leasable area, the superregional center with more than 800,000 square feet of space; the regional center has two or more anchors, while the superregional has three or more. In each case, the anchors account for 50–70% of the centre's leasable space. Shopping centres with anchor stores have outperformed those without one, as the anchor helps draw shoppers attracted to the anchor to shop at other shops in the mall.
Retail Shopping centre Supermarket
Steiger's was a department store company of New England in the 19th and 20th centuries. Founded in Holyoke, Massachusetts in 1896, its flagship store for much of the company's history was in Springfield, Massachusetts. Albert Steiger was born in Rosenberg, Germany, on May 12, 1860, his family owned a silk factory in Europe. He emigrated to American as a child in 1868, he began his career peddling flannel in Huntington, Massachusetts at the age of 13. In 1893, after working in Gilette's Dry Goods Store, he bought or founded a small store in Port Chester, New York, north of New York City. In 1896, he opened a store in Massachusetts under the name The Albert Steiger Company. Around the turn of the 20th century, he expanded his stores to Fall River, New Bedford and Springfield, Massachusetts. A store in Hartford, Connecticut followed in 1918; the five-storey art deco downtown Springfield store was the chain's flagship. In contrast to Springfield's other main store, traditional full-service department store Forbes & Wallace, Stieger's concentrated more on being a high-end clothing store.
The Holyoke store, built in 1899, was a four-storey beaux arts building designed by George P. B. Alderman, across High Street from city hall; this building is still in use. Several generations of the Steiger family participated in the business. Albert Steiger's grandson, Albert E. Steiger Jr. was president of the company from to 1959 to 1992. Over time, the freestanding downtown stores were replaced with rented outlets in malls; the Hartford store was sold in 1962, leaving just the Springfield and Holyoke locations as traditional downtown department stores. Mall outlets were opened in the Longmeadow Shops, Springfield Plaza, Friendly Shops at Westfield, Eastfield Mall, Enfield Square Mall, Hampshire Mall in Hadley and Holyoke Mall at Ingleside. Steiger's was taken over by The May Department Stores Company in 1994 and the company and brand ceased to exist; the Eastfield Mall store, for instance, was replaced by a Filene's in 2006 by a Macy's before being closed in 2016. The downtown Springfield store closed in 1995 and the building was torn down soon after.
A park now occupies the site. Forbes & Wallace, another defunct department store with a flagship location in Springfield, Massachusetts Albert Steiger Co, The Department Store Museum "Claiming and Quantifying Space", a chapter of From Main to High: Consumers and the Spatial Reorientation of an Industrial City, whose subject is Holyoke, Massachusetts; the linked chapter discusses Steiger's role in the city
Interstate 90 is an east–west transcontinental freeway, the longest Interstate Highway in the United States at 3,020.54 miles. Its western terminus is in Seattle, at State Route 519 near T-Mobile Park and CenturyLink Field, its eastern terminus is in Boston, at Route 1A near Logan International Airport; the western portion of I-90 crosses the Continental Divide over Homestake Pass just east of Butte, connecting major cities such as Spokane, Washington. Between Seattle and the Wisconsin-Illinois state line, I-90 is a toll-free Interstate. East of that border, much of I-90 follows several toll roads, many of which predate the Interstate Highway system; these include the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway, Chicago Skyway, Indiana Toll Road, Ohio Turnpike, New York State Thruway, the Massachusetts Turnpike. The Interstate is not tolled through some segments in downtown Chicago; the western I-90 terminus is in the SoDo neighborhood of Seattle. I-90 eastbound begins at exit 2B, Edgar Martínez Drive S and 4th Avenue S. I-90 westbound exit 2B ends at Edgar Martínez Dr and 4th Ave near T-Mobile Park, as well as 4th Ave just north of S.
Royal Brougham Way near CenturyLink Field, about a block east of the entrance to the Port of Seattle's container shipping terminal at Pier 46. The tunnel that carries I-90 under the Mount Baker Ridge is on the National Register of Historic Places; the east portal of the tunnel is constructed as a bas relief concrete sculpture. I-90 incorporates two of the longest floating bridges in the world, the Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge and the Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge, which cross Lake Washington from Seattle to Mercer Island, they are the fifth longest such bridges, respectively. Forty miles east of Bellevue, I-90 traverses the Cascade Range's Snoqualmie Pass, elevation 3,022 feet, it intersects I-82 shortly after exiting the mountains and crosses the Columbia River on the Vantage Bridge at mile post 137. After entering Spokane near mile post 279, it enters Idaho eighteen miles later. Since 1980, I-90 from Seattle to Thorp was designated the Mountains to Sound Greenway to protect its outstanding scenic and cultural resources.
The Washington section of I-90 is defined in the Revised Code of Washington. The small town of Wallace still prides itself on having what was the last stop light in the Rocky Mountains on I-90, its downtown has many historical buildings, which would have been wiped out by the original planned route of the freeway, so in 1976, city leaders had the downtown placed on the National Register of Historic Places. As a result, the federal government was forced, at great expense, to reroute the freeway to the northern edge of downtown and elevate it; that section of I-90 opened in September 1991. A bicycle path is routed beneath part of that segment. In the period between 1995 and 1999, there was no numbered speed limit on I-90 in Montana; the speed limit was defined as "reasonable and prudent" as determined on a case-by-case basis by the Montana Highway Patrol. The speed limit in Montana is now 80 mph. From the west I-90 enters Montana on the summit of Lookout Pass, it passes next to Missoula and runs through Butte, where it connects with I-15 for close to eight miles, before crossing the continental divide just east of Butte where it goes over Homestake Pass, 6,329 feet in elevation, the highest point for the Interstate.
It passes between the Gallatin and Bridger mountain ranges over Bozeman Pass between Bozeman and Livingston. It follows the Yellowstone River from Livingston to Billings where it connects the suburbs of Laurel and Lockwood with the rest of the Billings area. In Lockwood it turns south. South of Hardin it passes the site of the Battle of the Little Bighorn at Crow Agency on the Crow Indian Reservation. Montana boasts the longest stretch of I-90. I-90 enters the state of Wyoming from the north after splitting off from I-94 in Montana; the first major town is Sheridan. It follows the foothills of the Bighorn Mountains between Sheridan and Buffalo where it intersects with I-25, where the route goes from a north–south orientation to an east–west orientation, it goes across the Powder River Basin toward Gillette and Sundance where it shares alignments with both US 14 and US 16. Near the Black Hills, I-90 leaves Wyoming and enters South Dakota between Sundance and Spearfish, South Dakota where it proceeds southeast toward Rapid City, South Dakota.
Near Rapid City at the Wyoming border I-90 is a four-lane divided highway with a grass median. In the Sioux Falls area, I-90 continues east a short distance to Minnesota. I-90 is the longest east–west thoroughfare in South Dakota; this interstate goes through Mitchell, Sioux Falls, Rapid City. It does not go through the state capital of Pierre; the South Dakota section of I-90 is defined at South Dakota Codified Laws § 31-4-184. The Minnesota section of I-90 is defined as Route 391 in Minnesota Statutes § 161.12. I-90 crosses southern Minnesota from the South Dakota border near Beaver Creek, Minnesota, to the Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin. On most of its length in the state, it is close to the Iowa border and parallel with it. In southeast Minnesota, it curves north to Winona; the wayside rest area near Blue Earth, Minnesota is where Minnesota's east-building and
Holyoke Saint Patrick's Day Parade
Holyoke Saint Patrick's Day Parade parade is hosted every year on the Sunday of the week that has Saint Patrick's Day. Each parade attracts around 400,000 spectators from all over the United States of America. Past spectators have included President John F. Kennedy, two Speakers of the House and other notable officials. Drawing on the Irish heritage of Holyoke, in its earliest days known as "Ireland Parish", the inaugural Saint Patrick's Day Parade was hosted on March 16, 1952, after a group of local businessmen met at the local Brian Boru Club and proposed the idea. Since that time the Holyoke Saint Patrick's Parade Committee which has since grown to more than 100 people and presents multiple awards to distinguished citizens every year. Parade Spectator Estimates By Year Since its inaugural event in 1952, the parade has grown substantially; the event, considered as much a regional as local venue, attracts many spectators from surrounding states and Ireland itself in recent years. The parade enjoys an audience beyond its participants, with more than 1.2 million viewers watching over the channel and online streams of local PBS affiliate WGBY, which broadcast it every year from 2001 through 2018.
WWLP resumed as the broadcaster of the parade in 2019 through its CW channel, included a livestream. Other local media outlets including WGGB-TV and the Springfield Republican cover the event. Holyoke Caledonian Pipe Band, regular feature in the parade since the first and oldest continuously operating pipe band in North America Holyoke, Massachusetts Saint Patrick's Day Official website, Holyoke St. Patrick's Committee WGBY Official Stream, WGBY-57 PBS SpringfieldHolyoke St Patrick's Parade: Behind the Scenes, WGBY video chronicling setup of parade in 2010 Surrounding municipality committees organized to send delegations of honored persons and community groups as contingents to the parade- Agawam St. Patrick's CommitteeChicopee St. Patrick's Parade CommitteeGreater Easthampton St. Patrick's Day Committee, representing Easthampton and SouthamptonNorthampton St. Patrick's AssociationSpringfield St. Patrick's CommitteeSons of Erin, organizing Westfield's Parade Contingent St. Patrick's Committee of West Springfield