Alborz High School
Alborz High School, is a college-preparatory high school located in the heart of Tehran, Iran. It is one of the first modern high schools in Asia and the Middle East, named after the Alborz mountain range, north of Tehran, its place in the shaping of Iran's intellectual elite compares with that of Eton College in England and institutions such as Phillips Academy, Phillips Exeter Academy, Milton Academy in the United States. The school was founded as an elementary school in 1873 by a group of American missionaries led by James Bassett; this was in the 26th year of the reign of Nasereddin Shah Qajar, 22 years after Amir Kabir founded the Dar ul-Funun school in Tehran, 33 years before the Constitutional Revolution in Persia. When Dr. Samuel Jordan arrived in Persia in 1898, he instituted change. Thereafter, the institution came to be known as the American College of Tehran. Dr. Jordan remained president of Alborz for 42 years. During his tenure, Alborz grew from an elementary school to college. In 1932, the school received a permanent charter from the Board of Regents of the State University of New York.
In 1940 and during World War II, by the order of Shah Reza Pahlavi, Alborz was removed from American management and placed under the auspices of the Iranian Ministry of Education as part of Reza Shah's modernization reforms. The school's name was changed from "College" back to "Alborz", it was reinstated as a high school. In 1944, Professor Mohammad Ali Mojtahedi, member of University of Tehran's faculty, was appointed as the president of Alborz. From until 1979, continuing after the Iranian Revolution, Alborz had the most successful period of its history. Mr. Howard Dr. Samuel M. Jordan Mr. Mohammad Vahid Tonekaboni Mr. Mohsen Haddad Mr. Ali Mohammad Partovi Mr. Hasan Zoghi Mr. Lotf Ali Sooratgar Dr. Mohammad Ali Mojtahedi Mr. Hossein Khoshnevisan Mr. Hasan Pour Zahed Mr. Naser Naseri Mr. Ismael Sadegh Kazemi Mr. Rajab Ali Yasipour Mr. Naser Molla Asadollah Mr. Ali Mazarei Mr. Abbas Feiz Mr. Hossein Khoshnevisan Mr. Bagher Dezfulian Mr. Mahmoud Dastani Mr. Valiollah Sanaye Dr. Mazaher Hami Kargar Dr. Abeth Esfandiar Mr. Mohammad Mohammadi Dr. Mahmoud Behzad Dariush Homayoon, minister of Information and Tourism Parviz C.
Radji, Iranian ambassador to the United Kingdom Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou, Kurdish political activist Mostafa Chamran, minister of National Defence and chief of Islamic Revolution Guard Corps Hassan-Ali Mehran – minister of Economic and Financial Affairs Mostafa Mirsalim, minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance Alireza Nourizadeh and political activist Mansoor Hekmat, political activist Ali Javadi, political activist Tahmasb Mazaheri, minister of Economic and Financial Affairs Mohsen Sazegara and political activist Reza Moridi, politician Sina Edalat Los Angeles, his Father attended alborz highschool. Amir Farshad Ebrahimi, political activist Mohammad Amir Khatam – commander in chief of Imperial Iranian Air Force Hadi Amini, mechanical engineer and english language teacher Abolghasem Bakhtiar, professor of medical science Solayman Haïm, lexicographer and translator Mohsen Assadi, lawyer Manouchehr Sotoudeh, professor of geography Zeynolabedin Motamen and poet Mahmoud Behzad, professor of biology Sadeq Chubak, author Mahmoud Sanaei and translator Ahmad Samiei and translator Javad Sheikholeslami, historian Lotfi A. Zadeh and professor of computer science Mohammad Jafar Mahjoub and translator Harutioun Davidian, psychologist Abdollah Anvar, translator Homayoun Sanaatizadeh, author and entrepreneur Mohammad-Ali Eslami Nodooshan and author Ali Javan, physicist Bijan Jalali – poet Manuchehr Jamali and poet Mohammad Qahraman, poet Morteza Anvari, professor of computer science Jamshid Giunashvili, Iranologist, diplomat and researcher Mehdi Zarghamee, professor of computer science Rustom Voskanian, architect Morteza Kotobi, professor of psychology Mehdi Bahadori, professor of mechanical engineering Rahim Rahmanzadeh, surgeon Firouz Partovi, physicist Dariush Ashoori and translator Iraj Kaboli and translator Paris Moayedi, entrepreneur Edward Zohrabian, architect Hossein Amanat, architect Homayoun Katouzian and political scientist Saeed Sohrabpour, professor of mechanical engineering Foad Rafii, architect Hesameddin Arfaei, professor of physics Mehrdad Abedi, professor of electrical engineering Caro Lucas, scientist Abbas Edalat, professor of computer sciences Ali Parsa, translator Houchang E. Chehabi, professor of international relations and history Homayoun Manafi-Khosroshahi (1965-
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Homa Katouzian, is an economist, political scientist and literary critic, with a special interest in Iranian studies. Katouzian's formal academic training was in economics and the social sciences but he concurrently continued his studies of Persian history and literature at a professional academic level, he began studying the life and works of the modern Persian writer, Sadeq Hedayat, that of the Prime Minister of Iran in the early 1950s, Mohammad Mosaddeq, while still a faculty member in the department of economics at the University of Kent at Canterbury. Having taught economics at universities in Britain and other countries for eighteen years, he took voluntary retirement in 1986 to devote his entire time to Iranian studies. In recent years, he has been teaching and writing on classical Persian literature, in particular the 13th-century poet and writer, Sa‘di. Based at the University of Oxford, Katouzian is a member of the Faculty of Oriental Studies and the Iran HeritageResearch Fellow at St. Antony's College, where he edited the bimonthly Iranian Studies, Journal of the International Society for Iranian Studies for thirteen years.
He is editor, International Journal of Persian Literature, senior editor, Iran Namag, a journal of Iranian studies, co-editor of Routledge, Iranian studies book series. He is a former member of the Editorial Board of Comparative Studies of South Asia and the Middle East and Comparative Economic Studies. Katouzian was born in Iran. After graduation from Alborz High School and a year at the University of Tehran, in 1961 he went to Britain to study economics, he received his bachelor's degree from the University of Birmingham. Between 1968 and 1986, he taught economics in Britain, Iran and the United States, worked as an economic consultant with the Organization of American States, the International Labor Organization, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Since 1986, Katouzian has been teaching Persian literature and Iranian history at the University of Oxford and has organized two international conferences: the Hedayat Centenary, at the Middle East Centre, St. Antony's College, March 2003, Iran Facing the New Century, at Wadham College, April 2004.
Katouzian has been involved in Iranian artistic activities in Britain. He is a member of the Board of Library for Iranian Studies, London, he has contributed to BBC radio and television programs. He is the winner of the first SINA ‘Outstanding Achievement Award in recognition of Exceptional Contributions in Humanities’. Katouzian has written extensively in pure and applied economics, but his original contributions in economics are in the theory of the development of the service sector, the economics of petroleum-exporting countries, economic method and philosophy; as early as the late 1960s he predicted that the share of services in output and employment would grow in advanced countries and in some developing countries, for different sets of reasons, that the share of non-factor services in international trade would grow the advanced countries tending to specialize in the export of services. He was one of the first economists, from the late 1960s, to describe petroleum revenues received by the petroleum-exporting countries as economic rent, the countries in question as rentier economies, studied the effect of the receipt of the petroleum rent by the state on the economics as well as politics of petroleum-exporting countries.
In the field of economic philosophy and method, Katouzian has published a critique of economic method, maintaining that economic theory and theorizing could not be described as scientific, once the economists’ own criteria for scientificity are applied to their works. The subject further involved him in a critique of the philosophies of science developed by Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn arguing that Popper's criteria were no longer applied by modern scientists, that Kuhn's historical generalizations were circular. Katouzian has taught the history of twentieth century Iran at Oxford University, he has published extensively on twentieth century Iranian history and has been responsible for a number of cases of historical revisionism, for example that the 1921 coup in Iran was not engineered by the British government. Apart from writing descriptive and analytical history, Katouzian has put forward "the theory of arbitrary rule, the fundamental state-society conflict in Iranian history" which has led him to comparative studies of the sociology of Iranian history with that of Europe.
The theory has been described in all of his major writings on Iranian history, within a single volume, it is propounded in his Iranian History and Politics, the Dialectic of State and Society. Here, he has introduced the concept of The Short-term Society or “Jameheh-ye Kolangi” meaning "the pick-axe society", an allusion to the Iranian practice of demolishing buildings after only a few decades, considering them to be "dilapidated", he has developed and discussed this theory more extensively in the article, "The Short-Term Society, A Study in the Long-Term Problems of Political and Economic Development in Iran", published in Middle Eastern Studies, 40, 1, 2004. Katouzian has both taught and written on modern as w
Persian literature comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures. It spans over two-and-a-half millennia, its sources have been within Greater Iran including present-day Iran, Afghanistan, the Caucasus, Turkey, regions of Central Asia and South Asia where the Persian language has been either the native or official language. For instance, one of best-loved Persian poets born in Balkh or Vakhsh, wrote in Persian and lived in Konya the capital of the Seljuks in Anatolia; the Ghaznavids conquered large territories in Central and South Asia and adopted Persian as their court language. There is thus Persian literature from Iran, Azerbaijan, the wider Caucasus, western parts of Pakistan, India and other parts of Central Asia. Not all Persian literature is written in Persian, as some consider works written by ethnic Persians in other languages, such as Greek and Arabic, to be included. At the same time, not all literature written in Persian is written by ethnic Persians or Iranians, as Turkic and Indic poets and writers have used the Persian language in the environment of Persianate cultures.
Described as one of the great literatures of humanity, including Goethe's assessment of it as one of the four main bodies of world literature, Persian literature has its roots in surviving works of Middle Persian and Old Persian, the latter of which date back as far as 522 BCE, the date of the earliest surviving Achaemenid inscription, the Behistun Inscription. The bulk of surviving Persian literature, comes from the times following the Arab conquest of Persia c. 650 CE. After the Abbasids came to power, the Iranians became the scribes and bureaucrats of the Arab empire and also its writers and poets; the New Persian language literature arose and flourished in Khorasan and Transoxiana because of political reasons, early Iranian dynasties such as the Tahirids and Samanids being based in Khorasan. Persian poets such as Ferdowsi, Sa'di, Attar, Nezami and Omar Khayyam are known in the West and have influenced the literature of many countries. Few literary works of Achaemenid Iran have survived, due to the destruction of the library at Persepolis.
Most of what remains consists of the royal inscriptions of Achaemenid kings Darius I and his son Xerxes. Many Zoroastrian writings were destroyed in the Islamic conquest of Iran in the 7th century; the Parsis who fled to India, took with them some of the books of the Zoroastrian canon, including some of the Avesta and ancient commentaries thereof. Some works of Sassanid geography and travel survived, albeit in Arabic translations. No single text devoted to literary criticism has survived from Pre-Islamic Iran. However, some essays in Pahlavi, such as "Ayin-e name nebeshtan" and "Bab-e edteda’I-ye", have been considered as literary criticism; some researchers have quoted the Sho'ubiyye as asserting that the Pre-Islamic Iranians had books on eloquence, such as'Karvand'. No trace remains of such books. There are some indications that some among the Persian elite were familiar with Greek rhetoric and literary criticism. While overshadowed by Arabic during the Umayyad and early Abbasid caliphates, New Persian soon became a literary language again of the Central Asian and West Asian lands.
The rebirth of the language in its new form is accredited to Ferdowsi, Daqiqi and their generation, as they used Pre-Islamic nationalism as a conduit to revive the language and customs of ancient Iran. So strong is the Persian inclination to versifying everyday expressions that one can encounter poetry in every classical work, whether from Persian literature, science, or metaphysics. In short, the ability to write in verse form was a pre-requisite for any scholar. For example half of Avicenna's medical writings are in verse. Works of the early era of Persian poetry are characterized by strong court patronage, an extravagance of panegyrics, what is known as سبک فاخر "exalted in style"; the tradition of royal patronage began under the Sassanid era and carried over through the Abbasid and Samanid courts into every major Iranian dynasty. The Qasida was the most famous form of panegyric used, though quatrains such as those in Omar Khayyam's Ruba'iyyat are widely popular. Khorasani style, whose followers were associated with Greater Khorasan, is characterized by its supercilious diction, dignified tone, literate language.
The chief representatives of this lyricism are Asjadi, Farrukhi Sistani and Manuchehri. Panegyric masters such as Rudaki were known for their love of nature, their verse abounding with evocative descriptions. Through these courts and system of patronage emerged the epic style of poetry, with Ferdowsi's Shahnama at the apex. By glorifying the Iranian historical past in heroic and elevated verses, he and other notables such as Daqiqi and Asadi Tusi presented the "Ajam" with a source of pride and inspiration that has helped preserve a sense of identity for the Iranian People over the ages. Ferdowsi set a model to be followed by a host of other poets on; the 13th century marks the ascendancy of lyric poetry with the consequent development of the ghazal into a major verse form, as well as the rise of mystical and Sufi poetry. This style is called Araqi style, (western provinces of Iran were known as The Persian Iraq and is known by its emotional lyric q
Prince Iraj Mirza, son of prince Gholam-Hossein Mirza, was a famous Iranian poet. He was a modern poet and his works are associated with the criticism of traditions, he made translation of literary works from French into Persian. Iraj was born in October 1874 in Tabriz, northwestern Iran, his pedigree chart shows that he was a great-grandson of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, the second shah of Qajar dynasty. Iraj's father, prince Gholam-Hossein Mirza was son of prince Malek Iraj Mirza son of Fath Ali Shah Qajar. Gholam-Hossein Mirza, Iraj's father, was a poet laureate or the official court-poet of Mozaffar al-Din Mirza. Mozaffar al-Din Mirza, the son of Nasser-al-Din Shah, was the Crown Prince of Iran at the time.. Though some sources indicate that Iraj was schooled there are reliable evidences that he studied at a branch of the Dārolfonoon in Tabriz. At 15, he was fluent in Persian, French and Azerbaijani, he was familiar with the art of calligraphy. His handwriting was artistic and he was and still is considered as one of the famous calligraphers of Iran.
In 1890, at the age of 16, Iraj got married. When he was 19, both his father and wife died, he took the position of his late father and became the court-poet of Mozaffar al-Din Mirza. At 22, when Mozaffar al-Din Mirza acceded to the throne in 1896 and became Mozaffar al-Din Shah, he was titled as Jalāl ol-Mamālek. Few years however, he left the royal court and joined the Tabriz office of Ali Khan Amin al-Dowleh, the governor of Iranian Azarbaijan. At this time, Iraj learned French and became familiar with Russian too. In 1905, when Amino-Dowleh was relocated and moved to Tehran, Iraj accompanied him and soon became involved in the Persian Constitutional Revolution. In 1907 when Ahmad Ghavam, a governmental authority, was assigned to go to Europe, Iraj was asked to join him. Two years Iraj returned to Tehran where he started to work as a staff member in the Office of Official Compositions. In 1915, his first son, Ja'afar Gholi Mirza, due to some psychological problems, committed suicide. In 1917, Iraj joined the newly established Ministry of Culture, three years he was transferred to the Ministry of Finance and Revenue.
From 1920 to 1925 he worked as a Revenue Officer in Mashhad, the capital city of Khorasan Province, in northeast of Iran. At 52, Iraj moved back to Tehran where he died on March 14, 1926, he was survived by Khosrow Iraj. Iraj is considered as one of the famous contemporary poets of Iran and as the first Iranian master of colloquial poetry. In his verses he uses words from everyday speech; the origin of this tendency has come to be identified with his name. Through Iraj, poetic language was enriched with expressions, his simple poetic language is famous for its witticism and satire. During Qajar era, Iraj was influenced by the Persian Constitutional Revolution and by the changing circumstances in the country; this fact is manifested in the particular style of poetry. Modern and imported concepts, combined with what were obtained from his own thoughts, form the framework of his style, he criticizes the social conditions of the country, the striking originality in his use of metaphor when addressing diverse social problems has been admirable by his critics.
His style is rich in the art of simile. His striking sarcasm and fanged words are pointed at the dishonest clergy, businessmen and statesmen. In addition to those colloquial poems, Iraj composed elegies to praise Mozzafar-al-Din Shah, Hassan Ali Khan Garroosy, many other Qajar personalities, his praise never shaded into flattery. Iraj composed nice massnawi and qat'aa on the raising and education of children, maternal affection and romance, he was an enlightened and innovative poet, tended towards European thought. Despite his famous technical skills, he sometimes used similar cases of rhyme, considered by some poetry researchers as an intentional rejection of strict traditional poetical rules. Although Iraj was one of the pioneers of the innovative movement in the Persian poetry, he never thought of abandoning the rules of the classic poetry; some scholars believe that because of the time in which he lived, his depth of literary knowledge and his familiarity with French and other foreign languages, he could have been one of the masters of free verse if he wanted to.
He is famous for his pederastic and satirical poetry. Among many poems that Iraj composed, his well-known poems include Satan, Mother, A Letter to a Poet Aref Ghazvini, Woman's Picture, Story of the Veil or Hijab and the Story of Zohreh and Manouchehr, based on William Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis. In Mother, the poet describes a child's affection for his/her mother and how the mother nurtures the child from birth onwards; the words Iraj uses are so exquisitely descriptive and lovely not only in its original Persian but in translated versions. The Story of Zohreh and Manouchehr is one of his famous poetic works. Here Ir
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Mohammad Mosaddegh was the 35th prime minister of Iran, holding office from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d'état orchestrated by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom's MI6. An author, administrator and prominent parliamentarian, his administration introduced a range of social and political measures such as social security, land reforms and higher taxes including the introduction of taxation of the rent on land, his government's most significant policy, was the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, built by the British on Persian lands since 1913 through the Anglo-Persian Oil Company. Many Iranians regard Mosaddegh as the leading champion of secular democracy and resistance to foreign domination in Iran's modern history. Following an initial, failed coup attempt by the CIA/MI6-backed General Fazlollah Zahedi, Mosaddegh was deposed four days on 19 August 1953, with Zahedi succeeding him as prime minister. While the coup is at times referred to in the West as Operation Ajax after its CIA cryptonym, in Iran it is referred to as the 28 Mordad 1332 Coup d'état, after its date on the Iranian calendar.
Mosaddegh was imprisoned for three years put under house arrest until his death and was buried in his own home so as to prevent a political furor. In 2013, the U. S. government formally acknowledged the U. S. role in the coup, as a part of its foreign policy initiatives. Mosaddegh was born to a prominent Persian family of high officials in Tehran on 16 June 1882; when Mosaddegh's father died in 1892, his uncle was appointed the tax collector of the Khorasan province and was bestowed with the title of Mosaddegh-os-Saltaneh by Nasser al-Din Shah. Mosaddegh himself bore the same title, by which he was still known to some long after titles were abolished. In 1901, Mosaddegh married a granddaughter of Nasser al-Din Shah through her mother; the couple had two sons and three daughters. In 1909, Mosaddegh pursued education abroad in Paris, France where he studied law at the Institut d'études politiques de Paris, he studied there for 2 years, returning to Iran because of illness in 1911. After 5 months, Mosaddegh returned to Europe to study a Doctorate of Laws at the University of Neuchâtel in Switzerland.
In June 1913, Mosaddegh received his doctorate and in doing so became the first Iranian to receive a PhD in Law from a European university. Mosaddegh taught at the Tehran School of Political Science at the start of World War I before beginning his political career. Mosaddegh started his political career with the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1905–07. At the age of 24, he was elected from Isfahan to the newly inaugurated Persian Parliament, the Majlis of Iran. However, he was unable to assume his seat, because he had not reached the legal age of 30. During this period he served as deputy leader of the Society of Humanity, under Mostowfi ol-Mamalek. In protest at the Anglo-Persian Treaty of 1919, he relocated to Switzerland, from where he returned the following year after being invited by the new Iranian prime minister, Hassan Pirnia, to become his minister of justice. While en route to Tehran, he was asked by the people of Shiraz to become the governor of the Fars Province, he was appointed finance minister, in the government of Ahmad Qavam in 1921, foreign minister in the government of Moshir-ed-Dowleh in June 1923.
He became governor of the Azerbaijan Province. In 1923, he was re-elected to the Majlis. In 1925, the supporters of Reza Khan in the Majlis proposed legislation to dissolve the Qajar dynasty and appoint Reza Khan the new Shah. Mossadegh voted against such a move, arguing that such an act was a subversion of the 1906 Iranian constitution, he gave a speech in the Majlis, praising Reza Khan's achievements as prime minister while encouraging him to respect the constitution and stay as the prime minister. On 12 December 1925, the Majlis deposed the young Shah Ahmad Shah Qajar, declared Reza Shah the new monarch of the Imperial State of Persia, the first Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty. Mosaddegh retired from politics, due to disagreements with the new regime. In 1941, Reza Shah Pahlavi was forced by the British to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. In 1944, Mosaddegh was once again elected to parliament; this time he took the lead of Jebhe Melli, an organization he had founded with nineteen others such as Hossein Fatemi, Ahmad Zirakzadeh, Ali Shayegan and Karim Sanjabi, aiming to establish democracy and end the foreign presence in Iranian politics by nationalizing the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company's operations in Iran.
In 1947 Mossadegh once again announced retirement, after an electoral-reform bill he had proposed failed to pass through Majlis. On 28 April 1951, the Shah appointed Mossaddegh as Prime Minister after the Majlis nominated Mosaddegh by a vote of 79–12; the Shah was aware of Mosaddegh's rising popularity and political power, after a period of assassinations by Fada'iyan-e Islam and political unrest by the National Front. Demonstrations erupted in Tehran after Mosaddegh's appointment, with crowds further invigorated by the speeches of members from the National Front