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Homagial Crown

The Homagial Crown known under its Latin name as the Corona Homagialis, was a part of the Polish Crown Jewels. It was mentioned for the first time in the 15th century in the inventory of the Wawel Royal Treasury, it was the coronation crown of Władysław II Jagiełło. In the 15th century crown inventories of treasures of Wawel Castle there appear two crowns called homagial, which are considered to have been the property of Jadwiga of Anjou and Jogaila. From the 16th century, the coronation regalia inventories mention only one of these insignia, the second was cashed; this crown was worn by the Polish kings during the homage ceremony, replacing the Crown of Bolesław I the Brave. It was used for the last time during a ceremony in Warsaw in 1764, when the king Stanisław August Poniatowski received a tribute from Peter von Biron, Duke of Courland and Semigallia; the crown was stolen from Wawel Castle by Prussian troops in 1794 and found its place in the collection of the Hohenzollerns in Berlin. After 1809 it was melted down, as was the case with the majority of Polish regalia.

The Homagial Crown was made of pure gold in the form of rims covered with a globe and a cross at their intersection. It consisted of nine segments, each crowned with heraldic fleur-de-lis, decorated with rubies and pearls. In total there were 178 precious stones. In the 18th century the crown was depicted in the portrait of Casimir III the Great by Marcello Bacciarelli, painted to embellish the Marble Room at the Royal Castle in Warsaw. Rożek, Michał. Polskie koronacje i korony. Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza. ISBN 83-03-01914-7. Lileyko, Jerzy. Regalia polskie. Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza. ISBN 83-03-02021-8. Miniewicz, Janusz. Tajemnica polskich koron: czy jest szansa ich odnalezienia?. Goldruk. ISBN 83-924034-2-8. Media related to Homagial Crown at Wikimedia Commons

St. Francis School (Austin, Texas)

St. Francis School is a private interdenominational school in Austin, Texas, it has around 400 students. Although the school is interdenominational they have a chapel on Friday mornings that features the teachings of St. Francis and his love for people of all kinds; the school serves students from 65 zip codes throughout the Austin area and represents a range of socio-economic levels. St. Francis School was founded in 1985 by a small group of teachers; the school held classes in the Sunday school classrooms at a local church. In 1987, the school taught students up to the fifth grade. However, the student population soon outgrew the size of the office building and the lease of the building ended in 1995. In the fall of 1995, St. Francis School opened their doors at their current location with a renovation in 2011; the school is located in East North Central Austin in the Highland neighborhood off of I-35. It is in a former office building and owns a gym, learning center, soccer field, playground separate from the main school building.

The school's mission statement is as follows: St. Francis School shall be an interdenominational school committed: to low student-teacher ratios and attention to the needs of every student; the school athletics program, covering grades 5-8, includes Track, Volleyball, Ultimate Frisbee, Flag Football. All teams compete in the Austin Inter-Parochial League; the school competes academically in the Private School Interscholastic Association. School Web Site

French seaplane carrier Foudre

The Foudre was a French seaplane carrier, the first in history. Her development followed the invention of the seaplane in 1910 with the French Le Canard; the Foudre was first commissioned in 1896 as a torpedo boat tender, with the role of helping bring torpedo boats to the high seas, launch them for attack. She was modified as repair ship in 1907, as a minelayer in 1910, as a seaplane carrier in 1911, seaplane carrier with a flying-off deck in 1913, she was converted to carry torpedo-carrying planes in hangars on the main deck. They were lowered on the sea with a crane. In April 1910, Vice-Admiral Auguste Boué de Lapeyrère, Navy Minister, established a committee to study the usage of balloons and planes by the navy. On November 29, 1911, a navy airbase was established at Fréjus Saint-Raphaël, the torpedo boat tender Foudre was sent to the naval yard in Toulon to be converted as a seaplane tender; the ship was fitted out in a new way. A deck was installed at the bow for the seaplane to take off.

The seaplane would land on the water, be craned on board for stowing. A float-equipped Canard Voisin seaplane was bought by the navy for this purpose in December 1911; the Foudre would be stationed at Fréjus, working as a seaplane tender, allowing for stowage and supply of the seaplanes. The ship was armed on April 15, 1912, trials with the Canard Voisin started. On May 1, 1912, the Navy Ministry purchased several more seaplanes, a monoplane Breguet with a single float, a Nieuport with double float, a converted Farman biplane. Experiments at sea started with the Foudre in July 1912 during tactical exercises in the Mediterranean; the Canard Voisin, a new foldable Nieuport were used. During the exercises, in which a wargame simulated the fight of two rival navies, the use of the Nieuport allowed the discovery of a surprise attack by the "adversary". During the summer of 1912 many flights of the Canard Voisin from the Foudre were accomplished in the bay of Saint-Raphaël. By the middle of 1913, the navy had 11 seaplane pilots.

The Foudre was again used in large-scale naval exercises. One of its planes, a Nieuport used for observations, foiled a "surprise attack" by a group of warships. Five more seaplanes were ordered following these exercises. In November 1913, a 10-meter flying-off deck was installed, with the objective of using it for a Caudron G.3 seaplane. The plane lifted off from the ship on May 8, 1914. At the beginning of the war, the platform was dismantled, further experiments were postponed to a date. During World War I her roles were numerous, ranging from submarine tender to seaplane/aircraft transport, headquarters ship in 1916, she was employed as an aviation school ship after the war. She disputes the honour of being the first seaplane carrier with HMS Hermes, temporarily converted as an experimental seaplane carrier for two months in April–May 1913, is more considered to be the first seaplane carrier. Gibbs, Jay. "Question 26/51: Torpedo Boat Carriers". Warship International. LII: 212–214. ISSN 0043-0374.

L'avènement de l'Aviation Maritime Les hydravions des frères CAUDRON Les Canards de Gabriel Voisin, PDF file with images