Einöd is a village and a district of Homburg in the state Saarland, Germany. Once an independent municipality within the Saarpfalz-Kreis, Einöd was integrated into the city of Homburg in 1974. In the east, Einöd borders a town of Rhineland-Palatinate. 3,408 inhabitants live in Einöd making this district the third largest of the city of Homburg. The districts Ingweiler and Schwarzenacker are parts of Einöd; the ramp to the autobahn A8 connects Einöd to the German autobahn system. Horst Ehrmantraut Einöd official website
West Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, referred to by historians as the Bonn Republic, was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the western portion of Germany was part of the Western bloc during the Cold War. It was created during the Allied occupation of Germany in 1949 after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France, its capital was the city of Bonn. At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Eastern blocs. Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin; the Federal Republic of Germany claimed an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, considering itself to be the democratically reorganised continuation of the 1871–1945 German Empire. It took the line. Though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not fair. From the West German perspective, the GDR was therefore illegitimate.
Three southwestern states of West Germany merged to form Baden-Württemberg in 1952, the Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957. In addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial de facto 11th state. While not part of the Federal Republic of Germany, as Berlin was under the control of the Allied Control Council, West Berlin politically-aligned itself with West Germany and was represented in its federal institutions; the foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid during the Wirtschaftswunder of the 1950s when West Germany rose from the enormous destruction wrought by World War II to become the world's third-largest economy. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office until 1963, had worked for a full alignment with NATO rather than neutrality, he not only secured a membership in NATO but was a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union. When the G6 was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well.
Following the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, there was a rapid move towards German reunification. East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990, its five post-war states were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional Land. They formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany; the reunion did not result in a brand-new country. The expanded Federal Republic retained West Germany's political culture and continued its existing memberships in international organisations, as well as its Western foreign policy alignment and affiliation to Western alliances like UN, NATO, OECD and the European Union; the official name of West Germany, adopted in 1949 and unchanged since is Bundesrepublik Deutschland. In East Germany, the terms Westdeutschland or westdeutsche Bundesrepublik were preferred during the 1950s and 1960s.
This changed once under its 1968 constitution, when the idea of a single German nation was abandoned by East Germany, as a result West Germans and West Berliners were considered foreigners. In the early 1970s, starting in the East German Neues Deutschland, the initialism "BRD" for the "Federal Republic of Germany" began to prevail in East German usage. In 1973, official East German sources adopted it as a standard expression and other Eastern Bloc nations soon followed suit. In reaction to this move, in 1965 the West German Federal Minister of All-German Affairs Erich Mende issued the Directives for the appellation of Germany, recommending avoiding the initialism. On 31 May 1974, the heads of West German federal and state governments recommended always using the full name in official publications. From on West German sources avoided the abbreviated form, with the exception of left-leaning organizations which embraced it. In November 1979 the federal government informed the Bundestag that the West German public broadcasters ARD and ZDF had agreed to refuse to use the initialism.
The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code of West Germany was "DE", which has remained the country code of Germany after reunification. ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 are the most used country codes, the "DE" code is notably used as country identifier extending the postal code and as the Internet's country code top-level domain.de. Accordingly the less used ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 country code of West Germany was "DEU", which has remained the country code of reunified Germany; the now deleted codes for East Germany, on the other hand, was "DD" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 and "DDR" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-3. The colloquial term "West Germany" or its equivalent was used in many languages. "Westdeutschland" was a widespread colloquial form used in German-speaking countries without political overtones. On 4–11 February 1945 leaders from the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union held the Yalta Conference where future arrangements as regards post-war Europe and strategy against Japan in the Pacific were negotiated.
The conference agreed that post-war Germany would be divided into four occupation zones: a French Zone in the far west.
Neunkirchen is a town and a municipality in Saarland, Germany. It is the largest town in, the seat of the district of Neunkirchen, it is situated on approx. 20 km northeast of Saarbrücken. With about 50,000 inhabitants, Neunkirchen is Saarland's second largest city; the name of the town derives from "An der neuen Kirche" meaning "by the new church" not from "nine churches" as one might be tempted to assume. In the past, Neunkirchen's economy has been shaped exclusively by coal and steel. With the decline of this industry sector, Neunkirchen's economy had to face drastic changes and underwent a significant shift towards the service and retail sector, although smaller industries still remain; the earliest settlements in the area can be dated back to 700 BC. The oldest part of the town is the village of Wiebelskirchen north of the town centre; the name "Neunkirchen" is recorded for the first time in 1281. Neunkirchen belonged to the principality of Nassau-Saarbrücken, who erected two castles nearby (which do not exist any more today, but the ruins of one of them are the base of a little park-like area.
The famous German poet and author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe visited Neunkirchen and described the Castle and the Ironworks. Neunkirchen was awarded township as late as 1922 after having been the largest village in Prussia for some time. On 10 February 1933, an explosion of a giant gas tank at the ironwork caused 68 casualties, 190 injured; the damage spread over a part of the factory and hit a nearby residential area and a school building. The duration of repair work and temporary closing of the damaged parts of the iron works was about nine months; this event caused worldwide media attention. Having a big ironworks complex right in the town centre made the town a target for Allied bomb raids in the Second World War. In 1945, an air raid destroyed about three quarters of the town centre. Due to that, there are many malfunctioning WW2 bombs that didn't explode and can be found today. On September 10, 1987, General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party Erich Honecker visited his birthplace Neunkirchen.
There are traces of surface coal mining that reach back as far as 700BC. On, coal was mined underground until 1968. In 1593, the first ironworks were constructed in the Blies valley; the iron ore used was from local origin. Much of the city's fate was influenced by the von Stumm-Halberg family, who owned the local ironworks from 1806 onwards, thus had enormous influence on the local politics. Due to the decline of the coal and steel industry, the local economy faced aggravating hardships. With the last coal mine closing down in 1968 and the major part of the ironworks complex closing down in 1982, the unemployment rate rose drastically. Meanwhile, the city has transformed into a "shopping town", a process, started with the construction of a large shopping centre on the grounds of the former steelworks. Remnants of the former steelworks that had not been destroyed meanwhile have been preserved and renovated, they now serve as an industrial monument. Erich Honecker, General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of East Germany from 1971–1989, Chairman of the Council of State of the German Democratic Republic from 1976–1989, was born in Neunkirchen and moved to Wiebelskirchen, a village that belongs to the city of Neunkirchen, but sits a little outside of the inner city area.
Erich Honecker, Leader of East Germany 1976-1989 Julius Adler, politician Member of Reichstag Walter Rilla, actor Karl Rawer, physicist Karl Ferdinand Werner and longtime director of the DHI Paris Stefan Kuntz, football player and coach Thomas Hayo, advertiser Alexandra Kertz-Welzel, Professor of Music Education at LMU Munich Shanta Ghosh, athlete Tobias Hans, politician Nora Gomringer, Swiss-German lyric writer and winner of the Ingeborg Bachmann Prize 2015 Johannes Wurtz, football player Al-Zabadani, Syria Mantes-la-Ville, France Lübben, Brandenburg Official website
Karlsberg is one of the largest breweries in Germany. It is called Karlsbräu outside of Germany to differentiate it from the Danish brewing company Carlsberg. Established 1878 in the town of Homburg, the brewery was named after the nearby hill and castle. Karlsberg's ownership has been handed down through generations; the current owner, Richard Weber, is the great-grandson of the brewery's founder. Karlsberg's brands include Karlsberg, Beckers and Kasteel which includes Kasteel Cru, a lager brewed in Saverne using champagne yeast; the Karlsberg Group owns and distributes other beer brands, among them the German brewery Königsbacher and the French brewery Brasserie de Saverne. The juice producers Merziger and Niehoffs Vaihinger belong to the company. In 2001 Karlsberg acquired controlling interest in the Mineralbrunnen Überkingen-Teinach company from Nestlé, including Afri-Cola and the mineral water brands Staatlich Fachingen and Hirschquelle from the Black Forest. Alcohol-free drinks today make up more than 50% of the company's turnover.
Beer in France List of brewing companies in Germany Karlsberg.org Karlsberg.de MiXery.de
The German Empire known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January 1871, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern. Berlin remained its capital, Otto von Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government; as these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War. The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families, they included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, one imperial territory. Although Prussia was one of several kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory.
Prussian dominance was established constitutionally. After 1850, the states of Germany had become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, Germany had a population of 41 million people. A rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. By 1900, Germany was the largest economy in Europe, surpassing the United Kingdom, as well as the second-largest in the world, behind only the United States. From 1867 to 1878/9, Otto von Bismarck's tenure as the first and to this day longest reigning Chancellor was marked by relative liberalism, but it became more conservative afterwards. Broad reforms and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office. Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the leftover territory, yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones.
As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers the British Empire. Germany became a great power, boasting a developing rail network, the world's strongest army, a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy. After the removal of Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II in 1890, the Empire embarked on Weltpolitik – a bellicose new course that contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In addition, Bismarck's successors were incapable of maintaining their predecessor's complex and overlapping alliances which had kept Germany from being diplomatically isolated; this period was marked by various factors influencing the Emperor's decisions, which were perceived as contradictory or unpredictable by the public. In 1879, the German Empire consolidated the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, followed by the Triple Alliance with Italy in 1882, it retained strong diplomatic ties to the Ottoman Empire. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.
In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris in the autumn of 1914 failed. The war on the Western Front became a stalemate; the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. However, Imperial Germany had success on the Eastern Front; the German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917, contributed to bringing the United States into the war. The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff controlled the country, but in October after the failed offensive in spring 1918, the German armies were in retreat, allies Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered; the Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution with the abdications of its monarchs. This left a postwar federal republic and a devastated and unsatisfied populace, which led to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism; the German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris.
German nationalism shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck's pragmatic Realpolitik. Bismarck sought to extend Hohenzollern hegemony throughout the German states, he envisioned a Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars led to military successes and helped to persuade German people to do this: the Second Schleswig War against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, the Franco-Prussian War against France in 1870–71; the German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between the constituent Confederation entities of the Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. The war resulted in the partial replacement of the Confederation in 1867 by a North German Confederation, comprising the 22 states north of the Main; the patriotic fervour generated by the Franco-Prussian War overwhelmed the remaining opposition to a unified Germany in the four stat
Saarbrücken is the capital and largest city of the state of Saarland, Germany. Saarbrücken is Saarland's administrative and cultural centre and is next to the French border. Saarbrücken was created in 1909 by the merger of three towns, Saarbrücken, St. Johann, Malstatt-Burbach, it was the industrial and transport centre of the Saar coal basin. Products included iron and steel, beer, optical instruments and construction materials. Historic landmarks in the city include the stone bridge across the Saar, the Gothic church of St. Arnual, the 18th-century Saarbrücken Castle, the old part of the town, the Sankt Johanner Markt. In the 20th century, Saarbrücken was twice separated from Germany: in 1920–35 as capital of the Territory of the Saar Basin and in 1947–56 as capital of the Saar Protectorate. In modern German, Saarbrücken translates to Saar bridges, indeed there are about a dozen bridges across the Saar river. However, the name predates the oldest bridge in the historic center of Saarbrücken, the Alte Brücke, by at least 500 years.
The name Saar stems from the Celtic word sara, the Roman name of the river, saravus. However, there are three theories about the origin of the second part of the name Saarbrücken; the most popular theory states that the historical name of the town, derived from the Celtic word briga, which became Brocken in High German. The castle of Sarabrucca was located on a large rock by the name of Saarbrocken overlooking the river Saar. A minority opinion holds that the historical name of the town, derived from the Old High German word Brucca, meaning bridge, or more a Corduroy road, used in fords. Next to the castle, there was a ford allowing land-traffic to cross the Saar. A rejected theory claims that the historical name of the town, derived from the Germanic word bruco. There is an area in St Johann called Bruchwiese, which used to be swampy before it was developed, there were flood-meadows along the river, those are marshy. However, the Saarbrücken area was first settled by Celts and not by Germanic peoples.
In the last centuries BC, the Mediomatrici settled in the Saarbrücken area. When Julius Caesar conquered Gaul in the 1st century BC, the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire. From the 1st century AD to the 5th century, there was the Gallo-Roman settlement called vicus Saravus west of Saarbrücken's Halberg hill, on the roads from Metz to Worms and from Trier to Strasbourg. Since the 1st or 2nd century AD, a wooden bridge upgraded to stone, connected vicus Saravus with the south-western bank of the Saar, today's St Arnual, where at least one Roman villa was located. In the 3rd century AD, a Mithras shrine was built in a cave in Halberg hill, on the eastern bank of the Saar river, next to today's old "Osthafen" harbor, a small Roman camp was constructed at the foot of Halberg hill next to the river. Toward the end of the 4th century, the Alemanni destroyed the castra and vicus Saravus, removing permanent human presence from the Saarbrücken area for a century; the Saar area came under the control of the Franks towards the end of the 5th century.
In the 6th century, the Merovingians gave the village Merkingen, which had formed on the ruins of the villa on the south-western end of the Roman bridge, to the Bishopric of Metz. Between 601 and 609, Bishop Arnual founded a community of a Stift, there. Centuries the Stift, in 1046 Merkingen, took on his name, giving birth to St Arnual; the oldest documentary reference to Saarbrücken is a deed of donation from 999, which documents that Emperor Otto III gave the "castellum Sarabrucca" to the Bishops of Metz. The Bishops gave the area to the Counts of Saargau as a fief. By 1120, the county of Saarbrücken had been formed and a small settlement around the castle developed. In 1168, Emperor Barbarossa ordered the slighting of Saarbrücken because of a feud with Count Simon I; the damage can not have been grave. In 1321/1322 Count Johann I of Saarbrücken-Commercy gave city status to the settlement of Saarbrücken and the fishing village of St Johann on the opposite bank of the Saar, introducing a joint administration and emancipating the inhabitants from serfdom.
From 1381 to 1793 the counts of Nassau-Saarbrücken were the main local rulers. In 1549, Emperor Charles V prompted the construction of the Alte Brücke connecting Saarbrücken and St Johann. At the beginning of the 17th century, Count Ludwig II ordered the construction of a new Renaissance-style castle on the site of the old castle, founded Saarbrücken's oldest secondary school, the Ludwigsgymnasium. During the Thirty Years' War, the population of Saarbrücken was reduced to just 70 by 1637, down from 4500 in 1628. During the Franco-Dutch War, King Louis XIV's troops burned down Saarbrücken in 1677 completely destroying the city such that just 8 houses remained standing; the area was incorporated into France for the first time in the 1680s. In 1697 France was forced to relinquish the Saar province, but from 1793 to 1815 regained control of the region. During the reign of Prince William Henry from 1741 to 1768, the coal mines were nationalized and his policies created a proto-industrialized economy, laying the foundation for Saarland's highly industrialized economy.
Saarbrücken was booming, Prince William Henry spent on building and on infrastructure like the Saarkran
Saarland University is a modern research university located in Saarbrücken, the capital of the German state of Saarland. It was founded in 1948 in Homburg in co-operation with France and is organized in six faculties that cover all major fields of science; the university is well known for research and education in computer science, computational linguistics and materials science ranking among the top in the country in those fields. In 2007, the university was recognized as an excellence center for computer science in Germany. Thanks to bilingual German and French staff, the University has an international profile, underlined by its proclamation as "European University" in 1950 and by establishment of Europa-Institut as its "crown and symbol" in 1951. Nine academics have been honored with the highest German research prize, the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize, while working at Saarland University. Saarland University, the first to be established after World War II, was founded in November 1948 with the support of the French Government and under the auspices of the University of Nancy.
At the time the Saarland found itself in the special situation of being autonomous and linked to France by economic and monetary union. With its combination of the German and French educational traditions and the dual languages of instruction, the university had a European perspective right from the start. Prior to the foundation of the university, clinical training courses for medical students at the state hospital, Saarland University Hospital, in Homburg, had been introduced in January 1946 and the "Centre Universitaire d'Etudes Supérieures de Hombourg" established on 8 May 1947 under the patronage of the University of Nancy. Students in certain disciplines can obtain degree certificates from both universities; the first president of the independent university in 1948 was Jean Barriol. In the same year the university introduced the first courses in law and languages. In the 1950s Saarland University joined the Association of West-German Universities and accepted a new, more centralized organizational structure.
The Europa-Institut is established. In 1990 the faculty of technology is established; the university gains leading research status in information technology. The university is headed by a board, which includes a president and five vice presidents, responsible for planning and strategy and technology transfer and administration and finance, respectively; the president is elected by the council in separate votes. The senate, consisting of nine professors, three students, three academic and two administrative staff members, acts as the legislative branch. Further, the university has a council which makes strategic decisions, allocates funding, supervises the board; the council's members are representatives of private companies and academic institutions including other universities, in addition to representatives of the university's professors, staff members, students. The university is divided into six faculties: Faculty of Human and Business Sciences Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology Faculty of Humanities Faculty of Law Saarland University is known for research in Computer Science, nano technology, European relations and law.
The university campus and the surrounding area is home to several specialized research institutes, affiliated with various high-profile independent research societies and private companies, focused on primary and applied research. Max Planck Institute for Computer Science Max Planck Institute for Software Systems German Research Centre for Artificial Intelligence - DFKI CISPA – Helmholtz Center for Information Security Dagstuhl, the Leibniz Center for Informatics Fraunhofer IZFP Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering Society for Environmentally Compatible Process Technology Institut of the society for the promotion of the applied information research Leibniz-Institute for New Materials INM KIST - Korea Institute of Science and Technology Europe Research Society. Intel Visual Computing Institute Centre for Bio-informatics Saar Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science - IFOMISThe university science park provides a startup incubator and a technology/research transfer environment for companies focused on IT, nanotechnology and biotechnology.
With its numerous degree programmes and the variety of final qualifications offered, Saarland University provides the broad spectrum of disciplines typical of a classical universitas litterarum. The more traditional subjects such as business administration and economics and medicine are just as much a part of Saarland University as the new degree programmes that have developed from modern interdisciplinary collaborations and which reflect the increasing demand for such qualifications in today's job market. Examples of these new courses include'Biology with Special Focus on Human Biology and Molecular Biology','Bioinformatics /Computational Biology','Mechatronics Engineering','Micro- and Nanostructured Materials','Computer and Communications Technology','Historically-oriented Cultural Studies' and'French Cultural Science and Intercultural Communication'. Integrated degree courses, which can lead to the award of a joint degree, are organized by Saarland University and foreign partner universities in the fields of business administration, chemistry, materials science and in the interdisciplinary programme'Cross-border Franco-German Studies'.
In the area of teacher training, Saarland University offe