U.S. Route 36
U. S. Route 36 is an east–west United States highway that travels 1,414 miles from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado to Uhrichsville, Ohio; the highway's western terminus is at Deer Ridge Junction, an intersection in Rocky Mountain National Park, where it meets US 34. Its eastern terminus is at US 250 in Ohio. US Route 36 begins at US 34 at Deer Ridge Junction in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado, just west of Estes Park, it passes through Boulder and Denver on its way to Kansas. Between Boulder and Denver, the road, now US 36 was built as the Denver-Boulder Turnpike, it serves today as a major arterial freeway in the Front Range Urban Corridor. Between Denver and Byers, US 36 exists in unsigned overlaps with I-270 and I-70, while some parts of its original route are signed separately as Colorado State Highway 36. After it diverges from I-70 in Byers, US 36 is a lightly-traveled two-lane rural highway to the Kansas state line. US-36 passes through all 13 counties in Kansas; the highway enters the Sunflower State from Colorado in Cheyenne County and shares a 7-mile concurrency through the town of St. Francis with K-27, the first north–south route intersected in Kansas.
K-27 splits east of St. Francis and heads south toward Goodland, US-36 continues through Bird City and McDonald before intersecting K-25 in Atwood, the seat of Rawlins County. US-36 continues east through Decatur County, intersecting with US-83 in Oberlin before beginning a concurrency with K-383 in Norton County, a concurrency which runs for 12 miles through the city of Norton, where it crosses US-283. K-383 splits in eastern Norton County and bends northeast toward Almena and the Nebraska state line, while US-36 enters Phillips County, picking up a brief concurrency with US-183 in Phillipsburg; the highway passes through the small towns of Agra and Kensington before reaching Smith Center, the seat of Smith County, where US-281 joins US-36 for a 12-mile concurrency. Near Lebanon, US-36 passes about 4 miles south of the Geographic center of the contiguous United States, indicated by a marker where US-281 splits northward to Lebanon; the road passes through unpopulated areas, except for the tiny town of Mankato in Jewell County.
At Belleville, the seat of Republic County, US-36 intersects US-81, a four-lane expressway which heads south toward Concordia and Salina, where it becomes Interstate 135 and continues south toward Wichita. US-81 northbound is a four-lane, at-grade expressway into Nebraska, where it passes through Hebron and Geneva before reaching Interstate 80 at York. After passing through Washington County, US-36 picks up brief concurrencies with US-77 in Marysville, the seat of Marshall County, with US-75 in Fairview. Between the junctions with US 77 and US 75, the highway passes through Nemaha County and its seat, Seneca. In Hiawatha, the seat of Brown County, US-36 intersects the concurrency of US-73 and US-159, before entering Doniphan County for its final trek through the state, passing through Troy and Elwood before crossing the Missouri River on the Pony Express Bridge and entering Missouri; the section of US-36 from Washington, Kansas to St. Joseph, Missouri is called the Pony Express Highway because it marks the starting section of the Pony Express.
It crosses the Missouri River on the Pony Express Bridge. From the western junction with K-383 to the Missouri state line, US-36 is part of the National Highway System. Except for wider sections in towns and passing lanes on hills, US-36 through Kansas is a two-lane surface road; however some of the principal intersections all along the road are grade-separated diamond interchanges. From the Little Blue River just west of the K-148 junction to the US-77 North junction just west of the Big Blue River at Marysville, US-36 is a four-lane divided surface highway. From Hiawatha to west of Wathena, the road is a two-lane freeway. After passing through Wathena as a surface street, it becomes a four-lane freeway to the Missouri state line. US 36 across Missouri is a four-lane expressway with some freeway sections, passing through or near St. Joseph, Chillicothe, Macon, Monroe City and Hannibal. Between I-35 in Cameron and the Illinois state line, it forms part of the principal route between Kansas City and Chicago.
In the state of Illinois, U. S. 36 runs concurrently with much of Interstate 72. It enters from Missouri across the Mississippi River on the Mark Twain Memorial Bridge, runs east, crossing Interstate 55 in Springfield. At the U. S. Route 51 bypass in Decatur, U. S. 36 runs due east through downtown Decatur. U. S. 36 continues east, through Tuscola and several smaller communities, to the Indiana border. US 36 enters Indiana near Dana in Vermillion County, it passes through the towns of Montezuma, Bainbridge and Avon before approaching Indianapolis. US 36 joins I-465, traveling around the south side of the city. East of the city, US travels northeast, it passes through Lawrence, McCordsville, Fortville before passing around the east side of Pendleton, where the route turns east. The route travels in a straight line, passing through Sulphur Springs, Losantville and Lynn before entering Ohio; the former routing through Indianapolis consisted of Rockville Road, Washington Street, West Street/Michigan Road, 38th Street, Pendleton Pike.
US 36 enters Ohio in Darke County near the small village of Palestine, after which it passes t
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
Waterville is a city in Marshall County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 680. Waterville was founded in 1868 by the railroad company, it was named after Waterville, the hometown of a railroad official. The first post office in Waterville was established in February 1868. Waterville was incorporated as a village in 1870, as a city the next year. Waterville is located at 39°41.5′N 96°45′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.50 square miles, of which, 0.49 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 680 people, 294 households, 192 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,387.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 331 housing units at an average density of 675.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.4% White, 0.3% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.1% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population.
There were 294 households of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.7% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.7% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 41 years. 26.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.1% male and 52.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 681 people, 292 households, 190 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,351.1 people per square mile. There were 328 housing units at an average density of 650.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.50% White, 0.29% Asian, 0.15% from other races, 2.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.17% of the population.
There were 292 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were non-families. 32.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 22.9% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 24.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,136, the median income for a family was $38,472. Males had a median income of $29,107 versus $18,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,833. About 8.0% of families and 10.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.6% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over.
Waterville is served by USD 498 Valley Heights. Valley Heights Jr/Sr High School is located halfway between the towns of Blue Rapids and Waterville; the Valley Heights mascot is Mustangs. Waterville High School was closed through school unification; the Waterville High School mascot was Waterville Yellow Jackets. Central Branch Union Pacific Railroad CityWaterville Chamber of Commerce Waterville - Directory of Public OfficialsSchoolsUSD 498, local school districtMapsWaterville City Map, KDOT
Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad is a freight hauling railroad that operates 8,500 locomotives over 32,100 route-miles in 23 states west of Chicago and New Orleans. The Union Pacific Railroad system is the second largest in the United States after the BNSF Railway and is one of the world's largest transportation companies; the Union Pacific Railroad is the principal operating company of the Union Pacific Corporation. Union Pacific is known for pioneering multiple innovative locomotives the most powerful of their era; these include members of the Challenger-type, the Northern-type, as well as the famous Big Boy steam locomotives. Union Pacific ordered the first streamliner, the largest fleet of turbine-electric locomotives in the world, still owns the largest operational diesel locomotive; the Union Pacific legacy began in 1862 with the original company, called the Union Pacific Rail Road, part of the First Transcontinental Railroad project known as the Overland Route. The railroad would subsequently be reorganized thrice: as the Union Pacific Railway, as the Union Pacific "Railroad", as a renamed Southern Pacific Transportation Company.
The current Union Pacific corporation began in 1969 as the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, itself created in a reorganization of a railroad whose legacy dated to 1865. Over the years it would grow to include the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad and the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, in addition to its eponymous railroad; the 1998 Union Pacific-Southern Pacific merger was not UP's first: Union Pacific had merged with Missouri Pacific Railroad, the Chicago and North Western Transportation Company, the Western Pacific Railroad and the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. However, because the merger with Southern Pacific changed the scope of the Union Pacific railroad, this article will refer to the unmerged system as Union Pacific, the merged system as Union Pacific. Union Pacific's main competitor is the BNSF Railway, the nation's largest freight railroad by volume, which primarily services the Continental U. S. west of the Mississippi River. Together, the two railroads have a duopoly on all transcontinental freight rail lines in the U.
S. The original company, the Union Pacific Rail Road was incorporated on July 1, 1862, under an act of Congress entitled Pacific Railroad Act of 1862; the act was approved by President Abraham Lincoln, it provided for the construction of railroads from the Missouri River to the Pacific as a war measure for the preservation of the Union. It was constructed westward from Council Bluffs, Iowa to meet the Central Pacific Railroad line, constructed eastward from Sacramento, CA; the combined Union Pacific-Central Pacific line became known as the First Transcontinental Railroad and the Overland Route. The line was constructed by Irish labor who had learned their craft during the recent Civil War. Under the guidance of its dominant stockholder Dr. Thomas Clark Durant, the namesake of the city of Durant, the first rails were laid in Omaha; the two lines were joined together at Promontory Summit, Utah, 53 miles west of Ogden on May 10, 1869, hence creating the first transcontinental railroad in North America.
Subsequently, the UP purchased three Mormon-built roads: the Utah Central Railroad extending south from Ogden to Salt Lake City, the Utah Southern Railroad extending south from Salt Lake City into the Utah Valley, the Utah Northern Railroad extending north from Ogden into Idaho. The original UP was entangled in the Crédit Mobilier scandal, exposed in 1872; as detailed by The Sun, Union Pacific's largest construction company, Crédit Mobilier, had overcharged Union Pacific. In order to convince the federal government to accept the increased costs, Crédit Mobilier had bribed congressmen. Although the UP corporation itself was not guilty of any misdeeds, prominent UP board members had been involved in the scheme; the ensuing financial crisis of 1873 led to a credit crunch, but not bankruptcy. As boom followed bust, the Union Pacific continued to expand; the original company was purchased by a new company on January 24, 1880, with dominant stockholder Jay Gould. Gould owned the Kansas Pacific, sought to merge it with UP.
Thusly was the original "Union Pacific Rail Road" transformed into "Union Pacific Railway."Extending towards the Pacific Northwest, Union Pacific built or purchased local lines that gave it access to Portland, Oregon. Towards Colorado, it built the Union Pacific and Gulf Railway: both narrow gauge trackage into the heart of the Rockies and a standard gauge line that ran south from Denver, across New Mexico, into Texas; the Union Pacific Railway would declare bankruptcy during the Panic of 1893. Again, a new Union Pacific "Railroad" was formed and Union Pacific "Railway" merged into the new corporation. In the early 20th century, Union Pacific's focus shifted from expansion to internal improvement. Recognizing that farmers in the Central and Salinas Valleys of California grew produce far in excess of local markets, Union Pacific worked with its rival Southern Pacific to develop a rail-based transport system, not vulnerable to spoilage; these efforts came culminated in the 1906 founding of
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Marshall County, Kansas
Marshall County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 10,117; the largest city and county seat is Marysville. The Oregon Trail crosses Marshall County; the Infamous Donner Reed Party rested along the banks of the Big Blue river and lost one of its members, Sarah Keyes, still buried at Alcove Springs. Many documented pioneer bodies are buried surrounding Alcove Spring. In 1849 Francis James Marshall, from Weston, came to Marshall County and established a ferry service on the Big Blue River at "Independence Crossing." A few years Francis Marshall decided to stay on in Marshall County and make it his home. He moved his Ferry business to an upper crossing now known as Marysville. On May 30, 1879, the "Irving, Kansas Tornado" passed through Marshall county; this tornado measured F4 on the Fujita scale and had a damage path 800 yards wide and 100 miles long. Eighteen people sixty were injured; the Marshall County Historical Society resides in the county's historic courthouse.
Which is now a Research Library. The building is beautiful. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 905 square miles, of which 900 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles is water. Pawnee County, Nebraska Nemaha County Pottawatomie County Riley County Washington County Gage County, Nebraska As of the census of 2000, there were 10,965 people, 4,458 households, 3,026 families residing in the county; the population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 4,999 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.14% White, 0.23% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. 0.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,458 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.70% were married couples living together, 5.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.10% were non-families.
29.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 23.60% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 22.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,089, the median income for a family was $39,705. Males had a median income of $28,361 versus $19,006 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,090. About 6.40% of families and 9.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.60% of those under age 18 and 9.10% of those age 65 or over. Marshall County is a Republican county; the county has not been carried by a Democratic candidate in a presidential election since 1932, & has only failed to back the Republican candidate in two other elections from 1888 on.
The closest Democrats have came to winning the county since 1932 were in 1964 when Barry Goldwater only won it by 98 votes in the midst of a national landslide by Lyndon B. Johnson & 1992 when George H. W. Bush only won it by eight votes in conjunction with Reform Party candidate Ross Perot winning a significant share of the vote. Marshall County was a prohibition, or "dry", county until the Kansas Constitution was amended in 1986 and voters approved the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink with a 30 percent food sales requirement. Marysville USD 364 Vermillion USD 380 Valley Heights USD 498HistoricalAxtell USD 488 and Sabetha USD 441 consolidated to create Prairie Hills USD 113. Home Marshall County is divided into twenty-five townships; the city of Marysville is considered governmentally independent and is excluded from the census figures for the townships. In the following table, the population center is the largest city included in that township's population total, if it is of a significant size.
Frank Wayenberg - pitcher for the Cleveland Indians in 1924. Butch Nieman - born in Herkimer, played outfield for the Boston Braves from 1943 to 1945. Don Songer - pitcher for the Pittsburgh Pirates from 1924 to 1927 and the New York Giants in 1927. National Register of Historic Places listings in Marshall County, Kansas Atlas of Marshall County, Kansas. Plat Book of Marshall County, Kansas. Handbook of Marshall County, Kansas. CountyMarshall County - Official Marshall County - Directory of Public OfficialsHistoricalMarysville MuseumTornadosIrving, KS Tornado Historical TornadoMapsMarshall County Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Highway Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Railroad Maps: Current, 1996, 1915, KDOT and Kansas Historical Society
Kansas is a U. S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, with its most populated county being Johnson County. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe; the tribe's name is said to mean "people of the wind" although this was not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1827 with the establishment of Fort Leavenworth; the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery debate. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. government in 1854 with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine whether Kansas would become a free state or a slave state.
Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists prevailed, on January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th-largest state by area and is the 34th most-populous of the 50 states with a population of 2,911,505. Residents of Kansas are called Kansans. Mount Sunflower is Kansas's highest point at 4,041 feet. For a millennium, the land, Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans; the first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was acquired by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, was still a part of Spain and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, when these lands were ceded to the United States.
From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state; the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing Nebraska Territory and Kansas Territory, opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo. Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border; these settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.
Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to join the United States. By that time the violence in Kansas had subsided, but during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly 200 people, he was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record. After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas. Many African Americans looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown" and, led by freedmen like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, began establishing black colonies in the state. Leaving southern states in the late 1870s because of increasing discrimination, they became known as Exodusters. At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West-era commenced in Kansas.
Wild Bill Hickok was a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. In one year alone, eight million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns." In response to demands of Methodists and other evangelical Protestants, in 1881 Kansas became the first U. S. state to adopt a constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages, repealed in 1948. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; the state is divided into 105 counties with 628 cities, is located equidistant from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is in Smith County near Lebanon; until 1989, the Meades Ranch Triangulation Station in Osborne County was the geodetic center of North America: the central reference point for all maps of North America. The geographic center of Kansas is in Barton County. Kansas is underlain by a sequence of horizontal to westward dipping sedimentary rocks.
A sequence of Mississippian and Permian rocks outcrop in the eastern and southern part of the state