Hot Telecommunication Systems Ltd. is a company that provides cable television, last-mile Internet access and telecommunication services in Israel. It provides various data transmission services and network services at different rates, services to the business sector and other ancillary services. In November 2004, Hot Telecom commenced providing domestic fixed line telephone services to residential and business subscribers; the company’s shares were traded on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange and was a constitute of the TA-100 Index until its acquisition by Altice. In March 2013, the company employed 3,958 workers; the company was founded on August 18, 2003 as union of the three national cable companies in Israel – Matav and Golden Channels that can be directly linked to the growing competition of the local satellite television provider Yes. While these companies had pursued a union since the late 1990s in order to save administrative and content purchasing costs, after Yes was founded in order to annihilate it before it could grow, the Israeli government monopoly regulator had denied it until the time when Yes had grown at least a minimum subscriber base.
The three original companies had not competed with each other since each had been regulated with specific cities and regions around the country. Hot offers about 200 foreign-language channels in its digital television services. Hot offers several'exclusive' channels under the Hot brand name. In addition to the digital television services, Hot still provides an analog television service, despite plans to abandon it by 2012, but it has disconnected the analog service in many areas including central Israel, in favor of digital signals. Many HOT subscribers must now have a digital converter box installed if they wish to view broadcasts. Not long after it was created, Hot began offering local telecom service using VoIP, a voice-over-internet technology, internet access services as well. Hot is only permitted to offer last mile access; as of 2006, Hot has about 950,000 clients - 60% of these are using the digital television services, over 400,000 are using the internet services and over 100,000 are using the phone services.
As of late 2005, Hot offers a wide VOD service, offering contents from all channels and content, not broadcast by other companies. Hot has a "start over" service in a few of Hot owned channels, as of 2008. In 2009, businessman Patrick Drahi increased his stake in the company. Drahi completed the takeover in 2011, offered to buy remaining shares in 2012; as a result, Hot is a part of Drahi's company, Altice Europe NV, as of 2018. In December 2010, Hot received a license to operate an Internet service provider in the form of a child company. In 2018, Hot started broadcasting the Kan11 channel at 4K resolution for the first time at channel 511. Hot has been criticized for refusing to provide service to certain areas of Israel, despite being bound by contract to do so. Regions lacking are those that are predominantly Haredi and Arab-Israeli, as well as the Arava. Hot responded that it provided service for 95–98% of the country, sought an official exemption from providing them to certain areas, where the decision lies with the Communications Ministry.
Hot has been accused of using extortionist tactics in its customer service, including refusal to log customer requests to cancel service, sending repeated bills after termination of service. Hot used to be well known for the longest waiting times for customer service in Israel, they forced to get their await time from hours to 3 minutes and the option to get a callback. HOT3 - The main channel of Hot, which airs US shows, as well as original Israeli shows. Yes - the competing satellite television provider. Official website Hot TV Guide Cable Internet – support site Hot Customer Service Hot Customer Service stories List of Hot channels
Herndon is a town in Fairfax County, Virginia, in the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area of the United States. The population was 23,292 at the 2010 census, which makes it the largest of three incorporated towns in the county. Herndon was named for Commander William Lewis Herndon, American naval explorer and author of Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon. Commander Herndon captained the ill-fated steamer SS Central America, going down with his ship while helping to save over 150 of its passengers and crew; the settlement was named Herndon in 1858. In the 1870s, many Northern soldiers and their families came to settle in the area, taking advantage of moderate climate and low land prices. Herndon offered a group of friendly and local Native Americans who helped the town to prosper via trade and instruction. Part of the rural surroundings of the Washington, D. C. area, the town of Herndon developed into a hub of dairy farming and vacationing for area residents, aided by its presence along the Alexandria and Hampshire Railroad.
When the railroad was converted into a hike-and-bike trail, Herndon capitalized on history and small-town feel by converting its train station into a museum and visitors center and by relocating a Norfolk Southern Railway caboose to a nearby site and repainting it in W&OD livery. The caboose was acquired in 1989 by Herndon Historical Society member, George Moore, to whose memory the caboose was dedicated after his death in 2003. Although the caboose itself never traveled through Herndon, it remains an iconic part of the downtown area that both locals and tourists visit daily; the caboose and station offer a glimpse of the original downtown's historic charm, which residents are passionate about preserving. On January 14, 2004, the Town of Herndon commemorated its 125th anniversary; the town of Herndon was part of a nationally reported controversy involving illegal immigration beginning in 2005. The controversy revolved around a day labor center called the Herndon Official Worker Center, operated by Reston Interfaith's Project Hope and Harmony under a grant from surrounding Fairfax County.
The HOW Center was created on March 23, 2006 in response to daily gatherings of Hispanic workers at a local 7-Eleven store. The 2006 election for Mayor and Town Council revolved around the issue, resulted in unseating the pro-center Mayor and two councilmembers; the center closed after less than two years of operation, in September 2007. The Herndon Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Herndon is located at 38°58′17″N 77°23′19″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.2 square miles, all of it land. Just over two acres of land in the town are technically in Loudoun County; as of the census of 2010, there were 23,292 people, 7,472 households, 5,357 families residing in the town. The population density was 5,129.9 people per square mile. There were 7,190 housing units at an average density of 1,703.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 50.7% White, 9.5% Black, 0.7% Native American, 17.9% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 16.0% from other races, 5.2% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 33.6% of the population. There were 6,962 households, of which 41.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.8% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.6% were non-families. 20.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.11 and the average family size was 3.54. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, 3.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 111.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $72,912, the median income for a family was $79,140. Males had a median income of $44,197 versus $35,548 for females; the per capita income for the town was $26,941. About 4.7% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.1% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over.
Herndon is part of the Dulles Technology Corridor, which Fortune magazine named the "Netplex" because of the presence of the headquarters of such companies as AOL, XO Communications, Verizon Business, Network Solutions, which began as the INTERNIC – the registry where every domain name was once administered. Some of those companies are within Herndon. Others have Herndon mailing addresses, but are located in unincorporated Fairfax or Loudoun counties; these include Deltek and K12. According to the Town's 2014 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the Town are: The town is organized as an incorporated town by the Commonwealth of Virginia, is governed by an elected Mayor and Town Council who serve on a part-time basis; the current Mayor is Lisa C. Merkel, first elected to Council in 2010 and served as Vice Mayor until her election as Mayor in 2012; the Mayor heads the executive branch of the town government. The Police Department, independent of the county police department, is headed by Colonel Maggie DeBoard. and consis
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, similar non-television services may be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" is a television network available via cable television; when available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and Sky, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being used in legal contexts.
Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, Cinemax, MTV, Cartoon Network, AXN, E!, FX, Discovery Channel, Canal+, Fox Sports, Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, CNN International, ESPN. The abbreviation CATV is used for cable television, it stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, cable was run from them to individual homes; the origins of cable broadcasting for radio are older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924. To receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer's building through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one.
The standard cable used in the U. S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, connects with a type F connector. The cable company's portion of the wiring ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, built-in cable wiring in the walls distributes the signal to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter. There are two standards for cable television. All cable companies in the United States have switched to or are in the course of switching to digital cable television since it was first introduced in the late 1990s. Most cable companies require a set-top box or a slot on one's TV set for conditional access module cards to view their cable channels on newer televisions with digital cable QAM tuners, because most digital cable channels are now encrypted, or "scrambled", to reduce cable service theft. A cable from the jack in the wall is attached to the input of the box, an output cable from the box is attached to the television the RF-IN or composite input on older TVs.
Since the set-top box only decodes the single channel, being watched, each television in the house requires a separate box. Some unencrypted channels traditional over-the-air broadcast networks, can be displayed without a receiver box; the cable company will provide set top boxes based on the level of service a customer purchases, from basic set top boxes with a standard definition picture connected through the standard coaxial connection on the TV, to high-definition wireless DVR receivers connected via HDMI or component. Older analog television sets are "cable ready" and can receive the old analog cable without a set-top box. To receive digital cable channels on an analog television set unencrypted ones, requires a different type of box, a digital television adapter supplied by the cable company. A new distribution method that takes advantage of the low cost high quality DVB distribution to residential areas, uses TV gateways to convert the DVB-C, DVB-C2 stream to IP for distribution of TV over IP network in the home.
In the most common system, multiple television channels are distributed to subscriber residences through a coaxial cable, which comes from a trunkline supported on utility poles originating at the cable company's local distribution facility, called the "headend". Many channels can be transmitted through one coaxial cable by a technique called frequency division multiplexing. At the headend, each television channel is translated to a different frequency. By giving each channel a different frequency "slot" on the cable, the separate television signals do not interfere with each other. At an outdoor cable box on the subscriber's residence the company's service drop cable is connected to cables distributing the signal to different rooms in the building. At each television, the subscriber's television or a set-top box provided by the cable company translates the desired channel back to its original frequency, it is displayed onscreen. Due to widespread cable theft in earlier analog systems, the signals are encrypted on m
Safaricom PLC is a listed Kenyan mobile network operator headquartered at Safaricom House in Nairobi, Kenya. It is the largest telecommunications provider in Kenya, one of the most profitable companies in the East and Central African region; the company offers mobile telephony, mobile money transfer, consumer electronics, cloud computing, music streaming, fibre optic services. It is most renowned as the home of a mobile banking SMS-based service. Safaricom controls 64.2 percent of the Kenyan market as at December 2018. Safaricom had a subscriber base estimated at 25.7 million. Safaricom was formed in 1997 as a owned subsidiary of Telkom Kenya, In May 2000, Vodafone Group PLC of the United Kingdom acquired a 40% stake and management responsibility for the company. In 2008, the government offered 25% of its shares to the public through the Nairobi Securities Exchange. Safaricom was ranked as Africa's Best Employer, 67th in the World by the Forbes Global 200 list of World's Best Employers. In March 2018, Safaricom was ranked as the #1 company to work for in the annual BrighterMonday Best 100 Companies to Work for in Kenya according to career professionals and job seekers.
As of December 2017, Safaricom employed over 5,000 people, of whom 75 percent were based in Nairobi, with the remainder based in other big cities like Mombasa, Kisumu and Eldoret, in which it operates retail outlets. It has nationwide dealerships to ensure customers across the country have access to its products and services. In November 2012, Safaricom announced it would be offering a new mobile phone banking product in conjunction with the Commercial Bank of Africa, tapping into an underdeveloped financial services market, its current CEO Bob Collymore succeeded founding CEO, Michael Joseph on November 1, 2010. 2G service on 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. 3G DC-HSPA+ service on 900 MHz & 2100 MHz. Safaricom launched LTE-A service in Nairobi and Mombasa on band 20 and band 3 in December 2014 and has expanded to other cities. Safaricom's competitors, Airtel Kenya and Telkom Kenya have expressed dissatisfaction with the way the regulatory body Communications Authority of Kenya, awarded Safaricom its LTE license to operate at 800 MHz.
Safaricom was the first company in Kenya to possess 3G Internet technology with recent success of 4G / LTE connectivity in all major Kenyan cities. As a result of the limited income of most of Safaricom's customers, network congestion emerges from a practice called'flashing'. Flashing is the practice of calling another mobile user, but disconnecting before the connected call is answered, it provides a method for mobile users to alert someone that they wish to be called, but either can't, or won't, pay for the call. The method is cost-free for the users; that is why Safaricom introduced a flashback service that gave every subscriber five free SMS messages with a single predefined message stating "Please call me. Thank you". Although the messages can be annoying when sent just for fun they can prove useful when one is in trouble and has no airtime, it gives parents more of a reason to get mobile phones for their children without the real need for getting them airtime. Safaricom launched the Kipokezi service in May 2000 that enabled its subscribers to send and receive email and online chat through standard mobile phones.
The service does not require users to have an Internet connection as it uses ForgetMeNot Africa’s Handset Initiation technology. Prior to the service fewer than one in ten Kenyans had accessed the Internet but the Kipokezi launch allowed more than a third of the population to exchange email and online chat messages; this system is remotely comparable to hawala banking or services like Western Union. An M-PESA-enabled mobile phone can function as an electronic wallet and can hold up to 100,000 Kenyan shilling. Safaricom has announced. M-PESA is a mobile phone-based money transfer and micro financing service, launched in 2007 by Vodafone for Safaricom and Vodacom. M-PESA was designed as a system to allow microfinance-loan repayments to be made by phone, reducing the costs associated with handling cash. After the pilot testing it was broadened to become a general money-transfer scheme. Once a user registers for M-PESA, they pay money into the system by handing cash to an M-Pesa agent, who credits the money to the user's M-Pesa account.
The user gets an SMS notifying them of the trancellulantsaction. A user withdraws money by visiting an agent, who checks that the user has sufficient funds before debiting the user's account and handing over the cash. An M-Pesa user can transfer money to others using a menu on their phone. Cash can thus be sent one place to another safely and easily; this is in contrast to the preferred system before where money was sent by a porter a friend, relative or bus crew, to the intended recipient. M-PESA was first launched by the Kenyan mobile network operator Safaricom, where Vodafone was technically a minority shareholder, in March 2007. M-PESA captured a significant market share for cash transfers and grew to 17 million subscribers by December 2011 in Kenya alone The growth of the service forced formal banking institutions to take note of the new venture. In December 2008, a group of banks lobbied the Kenyan finance minister to audit M-PESA, in an effort to at least slow the growth of the service.
This ploy failed. At this time, The Banking Act did not provide the basis to regulate products offered by non-banks, of which M-PESA was one su
SES S. A. is a communications satellite owner and operator providing video and data connectivity worldwide to broadcasters and internet service providers and fixed network operators and institutions, with a mission to "connect and enrich". SES is one of the world’s leading satellite operators with over 70 satellites in two different orbits, geostationary orbit and medium Earth orbit; these include the well-known European Astra TV satellites, the O3b data satellites and others with names including AMC, Ciel, NSS, YahSat and SES. Based in Betzdorf and founded in 1985 as Société Européenne des Satellites, the company was renamed SES Global in 2001 and has been "SES" since 2006; the company's stock is listed on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange and Euronext Paris with ticker symbol SESG and is a component of the LuxX, CAC Next 20 and Euronext 100 stock market indexes. A book, High Above, telling the story of the founding of SES and the development of its first Astra satellites was published in 2010 to mark the company's 25th Anniversary, was followed by Even Higher in 2012 and Beyond Frontiers in 2016.
SES provides services through two business units, SES Video and SES Networks, for video-centric and data-centric markets, respectively. > SES Video's business comprises video video services. Video distribution delivers video content via Direct-to-Home, Direct-to-Cable and Internet Protocol TV platforms, includes wholly owned subsidiary HD+, the direct-to-consumer high-definition digital satellite TV platform in Germany. Video services encompasses technical ground services, such as content management, encryption, satellite uplinks and interactive services, to broadcasters worldwide through the MX1 division). SES has been a major player in the development of the direct-to-home market in Europe and the cable TV and DBS markets in the U. S. SES satellites transmit a variety of digital formats from radio to Ultra High Definition TV and the company has been instrumental in defining technical standards for broadcast and interactive media. SES satellites carry over 8,020 TV channels, including about 3,000 HD and UHD channels, to more than 1 billion people in 351 million homes globally, or regionally as follows: SES Networks provides managed connectivity services to customers in markets including telecommunications, Cloud computing, commercial air and shipping, holiday cruises, energy and government and institutional areas, with end users of the technology including internet users in remote regions, air and at sea travellers, mines and humanitarian missions.
SES Networks includes SES subsidiaries SES Government Solutions and SES Techcom Services, GovSat, a public-private partnership with 50% SES participation. Services include capacity-on-demand, mobile backhaul solutions anywhere on the planet for telcos and Mobile Network Operators, reliable network connections for mining and energy companies in remote ocations, critical connectivity, deployable in challenging and remote situations, for 62 government defence and humanitarian operations in 28 countries. SES Networks delivers broadband connectivity for maritime vessels in any body of water or port in the world and in-flight services to aircraft ranging from secure cockpit communications to passenger connectivity and entertainment, through providers such as Global Eagle Entertainment, Gogo and Panasonic Avionics. Using medium Earth orbit satellites, SES Networks is able to supply these services with a low-latency, scalable satellite-based communications and network services worldwide. SES has pioneered many industry technological developments, including DTH transmission, co-location of satellites, free-to-air broadcast neighbourhoods, digital broadcasting, HDTV and 3DTV.
SES has helped develop innovative reception technology such as the first home dish LNBFs, Universal LNBs, optical fibre signal distribution and the SAT>IP system for receiving and distributing satellite signals over home computer networks. SES is pioneering the broadcast of next generation Ultra High Definition TV and helping to establish the international technical standards for UHD broadcast and reception. SES first produced demonstration UHD broadcasts in 2012 and transmitted the first HEVC-standard UHD TV in 2013. A continuous SES UHD demonstration channel is broadcast to Europe from SES’ Astra 19.2°E satellite position and Europe's first free-to-air Ultra HD channel launched in September 2015, broadcast via Astra 19.2°E. As of April 2016, SES broadcasts 23 Ultra HD channels. SES-8 was the first geostationary satellite to be launched by SpaceX, which has revolutionised the costs of satellite launches; the SES-10 satellite, was launched in March 2017 on the first SpaceX launch with a'flight-proven' Falcon first stage, recovered from a previous launch.
The SES-12, SES-14 and SES-15 satellites are constructed with an electric plasma propulsion system for orbit raising and in-orbit manoeuvres to save weight and enable a larger communications payload to be included. SES reckons that SES-12 would weigh some 4700 kg more with a conventional chemical propulsion system. SES is the first commercial customer for SIS's future satellite life extension mission, following an agreement in June 2017 with MDA; the SIS craft is being built by Space Systems/Loral, a manufacturing subsidiary of MDA, for the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ’s Robotic Servicing of Geosynchronous
TransACT is the trading name of TransACT Capital Communications, an Australian telecommunications company based in Canberra which provides broadband internet access, fixed telephony, cable television services, mobile phone services in Canberra and a subset of these services in Queanbeyan, throughout South-east New South Wales and in Victoria. In November 2011, TransACT was acquired by iiNet Limited, which in 2015 itself became a subsidiary of TPG, it continues to trade as TransACT. The company was part-owned by Actew Corporation a 50% joint venture partner in ActewAGL. TransACT was launched in 1996 by a small team comprising Robin Eckermann, Joe Ceccato, Robert Clarke and Jane Taylor, working under the guidance of ACTEW Executive Neville Smith; the company adopted an Open Access Network business model, separating the wholesale and retail businesses. TransACT operates in collaboration with ten ISPs, comprising a mix of large national organisations and smaller local operations. One of the ISPs, owned by both TransACT and ActewAGL became a wholly owned subsidiary in March 2010.
The company has an extensive fibre network in the ACT. SDH, ATM and IP/MPLS Metro Ethernet technologies are used to deliver services via dedicated hubs or gateways that are built around the region. Services are delivered to various businesses, government departments and residential customers via a diverse range of access networks. At the end of 2007, the company acquired the regional Victoria telecommunications company Neighbourhood Cable, with its hybrid fibre coaxial cable networks and customers in three Victorian regional cities of Mildura and Geelong, rebranded it as TransACT in June 2011; the first broadband platform rolled out known as Phase 1 network was based on FTTC design with nodes being placed within 300 metres of premises. SDH backbone is used to transport voice and video whereas VDSL technology is used as the access network to get customers connected to TransACT's high-speed broadband and digital TV services. Coincidentally, TransACT became the first telco in Australia to implement this particular high-speed broadband technology much superior to ADSL, prominent throughout the country at that time.
TransACT remains as the only telco to support VDSL and the products are still sold with network reach-ability to over 55,000 homes in the ACT. The Phase 2 rollout involved TransACT placing its own DSLAM equipment within Telstra exchanges and utilising their own fibre-optic backhaul to their main data centre in Dickson, ACT. TransACT completed their ADSL 2/2+ rollout on 1 March 2007; the Phase 2 network is available to anyone outside Phase 1 with a Telstra phone line in Canberra and Queanbeyan, as long as they are within sufficient distance of their telephone exchange – as with any ADSL service. In 2009, TransACT commenced a greenfield rollout and upgrade of existing VDSL access network to VDSL2, the most advanced and fastest digital subscriber line broadband technology commercially available, commencing with a number of medium- to high-density developments in Canberra's more established suburbs; the upgrade increases broadband speeds by up to four times, compared to the fastest existing ADSL2+ networks used by most carriers.
As with the existing VDSL network, VDSL2 products include triple-play services. By mid-2009, multiples sites including The Avenue on Northbourne Avenue, Skyplaza in Woden and The Gateway at Kingston Foreshore were upgraded to VDSL2 with more projects underway; the telco is the first in the country to build a dedicated G.984 based FTTH or FTTP gateway and the first provider in Australia to offer broadband services at up to 100 Mbit/s download and 20 Mbit/s upload speeds which were made available on 4 September 2009. The gateway build in the suburb of Forde close to the Gungahlin township trunks back to TransACT's core network in Dickson via a high-bandwidth MPLS backbone. With such infrastructure in place, TransACT is able to offer triple-play services to customers via fibre without the need for any copper in the path, thus enabling higher bit-rates. Similar PON technology and network hierarchy has been chosen by NBNco Limited, the company established in 2009 to design and operate the National Broadband Network As of end of 2009, five new greenfield suburbs, namely Forde, Crace, Bonner, some parts of Kingston and the Flemington road corridor, were all wired up for this next-generation technology with many new suburbs expected to come on board in the ACT region.
As of mid-2010, the total number of premises passed through had reached 11,000. TransACT offers a range of wholesale services to business and ISP customers, including Colocation, IP transit, data centre services, VPN, managed services, point-to-point and point-to-multipoint services including VPWS and VPLS services of up to 1 Gbit/s for customers anywhere on their network. In July 2010, they launched the'eHub', Australia's first commercial IPTV product bundled with a set-top box capable of handling high-definition video with an onboard personal video recorder. TransACT is the naming rights sponsor of the TransACT Canberra Capitals, a Canberra team competing in the Women's National Basketball League from October to February each year. TransACT first sponsored the Capitals in 2000, when the new company was looking for a community partner. In November 2011, iiNet confirmed plans to acquire TransACT for $60m. At the time TransACT had about 40,000 customers throughout the ACT, Queanbeyan and regional Victoria, across the residential and government sectors, had "total recurring annual revenue" of about $80 million and earnin
Rostelecom is Russia's leading long-distance telephony provider. Domestic long distance service provides about 50% of the company's revenue. Rostelecom interconnects all local public operators’ networks into a single national network for long-distance service. In other words, if one makes a long distance call or originates Internet contact to or from Russia, it is that Rostelecom is providing part of the service; the company's stock trades on the Moscow Exchange. Prior to 1990, responsibility for the provision of telecommunications services lie at the Ministry of Communications of the USSR. On June 26, 1990, the Ministry of Communications of the USSR established a state-owned joint-stock company Sovtelekom, given the rights to operate the telecommunications network of the USSR. On December 30, 1992, by order of the State Property Committee of Russia, a state-owned enterprise Rostelecom, which consisted of 20 state long-distance and international calls, as well as communication equipment Intertelekom was organized.
Throughout the'90s, the company, part of Svyazinvest, was the sole long-distance operator in Russia. Alongside it, local companies operated in the different regions of Russia under the umbrella of Svyazinvest while Rostelecom connected between their networks. In 2001, these companies were merged to form a number of regional incumbent telecommunications operators: CentreTelecom, SibirTelecom, Uralsvyazinform, VolgaTelecom, North-West Telecom, Southern Telecommunications Company and Dagsvyazinform. On 2011, Svyazinvest was liquidated with the regional subsidiaries merged into Rostelecom. On October 18, 2006 "Rostelecom" received a certificate of quality of IP-MPLS network and became the ISP backbone. In December 2006, Rostelecom and the telecommunications company KDDI in Japan under the "Transit Europe - Asia" signed an agreement to build a line of Nakhodka - Naoetsu with total bandwidth of 640 Gbit/s instead of the previous 560 Mbit/s. Owners of Rostelecom as of September 2018: Federal Agency for State Property Management OAO MobiTel Vnesheconombank Rostelecom has the largest domestic backbone network and last mile connections to 35 million households in Russia.
The Company holds licences to provide a wide range of telecommunications services to residential and governmental subscribers and third party operators across all regions of the Russian Federation. The company offers "Karta Svyazi" a user-friendly prepaid long-distance telephone card service designed to provide telephony and access to the internet for people on the go; the company's network is based on extant Russian fiber-optic cable lines - FOCL. By cable the network is connected to countries in East Asia. Fiber-optic cable lines crosses Russian Federation on directions «Moscow — Novorossiysk», «Moscow — Khabarovsk» and «Moscow — Saint Petersburg». IP transit has been allocated to a separate company, RTComm, using Rostelecom's STM-16 FOCL resources, but Rostelecom is building its own STM-64 network, which as of August 2006, covered Rostov-on-Don, Volgograd and planned to cover the whole of Russia by the end of 2006. Rostelecom had 29.2 million local fixed-line voice subscribers, 12.4 million mobile voice subscribers, 7.4 million fixed-line broadband subscribers and 5.5 million pay-TV subscribers at the end of the first quarter of 2010.
Using the services of the Russian Orbital Group, Rostelecom has built its satellite system for its Eastern region, comprising 11 land stations in Siberia and the Russian Far East. Satellite service for the Western region is being built at this time. Throughout the 90s Rostelecom created subsidiaries that operated cellular networks in different regions of the country, including NSS, Yeniseikom, SkyLink, Volgograd GSM and Akos which provided mobile services on the territory of 59 regions of Russia, serving more than 13.5 million subscribers. During the 2010s, Rostelecom and its subsidiaries built mobile networks of the third generation in 27 regions of Russia. Total planned to install more than 8 thousand base stations. Suppliers of equipment and solutions for the 3G + network are Huawei. On April 2013 the company announced the launch of 3G+ networks in the Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions, in the south of the Tyumen Oblast and in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area; this launch followed the introduction of 3G+ services in Perm Krai.
Rostelecom’s 3G+ network was installed using HSPA+ technology, providing data transfer speeds of up to 21MB/s, with the possibility of upgrading the network to reach speeds of up to 42MB/s if demand requires. The 3G+ network is LTE-ready, so that only minor modifications will be required before the Company can roll out its 4G network in the future. On June 2013 Rostelecom launched its first part of its LTE network in Sochi for the 2014 Winter Olympics. Besides, the company launched LTE networks in 8 other regions besides Karsnodar Krai by the end of 2013, including Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Sakhalin Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Nenets Autonomous Okrug and the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. In December 2013, Rostelecom board approved a plan to merge its mobile business into Tele2 Russia, former division of Nordic telecoms group Tele2 which sold it in April 2013 to VTB Bank due to the lack of 3G and 4G data licences, limiting its future growth prospects.
Rostelecom would get a 45% voting stake in the new company, T2 RTK Holding, in exchange for contributing its standalone mobile subsidiaries and assets, including SkyLink. Tele2 Russia, owned by state