France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
A touchscreen, or touch screen, is an input device and layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an information processing system. A user can give input or control the information processing system through simple or multi-touch gestures by touching the screen with a special stylus or one or more fingers; some touchscreens use ordinary or specially coated gloves to work while others may only work using a special stylus or pen. The user can use the touchscreen to react to what is displayed and, if the software allows, to control how it is displayed; the touchscreen enables the user to interact directly with what is displayed, rather than using a mouse, touchpad, or other such devices. Touchscreens are common in devices such as Nintendo game consoles, personal computers, electronic voting machines, point-of-sale systems, they can be attached to computers or, as terminals, to networks. They play a prominent role in the design of digital appliances such as personal digital assistants and some e-readers.
The popularity of smartphones and many types of information appliances is driving the demand and acceptance of common touchscreens for portable and functional electronics. Touchscreens are found in the medical field, heavy industry, automated teller machines, kiosks such as museum displays or room automation, where keyboard and mouse systems do not allow a suitably intuitive, rapid, or accurate interaction by the user with the display's content; the touchscreen sensor and its accompanying controller-based firmware have been made available by a wide array of after-market system integrators, not by display, chip, or motherboard manufacturers. Display manufacturers and chip manufacturers have acknowledged the trend toward acceptance of touchscreens as a user interface component and have begun to integrate touchscreens into the fundamental design of their products. Eric Johnson, of the Royal Radar Establishment, located in Malvern, described his work on capacitive touchscreens in a short article published in 1965 and more fully—with photographs and diagrams—in an article published in 1967.
The application of touch technology for air traffic control was described in an article published in 1968. Frank Beck and Bent Stumpe, engineers from CERN, developed a transparent touchscreen in the early 1970s, based on Stumpe's work at a television factory in the early 1960s. Manufactured by CERN, it was put to use in 1973. A resistive touchscreen was developed by American inventor George Samuel Hurst, who received US patent No. 3,911,215 on October 7, 1975. The first version was produced in 1982. In 1972, a group at the University of Illinois filed for a patent on an optical touchscreen that became a standard part of the Magnavox Plato IV Student Terminal and thousands were built for this purpose; these touchscreens had a crossed array of 16×16 infrared position sensors, each composed of an LED on one edge of the screen and a matched phototransistor on the other edge, all mounted in front of a monochrome plasma display panel. This arrangement could sense any fingertip-sized opaque object in close proximity to the screen.
A similar touchscreen was used on the HP-150 starting in 1983. The HP 150 was one of the world's earliest commercial touchscreen computers. HP mounted their infrared transmitters and receivers around the bezel of a 9-inch Sony cathode ray tube. In 1984, Fujitsu released a touch pad for the Micro 16 to accommodate the complexity of kanji characters, which were stored as tiled graphics. In 1985, Sega released the Terebi Oekaki known as the Sega Graphic Board, for the SG-1000 video game console and SC-3000 home computer, it consisted of a plastic pen and a plastic board with a transparent window where pen presses are detected. It was used with a drawing software application. A graphic touch tablet was released for the Sega AI computer in 1986. Touch-sensitive control-display units were evaluated for commercial aircraft flight decks in the early 1980s. Initial research showed that a touch interface would reduce pilot workload as the crew could select waypoints and actions, rather than be "head down" typing latitudes and waypoint codes on a keyboard.
An effective integration of this technology was aimed at helping flight crews maintain a high-level of situational awareness of all major aspects of the vehicle operations including the flight path, the functioning of various aircraft systems, moment-to-moment human interactions. In the early 1980s, General Motors tasked its Delco Electronics division with a project aimed at replacing an automobile's non-essential functions from mechanical or electro-mechanical systems with solid state alternatives wherever possible; the finished device was dubbed the ECC for "Electronic Control Center", a digital computer and software control system hardwired to various peripheral sensors, solenoids, antenna and a monochrome CRT touchscreen that functioned both as display and sole method of input. The ECC replaced the traditional mechanical stereo, fan and air conditioner controls and displays, was capable of providing detailed and specific information about the vehicle's cumulative and current operating status in real time.
The ECC was standard equipment on the 1985–1989 Buick Riviera and the 1988–1989 Buick Reatta, but was unpopular with consumers—partly due to the technophobia of some traditional Buick customers, but because of costly technical problems suffered by the ECC's touchscreen which would render climate control or stereo operation impo
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
The iTunes Store is a software-based online digital media store operated by Apple Inc. that opened on April 28, 2003, as a result of Steve Jobs' push to open a digital marketplace for music. As of January 2017, iTunes offered over 35-40 million songs, 2.2 million apps, 25,000 TV shows, 65,000 films. When it opened, it was the only legal digital catalog of music to offer songs from all five major record labels; as of June 2013, iTunes Store possessed 575 million active user accounts, served over 315 million mobile devices, including Apple Watches, iPods, iPhones, Apple TV and iPads. Steve Jobs saw the opportunity to open a digital marketplace for music due to the rising popularity of downloadable tracks. In 2002, Jobs made an agreement with the five major record labels to offer their content through iTunes. ITunes Store was introduced by Jobs at the company's Worldwide Developers Conference in April 2003, it was available on Mac computers and the iPod, was expanded to Microsoft Windows in October 2003.
In April 2008, the iTunes Store was the largest music vendor in the United States, in February 2010, it was the largest music vendor in the world. ITunes Store's revenues in the first quarter of 2011 totaled nearly US$1.4 billion. By May 28, 2014, the store had sold 35 billion songs worldwide. In 2016, it was reported, it was reported that iTunes-style digital download sales had dropped 24% as streaming sales continued to increase. In April 2018, the iTunes app was added to the Microsoft Windows 10 app store. Beginning in the spring of 2019, the iTunes app became available on Samsung Smart TVs. Following the introduction of iTunes Store, individual songs were all sold for the same price, though Apple introduced multiple prices in 2007. Music in the store is in the Advanced Audio Coding format, the MPEG-4-specified successor to MP3. Songs were only available with DRM and were encoded at 128 kbit/s. At the January 2009 Macworld Expo, Apple announced that all iTunes music would be made available without DRM, encoded at the higher-quality rate of 256 kbit/s.
This model, known as "iTunes Plus", had been available only for music from EMI and some independent labels. Users can sample songs by listening to previews, ninety seconds in length, or thirty seconds for short tracks. In addition, iTunes Store offers apps, which are applications used for various purposes that are compatible with the iPod Touch, iPhone, iPad, although some apps are for the iPhone or iPad only; some Apps cost money and some are free. Developers can decide which prices they want to charge for apps, from a pre-set list of pricing tiers, from free to several hundred dollars; when someone downloads an App, 70 percent of the purchase goes to the developer, 30 percent goes to Apple. At the Macworld 2008 keynote, Steve Jobs, Apple's CEO at the time, announced iTunes movie rentals. Movies are available for rent in iTunes Store on the same day they are released on DVD, though iTunes Store offers for rental some movies that are still in theaters. Movie rentals are only viewable for 48 hours after users begin viewing them.
ITunes Store offers one low-priced movie rental a week: in the United States, this rental costs 99 cents. Movie rentals are not yet available in all countries but it is available in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand. There is a weekly promotion in which one to three songs are available to download for free to logged-in users. Free downloads are available on Tuesdays, remain free until the following Tuesday, when the store gets refreshed with new content; some artists choose to have select songs available for no charge. This is not available at all iTunes Stores; some iTunes television programs have begun the same technique to encourage brand loyalty. In fact, iTunes Store has a "Free TV Episodes" page where free episodes are organized by length, either as "featurettes" or full length episodes. Free content can vary from a preview of a show to bonus content to pilot episodes and entire seasons of TV shows; some networks, such as ABC and NBC, have their own pages of "Free Season Premieres".
While the US iTunes Store has offered as many as three free songs each week in recent years, the store has instead replaced the three aforementioned categories with a unified "Single of the Week" banner, with the week's single being from a new up and coming artist. In 2015, Apple discontinued the "Single of the Week" program. A song costs 99¢. By default, songs that are more than 10 minutes are considered "Album Only". For special offers, song prices can be free. By default, music albums cost $9.99 or the price of all the songs combined if it is less than $9.99. However, the music album's distributor can set a higher price for the album, which happens on popular music albums. For special offers, prices of music albums can be dropped to $5.99, $6.99, or $7.99. On June 30, 2015 Apple launched Apple Music as a subscription service available in 110 countries. New subscribers are offered a three-month free trial with ongoing subscriptions priced from $9.99/month in the US and £9.99 in the UK. By default, H
IPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software; the first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard; the iPhone can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video, take photos, play music and receive email, browse the web and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps; as of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone. Apple has released twelve generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the twelve major releases of the iOS operating system.
The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri; the iPhone 5 featured Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal, they were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models.
The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, therefore, no Touch ID. In September 2018, Apple again released 3 new iPhones, which are the iPhone XS, an upgraded version of the since discontinued iPhone X, iPhone XS Max, a larger variant with the series' biggest display as of 2018 and iPhone XR, a lower end version of the iPhone X; the original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have garnered praise; the iPhone is one of the most used smartphones in the world, its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees to work on the confidential "Project Purple."
Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet towards a phone. Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. According to Steve Jobs, the "i" word in "iMac" stands for internet, instruct and inspire. Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano. Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house and paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue, in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011. Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco; the two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599, went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.
The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the'Jesus phone'. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, Germany in November 2007, Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008. On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it in June and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost, 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000; the back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal; the iPhone 3G was available in
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
The Apple A8 is a 64-bit ARM-based system on a chip designed by Apple Inc. It first appeared in the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus, which were introduced on September 9, 2014. Apple states that it has 25% more CPU performance and 50% more graphics performance while drawing only 50% of the power of its predecessor, the Apple A7; the A8 is manufactured on a 20 nm process by TSMC, which replaced Samsung as the manufacturer of Apple's mobile device processors. It contains 2 billion transistors. Despite having twice the number of transistors of the A7, the A8's physical size has been reduced by 13% to 89 mm2; the A8 uses LPDDR3-1333 RAM on a 64-bit memory interface. The A8 CPU has a per-core L1 cache of 64 KB for data and 64 KB for instructions, an L2 cache of 1 MB shared by both CPU cores, a 4 MB L3 cache that services the entire SoC; as its predecessor, it has 6 issue, 9 wide, out-of-order design. The processor is dual core, as used in the iPhone 6 has a frequency of 1.4 GHz, supporting Apple's claim of it being 25% faster than the A7.
It supports the notion of this being a second generation enhanced Cyclone core called Typhoon, not an new architecture which would mean a more significant performance gain per Hz. The A8 integrates a graphics processing unit, a 4-shader-cluster PowerVR GX6450. On October 16, 2014, Apple introduced a variant of the A8, the A8X, in the iPad Air 2. Compared with the A8, the A8X has an enhanced 8-shader-cluster GPU and improved CPU performance due to one extra core and higher frequency; the A8's branch predictor has been claimed to infringe on a 1998 patent. On October 14, 2015, a district judge found Apple guilty of infringing U. S. patent US 5781752, "Table based data speculation circuit for parallel processing computer", on the Apple A7 and A8 processors. The patent is owned by Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, a firm affiliated with the University of Wisconsin. On July 24, 2017, Apple was ordered to pay WARF $506 million for patent infringement. Apple filed an appellate brief on October 26, 2017 with the U.
S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, that argued that Apple did not infringe on the patent owned by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation. On September 28, 2018, the ruling was overturned on appeal and the award thrown out by the U. S. Federal Circuit Court of Appeals; the patent expired in December 2016. IPhone 6 and 6 Plus – September 2014 iPod touch – July 2015 iPad mini 4 – September 2015 Apple TV – October 2015 HomePod – February 2018 Apple mobile application processors, the range of ARM-based mobile processors designed by Apple for their consumer electronic devices. Comparison of ARMv8-A cores Apple A8X