Atlas Comics (1950s)
Atlas Comics is the 1950s comic-book publishing label that evolved into Marvel Comics. Magazine and paperback novel publisher Martin Goodman, whose business strategy involved having a multitude of corporate entities, used Atlas as the umbrella name for his comic-book division during this time. Atlas evolved out of Goodman's 1940s comic-book division, Timely Comics, was located on the 14th floor of the Empire State Building; this company is distinct from the 1970s comic-book company founded by Goodman, known as Atlas/Seaboard Comics. Atlas Comics was the successor of Timely Comics, the company that magazine and paperback novel publisher Martin Goodman founded in 1939, which had reached the peak of its popularity during the war years with its star characters the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner and Captain America; the early to mid-1950s found comic books falling out of fashion due to competition from television and other media. Timely stopped producing superhero comics with the cancellation of Captain America Comics at issue #75, by which time the series had been titled Captain America's Weird Tales for two issues, with the finale featuring only anthological suspense stories and no superheroes.
The company's flagship title, Marvel Mystery Comics, starring the Human Torch, had ended its run with #92 in June 1949, as had Sub-Mariner Comics with #32 the same month, The Human Torch with #35 in March 1949. Timely made one more attempt at superheroes with the publication of Marvel Boy #1-2, retitled Astonishing with issue #3 and continued the Marvel Boy feature through #6. In the absence of superheroes, Goodman's comic-book line expanded into a wide variety of genres, producing horror, humor, funny animal, crime, jungle, espionage, medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports comics; as did other publishers, Atlas offered comics about models and career women. Goodman began using the logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues, with its "K" logo and the logo of the independent distributors' union appearing alongside the Atlas globe.
The Atlas logo united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas attempted to revive superheroes in Young Men #24-28 with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner and Captain America; the short-lived revival included restarts of Sub-Mariner Comics and Captain America. All three superheroes appeared in the final two issues of Men's Adventures. Goodman's publishing strategy for Atlas involved what he saw as the proven route of following popular trends in TV and movies — Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time — and other comic books the EC horror line; as Marvel/Atlas editor-in-chief Stan Lee told comic-book historian Les Daniels, Goodman "would notice what was selling, we'd put out a lot of books of that type." Commented Daniels, "The short-term results were lucrative. While Atlas had some horror titles, such as Marvel Tales, as far back as 1949, the company increased its output in the wake of EC's success.
Lee recalled, "t was based on how the competition was doing. When we found that EC's horror books were doing well, for instance, we published a lot of horror books." Until the early 1960s, when Lee would help revolutionize comic books with the advent of the Fantastic Four and Spider-Man, Atlas was content to flood newsstands with profitable, cheaply produced product — despite itself, beautifully rendered by talented if low-paid artists. The Atlas "bullpen" had at least five staff writers besides Lee: Hank Chapman, Paul S. Newman, Don Rico, Carl Wessler, and, in the teen humor division, future Mad magazine cartoonist Al Jaffee. Daniel Keyes, future author of Flowers for Algernon, was an editor beginning 1952. Other writers freelance, included Robert Bernstein; the artists — some freelance, some on staff — included such veterans as Human Torch creator Carl Burgos and Sub-Mariner creator Bill Everett. The next generation included the prolific and much-admired Joe Maneely, who before his death just prior to Marvel's 1960s breakthrough was the company's leading artist, providing many covers and doing work in all genres, most notably on Westerns and on the medieval adventure Black Knight.
Others included Russ Heath, Gene Colan, the fledgling individualistic Steve Ditko. Some of Atlas' prominent Western titles, many reprinted in the 1970s, were Ringo Kid, with art by Maneely, Fred Kida and John Severin. Atlas published various children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer, the Happy Ghost, Homer Hooper and the Joe Maneely-drawn Melvin the Monster. Sergeant Barney Barker, drawn by John Severin, was Atlas' answer to Sgt. Bilko. One of the most long-running titles was Millie the Model, which began as a Timely Comics humor book in 1945 and ran into the 1970s, lasting
Marvel Comics is the brand name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc. Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Worldwide's parent company. Marvel started in 1939 the common name in the Golden Age was Timely Comics, by the early 1950s, had become known as Atlas Comics; the Marvel era began in 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Steve Ditko, Stan Lee, Jack Kirby and many others. The Marvel brand had been used over the years, but solidified as the company's only brand with in a couple of years. Marvel counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Captain America, Iron Man, the Hulk, Spider-Man, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, the Silver Surfer, Ghost Rider, the Punisher and Deadpool, such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Midnight Sons, the Defenders, the Guardians of the Galaxy, supervillains including Galactus, Doctor Doom, Ultron, Green Goblin, Red Skull, Doctor Octopus and Venom.
Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with most locations mirroring real-life places. Pulp-magazine publisher Martin Goodman founded the company known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939. Goodman, who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by already popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he held the titles of editor, managing editor, business manager, with Abraham Goodman listed as publisher. Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics #1, included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, the first appearances of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features; the issue was a great success. While its contents came from an outside packager, Inc. Timely had its own staff in place by the following year; the company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes, Captain America, in Captain America Comics #1.
It, proved a hit, with sales of nearly one million. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc. beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941. While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these three characters, some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, the Angel. Timely published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper", as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal. Goodman hired his wife's cousin, Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939; when editor Simon left the company in late 1941, Goodman made Lieber—by writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely.
Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff. One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics #55; as well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics #12, were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961. The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion. Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than Timely had published, featuring horror, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster and war comics, adding jungle books, romance titles and medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports. Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues.
This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and other comic books the EC horror line. Atlas published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost and Homer Hooper. Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, Atlas survived chiefly because it produced work cheaply, at a passable quality; the first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand w
Halo (religious iconography)
A halo is a crown of light rays, circle or disk of light that surrounds a person in art. It has been used in the iconography of many religions to indicate holy or sacred figures, has at various periods been used in images of rulers or heroes. In the sacred art of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Buddhism and Christianity, among other religions, sacred persons may be depicted with a halo in the form of a circular glow, or flames in Asian art, around the head or around the whole body—this last one is called a mandorla. Halos may be shown as any color or combination of colors, but are most depicted as golden, yellow or white when representing light or red when representing flames. Homer describes a more-than-natural light around the heads of heroes in battle. Depictions of Perseus in the act of slaying Medusa, with lines radiating from his head, appear on a white-ground toiletry box in the Louvre and on a later red-figured vase in the style of Polygnotos, ca. 450-30 BC, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
On painted wares from south Italy, radiant lines or simple haloes appear on a range of mythic figures: Lyssa, a personification of madness. The Colossus of Rhodes had his usual radiate crown. Hellenistic rulers are shown wearing radiate crowns that seem to imitate this effect. Further afield, Sumerian religious literature speaks of melam, a "brilliant, visible glamour, exuded by gods, sometimes by kings, by temples of great holiness and by gods' symbols and emblems." The halo and the aureola have been used in Indian art in Buddhist iconography where it has appeared since at least the 1st century AD. The rulers of the Kushan Empire were the earliest to give themselves haloes on their coins, the nimbus in art may have originated in Central Asia and spread both east and west. In Chinese and Japanese Buddhist art the halo has been used since the earliest periods in depicting the image of Amitabha Buddha and others. Tibetan Buddhism uses haloes and aureoles of many types, drawing from both Indian and Chinese traditions, extensively in statues and Thangka paintings of Buddhist saints such as Milarepa and Padmasambhava and deities.
Different coloured haloes have specific meanings: orange for monks, green for the Buddha and other more elevated beings, figures have both a halo for the head, another circular one for the body, the two intersecting somewhere around the head or neck. Thin lines of gold radiate outwards or inwards from the rim of the halo, sometimes a whole halo is made up of these. In India the head halo is called Prabhamandala or Siras-cakra, while the full body halo is Prabhavali. Elaborate haloes and aureoles appear in Hindu sculpture, where they tend to develop into architectural frames in which the original idea can be hard to recognise. Theravada Buddhism and Jainism did not use the halo for many centuries, but adopted it, though less than other religious groups. In Asian art, the nimbus is imagined as consisting not just of light, but of flames; this type seems to first appear in Chinese bronzes of which the earliest surviving examples date from before 450. The depiction of the flames may be formalized, as in the regular little flames on the ring aureole surrounding many Chola bronzes and other classic Hindu sculptures of divinities, or prominent, as with the more realistic flames, sometimes smoke, shown rising to a peak behind many Tibetan Buddhist depictions of the "wrathful aspect" of divinities, in Persian miniatures of the classic period.
This type is very found, on a smaller scale, in medieval Christian art. Sometimes a thin line of flames rise up from the edges of a circular halo in Buddhist examples. In Tibetan paintings the flames are shown as blown by a wind from left to right. Halos are found in Islamic art from various places and periods in Persian miniatures and Moghul and Ottoman art influenced by them. Flaming halos derived from Buddhist art surround angels, similar ones are seen around Muhammad and other sacred human figures. From the early 17th century, plainer round haloes appear in portraits of Mughal Emperors and subsequently Rajput and Sikh rulers; the Ottomans avoided using halos for the sultans, despite their title as Caliph, they are only seen on Chinese emperors if they are posing as Buddhist religious figures, as some felt entitled to do. The halo represents an aura or the glow of sanctity, conventionally drawn encircling the head, it first appeared in the culture of Hellenistic Greece and Rome related to the Zoroastrian hvarena – "glory" or "divine lustre" – which marked the Persian kings, may have been imported with Mithraism.
Though Roman paintings have disappeared, save some fresco decorations, the haloed figure remains fresh in Roman mosaics. In a 2nd-century AD Roman floor mosaic preserved at Bardo, Tunisia, a haloed Poseidon appears in his chariot drawn by hippocamps; the triton and nereid who accompany the sea-god are not haloed. In a late 2nd century AD floor mosaic from Thysdrus, El Djem, Apollo Helios is identified by his effulgent h
Daniel S. DeCarlo was an American cartoonist best known for having developed the look of Archie Comics in the late 1950s and early 1960s, modernizing the characters to their contemporary appearance and establishing the publisher's house style up until his death; as well, he is the recognized co-creator of the characters Sabrina the Teenage Witch and the Pussycats, Cheryl Blossom. Dan DeCarlo was born in New York, the son of a gardener, he attended New Rochelle High School, followed by Manhattan's Art Students League from 1938 to 1941, when he was drafted into the U. S. Army. Stationed in Great Britain, he worked in the motor pool and as a draftsman, painted company mascots on the noses of airplanes, he drew a weekly military comic strip, 418th Scandal Sheet. He met his wife, French citizen Josie Dumont, on a blind date in Belgium not long after the Battle of the Bulge. DeCarlo was married, with a pregnant wife, a laborer working for his father when he began to pursue a professional art career.
Circa 1947, answering an ad, he broke into the comic book industry at Timely Comics, the 1940s iteration of Marvel Comics. Under editor-in-chief Stan Lee, his first assignment was the teen-humor series Jeanie. DeCarlo went uncredited, as was typical for most comic-book writers and artists of the era, he recalled in 2001, "I went on with her maybe ten books, they used to call me'The Jeanie Machine' because, all Stan used to give me, was Jeanie.... He took me off Jeanie and he gave me Millie the Model; that was a big break for me. It wasn't doing too well and somehow when I got on it became quite successful."He went on to an atypically long, 10-year run on that humor series, from issues #18–93, most of them published by Marvel's 1950s predecessor, Atlas Comics. DeCarlo and Lee took over the My Friend Irma comic strip, spun off from the hit Marie Wilson radio comedy. For a decade, DeCarlo wrote and drew the slapsticky adventures of Millie Collins, her redheaded friendly nemesis Chili Storm and the rest of the cast.
He contributed the short-lived Sherry the Showgirl and Showgirls for Atlas. In 1960, he and Atlas editor-in-chief Stan Lee co-created the short-lived syndicated comic strip Willie Lumpkin, about a suburban mail carrier, for the Chicago-based Publishers Syndicate. A version of the character appeared as a long-running minor supporting character in Lee's co-creation, the Marvel Comics series Fantastic Four; as well during this period, DeCarlo created and drew Standard Comics' futuristic teen-humor comic book Jetta of the 21st Century. Running three issues, #5-7, it featured red-haired Jetta Raye and her friends at Neutron High School. In addition to his comic-book work, DeCarlo drew freelance pieces for the magazines The Saturday Evening Post and Argosy, as well as Timely/Atlas publisher Martin Goodman's Humorama line of pin-up girl cartoon digests. DeCarlo first freelanced for Archie Comics, the company with which he would become most associated, in the late 1950s while still freelancing for Atlas.
He said in 2001, I was looking for extra work. I went down to see Harry Shorten and he gave me a job; the pay wasn't too good -- but I didn't go back right away. After two or three weeks go, he called me up and wanted to know what happened, why I wasn't around. I said,'Well, you know I'm busy.'... I had Millie the Model, I had My Friend Irma, Big Boy.... I told him, ` The people let me do my own thing, but when I do work for you, it's "Draw like Bob Montana." And it's hard to look at your reference, back at your own page. It's slow, tedious and I didn't like it too much.' He said,'Come on in, you can draw any way you like.' That made. DeCarlo is tentatively identified with Archie as early as the Jughead story "The Big Shot" in Archie Comics #48, with his earliest confirmed credit the 3 3/4-page story "No Picnic" in Archie's Girls Betty and Veronica #4, his art soon established the publisher's house style. As well, he is the recognized creator of the teen-humor characters Sabrina the Teenage Witch and the Pussycats, Cheryl Blossom.
DeCarlo said. DeCarlo first tried to sell the character as a syndicated comic strip called Here's Josie, recalling in 2001: When Publishers Syndicate in Chicago got interested in Willie Lumpkin... I was hustling my own strip and trying to get it published. Before we got to Publishers Syndicate, I went to United Feature in New York City with two strips — Barney's Beat and Josie. told me they liked them both, they'd like to see more samples, because I didn't bring much. I brought six dailies of Josie; that posed a problem for me. I knew I couldn't handle both strips and still keep up with the comic book work, because a syndicated bit was risky. So, I decided to shelve Josie, concentrated on Willie Lumpkin. A year, maybe a year and a half I submitted the Josie strip back to the publishers and Harold Anderson, he sent it back and said,'It's not what we're looking for, but keep up the good work,' or words of that kind. Is when I decided to take it to Archie to see if they could do it as a comic book.
I showed it to Richard Goldwater, he showed it to his father, a day o
A cowlick is a section of hair that stands straight up or lies at an angle at odds with the style in which the rest of an individual's hair is worn. Cowlicks appear; the term "cowlick" originates from the domestic bovine's habit of licking its young, which results in a swirling pattern in the hair. The most common site of a human cowlick is in the crown, they sometimes appear in the front and back of the head. The term "cowlick" dates from the late 16th century, when Richard Haydocke used it in his translation of Lomazzo: "The lockes or plaine feakes of haire called cow-lickes, are made turning upwards." Hair on the back of the head grows in a circular flattened pattern from a central point. The definition of a whorl is hairs; the point where we find the hair whorl is the spot. On top of the head hair grows to the front, on the back of the head it grows towards the nape and hair grows to the left and right side of the head on the sides of the head; the hair whorl can be in the center of the head but it can be located to the left or right side of the head.
In the center of the scalp it will be visible because the hair lies flat. People with cowlicks tend to have at least two hair whorls with one being dominant and visible while the other is less obvious. In the center of the hair whorl you can see the hairs protruding from the scalp; when combed against the grain of the hair, the hair in the center of the cowlick will stand up straight. When left too long, the cowlick will create a flat spot, when left too short it will stand up. Cowlicks are more obvious in thick hair. In people with straight, coarse hair the scalp will show in the center of the whorl because the light penetrates to the scalp. Both men and women have cowlicks. One theory is that a cowlick stems from a circular arrangement of the collagen fibers in the cranial fascia of the area of the cowlick; this arrangement is different from the straight pattern. Many people find cowlicks irritating as they conflict with the desired hairstyle. There are several ways to tame an unruly cowlick. For most people, a combination of the right hairstyle, product used, styling technique can overcome the appearance.
For people who are more concerned about cowlick management, more drastic measures may be used. Electrology and cosmetic surgery can be used to more permanently correct the cowlick. However, many people have used their cowlicks to their advantage for those having cowlicks at the hairline which can make it easier to style a pompadour. Hair whorl Alfalfa Switzer
Tintin is the titular protagonist of The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé. He is a adventurer who travels around the world with his dog Snowy; the character was created in 1929 and introduced in Le Petit Vingtième, a weekly youth supplement to the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle. He appears as a young man, around 14 to 19 years old with a round quiff hairstyle. Tintin has a sharp intellect, can defend himself, is honest, decent and kind. Through his investigative reporting, quick-thinking, all-around good nature, Tintin is always able to solve the mystery and complete the adventure. Unlike more colourful characters that he encounters, Tintin's personality is neutral, which allows the reader not to follow the adventures but assume Tintin's position within the story. Combined with Hergé's signature ligne claire style, this helps the reader "safely enter a sensually stimulating world". Tintin's creator died in 1983, yet his creation remains a popular literary figure featured in a 2011 Hollywood film, directed by Steven Spielberg.
Tintin has been criticised for his controversial attitudes to race and other factors, been honoured by others for his "tremendous spirit", has prompted a few to devote their careers to his study. General Charles de Gaulle "considered Tintin his only international rival". Hergé biographer Pierre Assouline noted that "Tintin had a prehistory", being influenced by a variety of sources that Hergé had encountered throughout his life. Hergé noted that during his early schooling in the midst of World War I, when German armies occupied Belgium, he had drawn pictures in the margins of his school workbooks of an unnamed young man battling les Boches, he commented that these drawings depicted a brave and adventurous character using his intelligence and ingenuity against opponents, but none of these early drawings survive. Hergé was influenced by the physical appearance and mannerisms of his younger brother Paul, who had a round face and a quiff hairstyle. In search of adventure, Paul joined the army, receiving jeers from fellow officers when the source of Hergé's visual inspiration became obvious.
Hergé stated that in his youth, "I watched him a lot. It makes sense that Tintin took on his character, poses, he had a way of a physical presence that must have inspired me without my knowing it. His gestures stayed in my mind. I copied them clumsily, without meaning to or knowing I was doing it; this is striking in the first drawings of Tintin in the Land of the Soviets."In 1898, Benjamin Rabier and Fred Isly published an illustrated story titled Tintin-Lutin, in which they featured a small goblin boy named Tintin, who had a rounded face and quiff. Hergé claimed that Rabier's manner of drawing animals had influenced him, although he swore that he was unaware of the existence of Tintin-Lutin until one of his readers informed him of the similarity in 1970. Hergé would have been aware of the activities of a number of popular journalists who were well known in Belgium, most notably Joseph Kessel and Albert Londres, who may have been an influence on the development of Tintin. Another potential influence was a 15-year-old Danish Boy Scout travelling the world.
Robert Sexé, a French motorcycle photojournalist, is considered to have inspired the first few of Tintin's adventures in the Soviet Union, the Belgian Congo, the United States. Sexé has been noted to have a similar appearance to Tintin, the Hergé Foundation in Belgium has admitted that it is not too hard to imagine how Hergé could have been influenced by the exploits of Sexé. A few years after Hergé discovered the joys of Scouting, he became the unofficial artist for his Scout troop and drew a Boy Scout character for the national magazine Le Boy Scout Belge; this young man, whom he named Totor, travelled the globe and righted wrongs, all without ruffling his Scout honour. As was the format for European comics at the time, the early drawings of Totor illustrated the story. Totor had been much in Hergé's mind. Assouline would describe Totor as "a sort of trial run" for Tintin, while Harry Thompson noted that in several years he would "metamorphose" into Tintin. Hergé was ready to try it. Tintin's new comic would be a strip cartoon with dialogue in speech bubbles and drawings that carried the story.
Young reporter Tintin would have the investigative acumen of Londres, the travelling abilities of Huld, the high moral standing of Totor. Tintin appeared after Hergé got his first job working at the Catholic newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle, where his director challenged him to create a new serialised comic for its Thursday supplement for young readers, Le Petit Vingtième. In the edition of 30 December 1928 of the satirical weekly newspaper Le Sifflet, Hergé had included two cartoon gags with word balloons, in which he depicted a boy and a little white dog. Abbe Wallez thought that these characters could be developed further, asked Hergé to use characters like these for an adventure that could be serialised in Le Petit Vingtième. Hergé agreed. Images of Tintin and Snowy first appeared in the youth supplement on 4 January 1929, in an advert for the upcoming series. However
Stan Lee was an American comic book writer, editor and producer. He rose through the ranks of a family-run business to become Marvel Comics' primary creative leader for two decades, leading its expansion from a small division of a publishing house to a multimedia corporation that dominated the comics industry. In collaboration with others at Marvel—particularly co-writer/artists Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko—he co-created numerous popular fictional characters, including superheroes Spider-Man, the X-Men, Iron Man, the Hulk, the Fantastic Four, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, Scarlet Witch and Ant-Man. In doing so, he pioneered a more naturalistic approach to writing superhero comics in the 1960s, in the 1970s he challenged the restrictions of the Comics Code Authority, indirectly leading to changes in its policies. In the 1980s he pursued development of Marvel properties with mixed results. Following his retirement from Marvel in the 1990s, he remained a public figurehead for the company, made cameo appearances in films and television shows based on Marvel characters, on which he received an executive producer credit.
Meanwhile, he continued independent creative ventures into his 90s, until his death in 2018. Lee was inducted into the comic book industry's Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1995, he received the NEA's National Medal of Arts in 2008. Lee was raised in a Jewish family. In a 2002 survey of whether he believed in God, he stated, "Well, let me put it this way... No, I'm not going to try to be clever. I don't know. I just don't know."From 1945 to 1947, Lee lived in the rented top floor of a brownstone in the East 90s in Manhattan. He married Joan Clayton Boocock from Newcastle, England, on December 5, 1947, in 1949, the couple bought a house in Woodmere, New York, on Long Island, living there through 1952, their daughter Joan Celia "J. C." Lee was born in 1950. Another daughter, Jan Lee, died three days after delivery in 1953; the Lees resided in the Long Island town of Hewlett Harbor, New York, from 1952 to 1980. They owned a condominium on East 63rd Street in Manhattan from 1975 to 1980, during the 1970s owned a vacation home in Remsenburg, New York.
For their move to the West Coast in 1981, they bought a home in West Hollywood, California owned by comedian Jack Benny's radio announcer Don Wilson. In September 2012, Lee underwent an operation to insert a pacemaker, which required cancelling planned appearances at conventions. On July 6, 2017, his wife of 69 years, died of complications from a stroke, she was 95 years old. In April 2018, The Hollywood Reporter published a report that claimed Lee was a victim of elder abuse. In August 2018, Morgan was issued a restraining order to stay away from Lee, his daughter, or his associates for three years. Stanley Martin Lieber was born on December 28, 1922, in Manhattan, New York City, in the apartment of his Romanian-born Jewish immigrant parents and Jack Lieber, at the corner of West 98th Street and West End Avenue in Manhattan, his father, trained as a dress cutter, worked only sporadically after the Great Depression, the family moved further uptown to Fort Washington Avenue, in Washington Heights, Manhattan.
Lee had one younger brother named Larry Lieber. He said in 2006 that as a child he was influenced by books and movies those with Errol Flynn playing heroic roles. By the time Lee was in his teens, the family was living in an apartment at 1720 University Avenue in The Bronx. Lee described it as "a third-floor apartment facing out back". Lee and his brother shared the bedroom. Lee attended DeWitt Clinton High School in the Bronx. In his youth, Lee enjoyed writing and entertained dreams of writing the "Great American Novel" one day, he said that in his youth he worked such part-time jobs as writing obituaries for a news service and press releases for the National Tuberculosis Center. At fifteen, Lee entered a high school essay competition sponsored by the New York Herald Tribune, called "The Biggest News of the Week Contest." Lee claimed to have won the prize for three straight weeks, goading the newspaper to write him and ask him to let someone else win. The paper suggested he look into writing professionally, which Lee claimed "probably changed my life."
He graduated from high school early, aged sixteen and a half, in 1939 and joined the WPA Federal Theatre Project. The Stan Lee Foundation was founded in 2010 to focus on literacy and the arts, its stated goals include supporting programs and ideas that improve access to literacy resources, as well as promoting diversity, national literacy and the arts. Lee donated portions of his personal effects to the University of Wyoming at various times, between 1981 and 2001. Lee died at the age of 95 at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, on November 12, 2018, after being rushed there in a medical emergency earlier in the day. Earlier that year, Lee revealed to the public that he had been battling pneumonia and in February was rushed to the hospital for worsening conditions at around the same time; the immediate cause