Lenny and Carl
Lenford "Lenny" Leonard and Carlton "Carl" Carlson are recurring characters in the Fox animated series The Simpsons, voiced by Harry Shearer and Hank Azaria, respectively. They work with him at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant. Lenny and Carl are seen apart and have a close relationship; each possesses a master's degree in nuclear physics, but are portrayed as blue-collar working men. Lenny is voiced by Harry Shearer, he is friends with Carl, Homer Simpson, Moe Szyslak, Barney Gumble. He works at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant and possesses a master's degree in nuclear physics, but he is portrayed as a blue-collar working man. Despite being shown in the First Church of Springfield, Lenny is a Buddhist — making him and Lisa the only three Buddhists in Springfield. Born in Chicago, he is a war hero and a three-time juror, his grandmother spent 20 years in a Soviet labor camp, hinting that Lenny may have ancestors from the former Soviet Union, or have ancestors who were POWs. During one episode, he is shown to be an adept guitar player.
"Homer the Great" reveals Lenny was member number 12 of the Springfield chapter of the Stonecutters secret society. In the episode "Half-Decent Proposal", Lenny is shown to have little regard for his own life: "Quick and pointless, that's the death for me." Another example of his apathy towards salvation is that he shrugs after being pulled from a ladder which would have seen him and Homer to safety. Excluding unnamed background characters, Lenny is one of the few Springfield residents to persistently resist the lure of the Movementarians. Lenny is a member of the Republican Party, as indicated in "Bart-Mangled Banner" when he reveals his Dole/Kemp'96 American flag tattoo, he is shown to be a member of the NRA as seen in "The Cartridge Family", although in the episode Sideshow Bob Roberts expresses disdain for conservative talk show host Birch Barlow, proclaiming himself politically correct. His weapon of choice appears to be an AR-15 rifle, which he says "are manufactured for a reason: to take out today's modern super animals like the flying squirrel and the electric eel."
He had plastic surgery when a sudden upswing in the price of power plant stock led to most of the employees to have a big profit. Following his plastic surgery Lenny had a diamond placed on one of his teeth, paid for by the Plant's dental plan. In "Burns' Heir", both Mr. Burns and Waylon Smithers refer to him as "Leonard", the same way they refer to Homer as "Simpson", though in The Frying Game, Homer refers to him as "Lenford". Lenny's vices dressing up like a baby, he is depicted as a cigarette smoker in early seasons. In "Homerazzi" Lenny is hinted to be a transvestite when he dresses up like Seven of Nine from Star Trek: Voyager. Lenny drives a green two-door hatch back, whose license plate reads "DUI GUY". Lenny has a terrible relationship with his mother, who likes Moe more. Vance Connor donated Lenny a kidney. Lenny has a mysterious medical problem with his left eye, as he has been told that he cannot place various objects in it, like puzzle jiggs and pudding; when he gets hurt he yells "Ow my eye!
I'm not supposed to get in it!". Lenny has stated. Six instances of his death are Treehouse of Horror XI, Treehouse of Horror XII, Treehouse of Horror XVI, The Wettest Stories Ever Told, Tales from the Public Domain, Revenge Is a Dish Best Served Three Times. Lenny appears to be well liked by the Simpson family – on one occasion and the kids build a prayer shrine for him when learning he was taken to the hospital. In "Hello Gutter, Hello Fadder", Homer tells Marge that Lenny was hospitalized. In "Sleeping with the Enemy", the Simpson family has a cake inscribed "Happy Labor Day Lenny". In "Pranksta Rap", it is revealed. Lenny is divorced – in "Bart of War", Carl says that he sang "The Best Is Yet to Come" at Lenny's wedding, although in another episode Lenny punches Carl for giving a bad speech at his wedding. Lenny is a persistent bachelor. In "Marge on the Lam", Lenny shaves the legs of a woman who calls him an idiot for not shaving in an upward direction. In "Team Homer", Homer mentions to Moe that both Carl are with their mistresses.
In "Homer the Smithers" he is seen in the opening scene with his arm around a woman who appears to be his girlfriend. In "Homer Simpson, This Is Your Wife", it's revealed that he had dated a woman in a Woody Woodpecker outfit at a fairground for three months until she left him for the man who cleans the vomit on the roller coaster. Lenny had told Carl that he was married to a beauty queen, as of the 8th season, Carl had yet to meet Lenny's wife; the episode "In Marge We Trust", it is revealed that Lenny made his Beauty-Queen wife up, is unmarried. Lenny's full name has not been treated with consistency. After years of being identified only as "Lenny", Homer addressed him as "Lenford" in the season 13 episode "The Frying Game", Lisa addressed him as "Mr. Leonard" in the season 15 episode "The Ziff Who Came To Dinner"; this would appear to make his full name "Lenford Leonard"—but Bart addresses him as "Lenny Lenford" in the season 23 episode "At Long Last Leave". Carl is voiced by Hank Azaria. Along with Lenny, Carl is Homer's co-worker at the Nuclear Power Plant.
He likes to call himself "an
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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Marjorie Jacqueline "Marge" Simpson is a fictional character in the American animated sitcom The Simpsons and part of the eponymous family. She is voiced by Julie Kavner and first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Marge was created and designed by cartoonist Matt Groening while he was waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on Life in Hell but instead decided to create a new set of characters, he named the character after his mother Margaret Groening. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three seasons, the Simpson family received their own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, 1989. Marge is the matriarch of the Simpson family. With her husband Homer, she has three children: Bart and Maggie. Marge is the moralistic force in her family and provides a grounding voice in the midst of her family's antics by trying to maintain order in the Simpson household, she is portrayed as a stereotypical television mother and is included on lists of top "TV moms".
She has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons—including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride and comic books—and inspired an entire line of merchandise. Marge's distinctive blue beehive hairstyle was inspired by a combination of the Bride's in Bride of Frankenstein and the style that Margaret Groening wore in the 1960s. Julie Kavner, a member of the original cast of The Tracey Ullman Show, was asked to voice Marge so that more voice actors would not be needed. Kavner has won several awards for voicing Marge, including a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992, she was nominated for an Annie Award for Best Voice Acting in an Animated Feature for her performance in The Simpsons Movie. In 2000, along with the rest of her family, was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; the Simpsons uses a floating timeline, as such the show is assumed to be set in the current year. In several episodes, events have been linked to specific time periods, although this timeline has been contradicted in subsequent episodes.
Marge Simpson is the wife of Homer and mother of Bart and Maggie Simpson. She was raised by her parents and Clancy Bouvier, she has a pair of the joyless Patty and Selma, both of whom vocally disapprove of Homer. In "The Way We Was", it is revealed via flashback that Marge attended Springfield High School, in her final year met Homer Simpson, after they both were sent to detention—Homer for smoking in the bathroom with Barney, Marge for burning her bra in a feminist protest, she was at first wary of Homer, but agreed to go to the prom with him, although she ended up going with Artie Ziff after Homer received tutoring lessons were a means to get to know her better, while knowing that she needed to sleep for a school meet. However, she regretted going with Artie. At the end of the evening, while Artie drove her home after receiving a slap, she spied Homer walking along the side of the road with the corsage meant for her. After hearing her parents voicing their negative opinions about Homer, she took her own car and went back to give him a ride.
She told Homer she should've gone to the prom with him and he fixes her snapped shoulder strap with the corsage. During the ride, he tells her he will kiss her and never be able to let her go. After the two had been dating for several years, Marge discovered she was pregnant with Bart, she and Homer were married in a small wedding chapel across the state line. Bart was born soon after, the couple bought their first house; the episode "That'90s Show" contradicted much of the established back-story. As with many Simpsons characters, Marge's age and birthday changes to serve the story. In season one episodes "Life on the Fast Lane" and "Some Enchanted Evening", Marge was said to be 34. In "Homer's Paternity Coot", Marge states that Emerald would have been her birthstone if she had been born three months placing her birthday sometime in February. In "Regarding Margie", Homer mentioned that Marge was his age, meaning she could have been anywhere between 36 and 40. During this episode, Lisa questions Homer's memory of Marge's birthday.
When he can not remember, Marge yells. In the season eighteen episode "Marge Gamer" she states that she and actor Randy Quaid share the same birthdate. Marge has been nonworking for most of the series, choosing to be a homemaker and take care of her family. However, she has held several one-episode jobs in the course of the series; these include working as a nuclear technician alongside Homer at Springfield Nuclear Power Plant in "Marge Gets a Job". While Marge has never expressed discontent with her role as a homemaker, she has become bored with it. In "The Springfield Connection", Marge decided that she needed more excitement in her life and became a police officer. However, by the end of the episode, she quit. Matt Groening first conceived Marge and the rest of the Simpson family in 1986 in the lobby of producer James L. Brooks' office. Groe
Lisa the Iconoclast
"Lisa the Iconoclast" is the sixteenth episode of The Simpsons' seventh season. It aired on the Fox network in the United States on February 18, 1996. In the episode, Springfield's bicentennial approaches, Lisa writes an essay on town founder Jebediah Springfield. While doing research, she finds a confession revealing that Springfield was named after a murderous pirate named Hans Sprungfeld who never cared about the people of Springfield. Lisa and Homer decide to get the message out but instead anger the town council; the episode was directed by Mike B. Anderson, it was Anderson's first directing role and the story was inspired by the 1991 exhumation of President Zachary Taylor. Donald Sutherland guest starred as the voice of Hollis Hurlbut, a part, written for him; the episode includes several references to Colonial and Revolutionary America, including Gilbert Stuart's unfinished 1796 painting of George Washington. The episode features two neologisms and cromulent, which were intended to sound like real words but are in fact fabricated.
Embiggen, coined by Dan Greaney, has since been used in several scientific publications, while cromulent, coined by David X. Cohen, appeared in Dictionary.com's 21st Century Lexicon. As Springfield celebrates its bicentennial, Lisa's class at Springfield Elementary School are assigned essays. Lisa goes to the historical society to research the founder of Springfield. While trying to play Jebediah Springfield's fife, she makes the shocking discovery that the town's founder was a villainous pirate and enemy of George Washington, he had written his confession on the back side of a portrait of Washington and hidden it in his fife. Meanwhile, upon Lisa's suggestion, Homer is elected the town crier. Lisa conducts further research on Jebediah Springfield, discovers that he had a prosthetic silver tongue; the town does not agree with Lisa's revelations. When Lisa attempts to show Hollis Hurlbut the confession, he dismisses it as an obvious forgery. Lisa tries to convince the town her claims is met with outright hostility.
However, she convinces the municipal government to disinter Springfield's body to search for evidence of the silver tongue. When they open the coffin, the skeleton possesses no silver tongue. After seeing the incomplete portrait of George Washington in her classroom, Lisa soon discovers that the piece of paper upon which the confession is written is the bottom half of the portrait, she confronts Hurlbut, who confesses that he stole the tongue while the dust cleared seconds after the coffin was opened and hid it in the museum. Hurlbut explained that he had done so to protect the myth of Jebediah Springfield. After realizing the mistake of celebrating a pirate, the two decide to go public with their discovery. Just as Lisa is about to share her discoveries with the parading townspeople, she realizes that Jebediah Springfield's good image means too much to the town, decides to keep the truth a secret, knowing they will lose hope and morale if the truth is revealed; the story was inspired by the real events surrounding the exhumation of President Zachary Taylor.
In the late 1980s, college professor and author Clara Rising theorized that Taylor was murdered by poison and was able to convince Taylor's closest living relative and the Coroner of Jefferson County, Kentucky, to order an exhumation. On June 17, 1991, Taylor's remains were exhumed and transported to the Office of the Kentucky Chief Medical Examiner, who found that the level of arsenic was much smaller than would be expected if Taylor had been thus poisoned; the remains were returned to the cemetery and received appropriate honors at reinterment. Then-show runner Bill Oakley said "Lisa the Iconoclast" is "essentially the same" story but with Lisa in the role as Rising. At the end of the episode, an ode to Jebediah Springfield is played over the credits; the music and lyrics were written by Jeff Martin. Donald Sutherland voiced the historian in this episode; the script was written with him in mind playing that part. Sutherland wanted to do the voice recordings as one would do a film and start in the middle of the script, so that he could get to know the character, but that idea was abandoned.
In the episode, Lisa joked she was getting over her "Chester A. Arthuritis", a play on the word "arthritis" and the name of Chester A. Arthur. Sutherland ad-libbed the line "you had arthritis?", the producers liked it so much that they kept it. The episode opens with an old documentary on Jebediah Springfield, starring Troy McClure as Springfield; the writers tried to make this documentary seem as low-budget as possible. One of these tricks was to have post-production add scratches to the animation; the animators added production errors. For example, a man in the crowd looks at the camera, some of the people are wearing wristwatches, McClure's stuntman does not have the same sideburns as he does, a boom microphone can be seen entering the frame. In the Historical Society, the animators spent a significant amount of time decorating the walls. Besides numerous historical references, they decorated the walls with The Simpsons characters in 18th-century settings; the first painting shows Otto Mann driving children in a horse-drawn carriage.
Another painting shows Marge Simpson in silhouette. The last painting shows Professor Frink holding a kite in the manner of Benjamin Franklin; the Historical Society of Springfield contains references to historical facts. The episode features Gilbert Stuart's unfinished 1796 painting of George Washington and tells a fict
The Simpsons (season 7)
The Simpsons' seventh season aired on the Fox network between September 17, 1995 and May 19, 1996. The show runners for the seventh production season were Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein who would executive produce 21 episodes this season. David Mirkin executive produced the remaining four, including two hold overs that were produced for the previous season; the season was nominated for two Primetime Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Animated Program and won an Annie Award for Best Animated Television Program. The DVD box set was released in Region 1 December 13, 2005, Region 2 January 30, 2006 and Region 4 on March 22, 2006; the set was released in two different forms: a Marge-shaped box and a standard rectangular-shaped box in which the theme is a movie premiere. The season was the first season executively produced by Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein, who had written episodes for previous seasons, they were chosen because they had been with the show since the third season and understood many of its dynamics.
When they took over the series they wanted many of the episodes to be realistic ones that focused more on the five members of the Simpson family, exploring their feelings and emotions towards each other. They wanted to produce a Treehouse of Horror episode, episodes about Sideshow Bob, Itchy & Scratchy and several "format-bending" episodes such as "22 Short Films About Springfield", their preferred choice of guest stars were those with unique and interesting voices, several of their guest stars were "old grizzled men with distinctive voices" such as R. Lee Ermey, Donald Sutherland, Kirk Douglas and Lawrence Tierney. David Mirkin, executive producer for the previous two seasons, was credited as a consulting producer for the seventh season but executive produced the episodes "Who Shot Mr. Burns?", "Radioactive Man", "Lisa the Vegetarian" and "Team Homer". Steve Tompkins, Dan Greaney, Richard Appel and Rachel Pulido received their first writing credits while Spike Feresten and Jack Barth received their only writing credits this season.
Although the majority of the writing staff stayed on for the next season, both Greg Daniels and Brent Forrester received their last writing credits during season seven. Jon Vitti, who had left following the fourth season, returned to write "Home Sweet Homediddly-Dum-Doodily" as well as "The Simpsons 138th Episode Spectacular". Wes Archer, a long-time director for The Simpsons who helped define the look of the show, left following this season. Dominic Polcino and Mike B. Anderson, who had worked on the show as part of the animation staff, both directed their first episodes. Doris Grau, script supervisor for the show and voice of Lunchlady Doris died on December 30, 1995; the episode "Team Homer", which aired eight days was one of the last episodes to feature her voice and featured a dedication to her. After that, Lunchlady Doris had speaking parts in "Lisa's Sax", which Grau had recorded before her death. From season nine until season eighteen, she appeared only as a background character but had a speaking role in "The Mook, the Chef, the Wife and Her Homer" where she was voiced by Tress MacNeille.
The season started off with the publicized "Who Shot Mr. Burns?", the resolution to the first part, a cliffhanger. It was preceded by "Springfield's Most Wanted", a TV special hosted by John Walsh, host of America's Most Wanted and was parody of Walsh's television series, this special was designed to help people find out who shot Mr. Burns, by laying out the potential clues and identifying the possible suspects; the special was criticized for taking the publicity of the episode too far. Several critics said the special tainted Walsh's credibility and was described as gimmicky, tacky and "blatant groveling for viewers"; the episode "Lisa the Vegetarian" features one of the few permanent character changes in the series when Lisa becomes a vegetarian. The episode had been pitched by David S. Cohen and the producers felt it would be a surefire way to get Paul McCartney to guest star. McCartney agreed, but only on the condition. "22 Short Films About Springfield" has twelve credited writers, the most of any episode of the series.
The episode features multiple stories about different characters. To decide who would write each of the segments, all of the writers chose their top three favorite characters and put them into a hat, the names were drawn out and the writers were assigned their parts and Greg Daniels put all of the segments together and ordered them; the only major recurring characters who were introduced this season were Disco Stu, who appeared in "Two Bad Neighbors," and Brandine Spuckler, who appeared in "Scenes from the Class Struggle in Springfield". Two more episodes, "You Only Move Twice" and "El Viaje Misterioso de Nuestro Jomer" were produced as part of the season seven production run, but both aired the following season; the episode "22 Short Films About Springfield" was written for being the pilot episode of a potential Simpsons spin-off series entitled Springfield Stories or Springfield. The proposed show was planned to be focused on the town in general, rather than the Simpson family; every week would be a different scenario: three short stories, an adventure with young Homer or a story about a background character, not tied into the Simpson family at all.
The idea never came to anything, as Groening realized that the staff did not have the manpower to produce another show as well as The Simpsons. In 1996, "Treehouse of Horror VI" was submitted for the Primetime Emmy Award in the "Outstanding Animated Program" category, they had submitted it because it had a 3D animation sequence, which the producers felt ga
The Itchy & Scratchy Show
The Itchy & Scratchy Show is a cartoon and animated television series featured in the American animated television series The Simpsons. It appears as a part of The Krusty the Clown Show, watched by Lisa Simpson. Itself an animated cartoon, The Itchy & Scratchy Show depicts a blue mouse, who kills a black cat Scratchy; the cartoon first appeared in The Tracey Ullman Show short "The Bart Simpson Show", which aired November 20, 1988. The cartoon's first appearance in The Simpsons was in the 1990 episode "There's No Disgrace Like Home". Presented as 15-to-60-second-long cartoons, the show is filled with gratuitous violence that invariably prompts uproarious laughter from Bart and Lisa; the Simpsons occasionally features characters who are involved with the production of The Itchy & Scratchy Show, including Roger Meyers Jr. who runs the studio and produces the show. The Itchy and Scratchy characters are violent and bloody parodies of Tom and Jerry and Herman and Katnip; the Italian comic strip Squeak the Mouse is considered as an apparent inspiration for the characters.
The mouse are always the aggressors and, as opposed to Tom and Jerry, they relentlessly attempt to kill Scratchy and any other cats around. The cartoons became popular among the show's writers and animators, they are added when an episode needs expanding; as the shorts became popular with fans, the writers decided to have full episodes that centered on the production of The Itchy & Scratchy Show and featured multiple shorts. The first was "Itchy & Scratchy & Marge", a commentary on censorship. Other episodes to feature the show in a prominent role include "Itchy & Scratchy: The Movie", "The Front", "Itchy & Scratchy Land", "The Day the Violence Died" and "The Itchy & Scratchy & Poochie Show" and "Treehouse of Horror IX"; the Itchy & Scratchy Show is a show within a show that appears in episodes of The Simpsons. They appear in the form of 12-60 second cartoons that are filled with gratuitous violence initiated by Itchy the mouse against Scratchy the cat. Itchy & Scratchy airs as a segment on The Krusty the Clown Show, aired on its brief replacements, Sideshow Bob's Cavalcade of Whimsy and Gabbo.
Itchy & Scratchy is a parody of traditional cartoons or takeoffs on famous films, but the plot and content are always violent and bloody. The most direct and obvious example is Tom and Jerry, an animated series, about a constant battle between a cat and a mouse, with the mouse victorious. Itchy & Scratchy includes shorts such as Scratchtasia, a parody of Fantasia, Pinitchio, a parody of Pinocchio. Animation-related jokes are prevalent in the show, such as the Manhattan Madness cartoon in "The Day the Violence Died", based on early animated cartoons such as Gertie the Dinosaur; the cartoons occasionally serve to play out an exaggerated form of the conflict in the surrounding episode. For example, in "Deep Space Homer", Homer is recruited by NASA, watches an Itchy & Scratchy cartoon which directly parodies the films 2001: A Space Odyssey and Alien. Chester J. Lampwick created Itchy for the now-lost silent cartoon Manhattan Madness, in which the mouse brutally attacks and kills an Irishman and Theodore Roosevelt, in 1919.
However, the character was stolen by Roger Meyers. Scratchy starred in his first cartoon in 1928, titled That Happy Cat; the film, a 13-second-long animation showing the cat whistling and tipping his hat, was a commercial failure. That year and Scratchy starred in their first cartoon together, Steamboat Itchy, a violent parody of Disney's Steamboat Willie. Along with the cartoon shorts and Scratchy were featured in a World War II-era radio series, at least two films — Pinitchio and Scratchtasia, television commercials for Laramie Cigarettes. Itchy & Scratchy Studios is run by Roger Meyers Jr. the son of Roger Meyers, the cartoon's "creator." The studio was bankrupted after it was sued by Lampwick for $800 million, but was saved after receiving a large cash settlement from the government over its use of Mr. ZIP; the show underwent a brief, non-violent retooling following a protest campaign led by Marge Simpson, but returned to its original violent format after Marge was discredited. Itchy & Scratchy has spawned an Academy Award-winning film adaptation, amusement parks, a musical, like Krusty's show, localized versions are produced for other countries, such as Jamaica's The Itchem and Scratchem Blow.
Itchy and Scratchy are the main characters in the show. The duo first appeared in The Tracey Ullman Show short "The Bart Simpson Show," which aired November 20, 1988, the performance style at the time was like Tom and Jerry, their first appearance in The Simpsons was "There's No Disgrace Like Home." Itchy, voiced by Dan Castellaneta, is a blue mouse, the aggressor and the victor over the hapless Scratchy in their battles. An exception is in "Homer Goes to College". Bart and Lisa watch a cartoon called "Burning Down the Mouse", as Lisa puts it, "This is the one where Scratchy gets Itchy". However, due to the Simpsons' television being accidentally unplugged, the viewer
The X-Files is an American science fiction drama television series created by Chris Carter. The original television series aired from September 1993 to May 19, 2002 on Fox; the program spanned nine seasons, with 202 episodes. A short tenth season consisting of six episodes premiered on January 24, 2016, concluded on February 22, 2016. Following the ratings success of this revival, Fox announced in April 2017 that The X-Files would be returning for an eleventh season of ten episodes; the season premiered on January 3, 2018, concluding on March 21, 2018. In addition to the television series, two feature films have been released: The 1998 film The X-Files, which took place as part of the TV series continuity, the stand-alone film The X-Files: I Want to Believe, released in 2008, six years after the original television run had ended; the series revolves around Federal Bureau of Investigation special agents Fox Mulder, Dana Scully who investigate X-Files: marginalized, unsolved cases involving paranormal phenomena.
Mulder believes in the existence of aliens and the paranormal while Scully, a medical doctor and a skeptic, is assigned to make scientific analyses of Mulder's discoveries to debunk his work and thus return him to mainstream cases. Early in the series, both agents become pawns in a larger conflict and come to trust only each other and a few select people; the agents discover an agenda of the government to keep the existence of extraterrestrial life a secret. They develop a close relationship which begins as a platonic friendship, but becomes a romance by the end of the series. In addition to the series-spanning story arc, "monster of the week" episodes form two-thirds of all episodes; the X-Files was inspired by earlier television series which featured elements of suspense and speculative fiction, including The Twilight Zone, Night Gallery, Tales from the Darkside, Twin Peaks, Kolchak: The Night Stalker. When creating the main characters, Carter sought to reverse gender stereotypes by making Mulder a believer and Scully a skeptic.
The first seven seasons featured Anderson equally. In the eighth and ninth seasons, Anderson took precedence. New main characters were introduced: FBI agents John Doggett and Monica Reyes. Mulder and Scully's boss, Assistant Director Walter Skinner became a main character; the first five seasons of The X-Files were filmed and produced in Vancouver, British Columbia, before moving to Los Angeles to accommodate Duchovny. The series returned to Vancouver to film The X-Files: I Want to Believe as well as the tenth and eleventh seasons of the series; the X-Files was a hit for the Fox network and received positive reviews, although its long-term story arc was criticized near the conclusion. Considered a cult series, it turned into a pop culture touchstone that tapped into public mistrust of governments and large institutions and embraced conspiracy theories and spirituality. Both the series itself and lead actors Duchovny and Anderson received multiple awards and nominations, by its conclusion the show was the longest-running science fiction series in U.
S. television history. The series spawned a franchise which includes Millennium and The Lone Gunmen spin-offs, two theatrical films and accompanying merchandise; the X-Files follows personal lives of FBI Special Agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully. Mulder is a talented profiler and strong believer in the supernatural, he is adamant about the existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life and its presence on Earth. This set of beliefs earns him the nickname "Spooky Mulder" and an assignment to a little-known department that deals with unsolved cases, known as the X-Files, his belief in the paranormal springs from the claimed abduction of his sister Samantha Mulder by extraterrestrials when Mulder was 12. Her abduction drives Mulder throughout most of the series; because of this, as well as more nebulous desires for vindication and the revelation of truths kept hidden by human authorities, Mulder struggles to maintain objectivity in his investigations. Agent Scully is a foil for Mulder in this regard.
As a medical doctor and natural skeptic, Scully approaches cases with complete detachment when Mulder, despite his considerable training, loses his objectivity. She is partnered with Mulder so that she can debunk Mulder's nonconforming theories supplying logical, scientific explanations for the cases' unexplainable phenomena. Although she is able to offer scientific alternatives to Mulder's deductions, she is able to refute them completely. Over the course of the series, she becomes dissatisfied with her own ability to approach the cases scientifically. After Mulder's abduction at the hands of aliens in the seventh season finale "Requiem", Scully becomes a "reluctant believer" who manages to explain the paranormal with science. Various episodes deal with the relationship between Mulder and Scully platonic, but that develops romantically. Mulder and Scully are joined by John Doggett and Monica Reyes late in the series, after Mulder is abducted. Doggett replaces him as Scully's partner and helps her search for him involving Reyes, of whom Doggett had professional knowledge.
The initial run of The X-Files ends when Mulder is secretly subjected to a military tribunal for breaking into a top secret military facility and viewing plans for alien invasion and colonization of Earth. He is found guilty, but he escapes punishment with the help of the other agents and he and Scully become fugitives; as the show progress