Baxter High School
The Baxter High School in the Homewood North neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is a building from 1908. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986; the building is now home to the Pittsburgh Student Achievement Center, an alternative school for grades 6-12. Pittsburgh Student Achievement Center
Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is located in spans the Allegheny River; the Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire houses 15 Engine in the Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar section of the city. Lincoln and Lemington were former neighborhoods in the northeastern section of the city. Lincoln-Lemington-Belmar is a predominantly black neighborhood, once a white neighborhood from the early 1920s until the early 1970s. Belmar was a neighborhood atop a steep hill. Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar is subdivided at Lemington Ave into two parts, "Upper Lincoln" and "Lower Lincoln". Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar is one of the steepest neighborhoods in Pittsburgh, with Downtown Pittsburgh visible from many parts of Upper Lincoln; the Veterans Hospital and the Shuman Juvenile Detention Center sit off Highland Drive in the northern part of the neighborhood. Larimer borders Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar to the west and is connected by the Lincoln Avenue Bridge and the Larimer Avenue Bridge. Homewood borders Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar to the south and is connected by Upland Street, Apple Avenue off Lincoln Avenue, by Stranahan Avenue from atop Belmar.
Penn Hills lies east of Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar, is reached via Lincoln and Lemington avenues, by Brushton Avenue streaming in from Homewood. Highland Park is separated by Washington Boulevard to the west. Part of the neighborhood extends across the Allegheny. Lincoln–Lemington contains the Waterworks Mall and St. Margaret Hospital, part of the UPMC health system; the section north of the Allegheny River has three borders: Aspinwall to the west, Fox Chapel to the north and O'Hara Township to the east. Its larger counterpart south of the river has five borders, including Penn Hills to the east and the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Homewood North and Homewood West to the south, Larimer to the southwest and Highland Park to the west. List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods
African-American neighborhoods or black neighborhoods are types of ethnic enclaves found in many cities in the United States. An African American neighborhood is one where the majority of the people who live there are African American; some of the earliest African-American neighborhoods were in New York City along with early communities located in Virginia. In 1830, there were 14,000 "free Negroes" living in New York City; the formation of black neighborhoods are linked to the history of segregation in the United States, either through formal laws or as a product of social norms. Despite the formal laws and segregation, black neighborhoods have played an important role in the development of African-American culture; the Great Migration was the movement of more than one million African Americans out of rural Southern United States from 1914 to 1940. Most African Americans who participated in the migration moved to large industrial cities such as Chicago, New York, Pittsburgh, Washington, D. C. Detroit, Minneapolis, New Orleans, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Los Angeles, Long Beach as well as many smaller industrial cities.
Hence, the Migration played an important role in the formation and expansion of African-American neighborhoods in these cities. Chicago's South Side and adjoining South Suburbs together constitute the largest geographical predominantly Black region in America, stretching from Cermak Road on the north in the Near South Side to the far south suburb of University Park - a distance of 40 miles. There are various races and ethnic groups in this huge expanse such as Whites, Latinos and Arabs, but it is predominantly Black. While the Great Migration helped educated African Americans obtain jobs, while enabling a measure of class mobility, the migrants encountered significant forms of discrimination in the North through a large migration during such a short of period of time; the African-American migrants were resented by working classes in the North, who feared that their ability to negotiate rates of pay, or to secure employment at all, was threatened by the influx of new labor competition. Populations increased rapidly with the addition of African-American migrants and new European immigrants, which caused widespread housing shortages in many cities.
Newer groups competed for the oldest and most rundown houses because the poorly constructed houses were what they could afford. African Americans competed for work and housing with first or second generation immigrants in many major cities. Ethnic groups created territories. More established populations with more capital moved away to newer housing, being developed on the outskirts of the cities, to get away from the pressure of new groups of residents; the migrants discovered that the open discrimination of the South was only more subtly manifested in the North. In 1917, the Supreme Court declared municipal resident segregation ordinances unconstitutional. In response, some white groups resorted to the restrictive covenant, a formal deed restriction binding property owners in a given neighborhood not to sell to blacks. Whites who broke these agreements could be sued by "damaged" neighbors. Not until 1948 did the Supreme Court strike down restrictive covenants; the National Housing Act of 1934 contributed to limiting the availability of loans to urban areas those areas inhabited by African Americans.
In some cities, the influx of African-American migrants as well as other immigrants resulted in racial violence, which flared in several cities during 1919. This significant event and the subsequent struggle of African-American migrants to adapt to Northern cities was the subject of Jacob Lawrence's Migration Series; this series, exhibited in 1941, was responsible for bringing Lawrence to the public eye as one of the most important African-American artists of the time. From 1940-1970, another five million people left the South for industrial jobs in cities in the North and West. Sometimes violence was the outcome of some of the pressure of this migration. In response to the influx of Blacks from the South, insurance companies, businesses began redlining—denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, access to jobs, access to health care, or supermarkets to residents in certain racially determined, areas; the most common use of the term refers to mortgage discrimination. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration suggest that in the mid-20th century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by whites to exclude blacks from their neighborhoods.
This meant that ethnic minorities could secure mortgage loans only in certain areas, it resulted in a large increase in the residential racial segregation and urban decay in the United States. Urban renewal, the redevelopment of areas within large cities, including white flight, has been a factor in the growth patterns of African-American neighborhoods; the process began an intense phase in the late 1940s and continues in some places to the present day. It has had a major impact on the urban landscape. Urban renewal was controversial because it involved the destruction of businesses, the relocation of people, the use of eminent domain to reclaim private property for city-initiated development projects; the justifications used for urban renewal include the "renewal" of residential slums and blighted commercial and industrial areas. In the second half of the 20th century, renewal resulted in the creation of urban sprawl and vast areas of cities being demolished and replaced by freeways and expressways, housing projects, vacant lots, some of which still remain vacant at the beginning of the 21st century.
Thomas M. Carnegie
Thomas Morrison Carnegie was a Scottish-born American industrialist. He was the brother of steel magnate Andrew Carnegie and co-founder of the Edgar Thomson Steel Works, he was born in Dunfermline, Scotland, on October 2, 1843. His parents were Will and Margaret Carnegie, he had a brother, eight years older. A sister, had been born in 1840 but died in infancy, his first cousin was future industrialist George Lauder. His father was a master weaver, his mother sold food in the home and sewed soles on leather boots to help provide income. Left destitute by automation, the family emigrated to the United States in 1848 and settled in "Slabtown"—an immigrant neighborhood in Allegheny City, at the time a distinct and fast-growing city on the north side of the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers across from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the family rented rooms from a relative who owned a house at 336 Rebecca Street. Allegheny City was an unpleasant place to live, it had no municipal water system until 1848, no natural gas lines until 1853, no sewer system, wild hogs roamed the streets attacking children.
There, Thomas attended local public school. As a boy, Thomas Carnegie was "the beautiful white-haired child with lustrous black eyes, who everywhere attracted attention", he was considered well-mannered but reserved, went into a quiet room during social gatherings. He was noted for his quick and wry sense of humor, and while some, such as Andrew Carnegie biographer Joseph Frazier Wall have concluded that Margaret Carnegie secretly favored Thomas, others such as Richard S. Tedlow disagree and conclude that Thomas was isolated and lonely within the extended Carnegie family and their large coterie of friends, it is well documented that Andrew and Thomas did not have the same group of friends, that Thomas' group was smaller. In time, Thomas Carnegie became a lifelong heavy drinker, his older brother Andrew made a good deal of money from stock investing, in 1853 purchased their rented home on Rebecca Street. In 1858, after Andrew had been appointed Thomas Scott's assistant, the Carnegie family sold their Rebecca Street home and bought a large home in Altoona.
Andrew was appointed superintendent of the western division of the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1859, he made Thomas his assistant. In 1859, the family moved back to Pittsburgh and resided at 10 Hancock Street, but the pollution from nearby factories and iron forges proved too much, after only a few short months on Hancock Street, Andrew purchased a Victorian home for Thomas and their mother in Homewood a middle-class village on the edge of Pittsburgh. Andrew and Thomas rode the train to and from work together, attended the theater frequently. In 1861, Andrew persuaded Thomas to invest in the Columbia Oil Company, it paid off handsomely; that Andrew Carnegie should ask an 18-year-old boy to be a stock investor was not unusual. When Andrew traveled to Scotland with his mother and a friend in 1862, he left Thomas in charge of his numerous business affairs. Thomas' business ventures were pulled along in the wake of his older brother's interests, he made his fortune in iron and steel because of Andrew.
In 1861, Thomas N. Miller, Henry Phipps, Anthony Kloman, Andrew Kloman organized the Iron City Forge in Pittsburgh to take advantage of the booming need for iron products during the American Civil War. Miller subsequently bought out Anton Kloman's share. Phipps and Miller learned that Andrew Kloman had sold a one-ninth share in the business to a local man who subsequently died during the war, Miller bought his share. Kloman and Phipps were soon at odds over these transactions and one another's refusal to sell out to the others, they sought Andrew Carnegie's assistance in resolving the dispute. On September 1, 1863, Carnegie drew up new incorporation papers which made Miller a "special partner" in the firm and which made Thomas Carnegie a partner in the business; the money for Thomas' investment came from Andrew. A clause in the contract permitted Kloman and Phipps to oust Miller and make him a silent partner, which they did; the same clause, gave Thomas Carnegie the right to purchase the extra one-ninth share Miller had obtained, Andrew Carnegie financed this purchase.
When Miller, one of Andrew's closest friends, Andrew induced Thomas to plead with him to acquiesce lest Andrew's reputation as a fair dealer suffer. Miller did so. Meanwhile, Miller established a rival firm, the Cyclops Iron Company, with Andrew Carnegie as an investor; the Cyclops firm opened in October 1864. Thomas, was concerned that the Cyclops company would harm his own interests in Iron City Forge, prevailed on Andrew to merge the two firms. Kloman and Phipps at first refused, but Thomas made an offer of all the shares in Cyclops plus an additional payment of $50,000. On May 1, 1865, the new Union Iron Mills Company was formed. Thomas was to "help out" as needed, appointe
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Martin Luther King Jr. East Busway
The Martin Luther King Jr. East Busway is a two-lane bus-only highway serving the city of Pittsburgh and many of its eastern neighborhoods and suburbs, it was named after Martin Luther King Jr. in recognition of the eastern portion of the route's serving many predominantly African-American neighborhoods, such as Wilkinsburg and East Liberty. It is maintained by the Port Authority of Allegheny County. Occupied by a railroad line, planning for the East Busway began shortly after the Port Authority of Allegheny County purchased the Pittsburgh Railways Company in 1964; the original segment of the busway opened in February 1983, running between Downtown Pittsburgh and Edgewood, a length of 6.8 miles. In 2003, the busway was extended into Swissvale by 2.3 miles. In July 2013, the East Busway was discussed in the context of the Mon Fayette Expressway. In order to provide a bypass for the congested Squirrel Hill Tunnel, civic planners have raised the possibility of opening the Busway to High Occupancy Vehicle traffic.
Following the naming convention of each busway being designated by a color, bus routes that use the East Busway begin with a "P" for purple. However, the P13 uses a "P" designation, but does not use the busway; the P1 is the main route, operating seven days a week and running the full length of the Busway between Swissvale and Downtown Pittsburgh, making all stops, before running a short loop through the central business district. It is the busiest Port Authority bus route by ridership; this route is supplemented by the P2, which terminates in Wilkinsburg. All busway routes travel to downtown Pittsburgh, making a loop around before returning via the busway; the one exception to this is the P3, which starts in Swissvale, but leaves the busway via the Neville Street Ramp, serving the business district of Oakland and terminating at Robinson Street. Many of the Port Authority's express and suburban Flyer routes use the busway during weekday rush hours; the busway enables these routes to bypass the congested Parkway East, making for faster trip times.
The East Busway is used by some Westmoreland Transit routes, which run further into the Pittsburgh suburbs, ending in the cities of Greensburg and Latrobe in Westmoreland County. As of October 2018, the Port Authority bus routes that use the East Busway are as follows: West Busway South Busway Pittsburgh Light Rail Port Authority of Allegheny County: East Busway information page East Busway Schedule - P1, P2, P3 East Busway Route Map - P1, P2, P3