Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most 34th most populous of the 50 United States, it is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city; the state is forested outside the Mississippi Delta area, the area between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, as the waterways were critical for transportation. Large gangs of slaves were used to work on cotton plantations. After the war, freedmen began to clear the bottomlands to the interior, in the process selling off timber and buying property. By the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after the financial crisis, which occurred when blacks were facing increasing racial discrimination and disfranchisement in the state.
Clearing of the land for plantations altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi by taking out trees and bushes that had absorbed excess waters. Much land is now held by agribusinesses. A rural state with agricultural areas dominated by industrial farms, Mississippi is ranked low or last among the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, median household income; the state's catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. Since the 1930s and the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and West, the majority of Mississippi's population has been white, although the state still has the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were majority black, before the American Civil War that population was composed of African-American slaves. Democratic Party whites retained political power through disfranchisement and Jim Crow laws.
In the first half of the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave of migration around World War II to West Coast cities. In the early 1960s, Mississippi was the poorest state in the nation, with 86% of its non-whites living below the poverty level. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state. Since regaining enforcement of their voting rights in the late 1960s, most African Americans have supported Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party. African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic slave settlement during the plantation era; the state's name is derived from the Mississippi River. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Grenada Lake with the largest lake being Sardis Lake. Mississippi is composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 807 feet above sea level; the lowest point is sea level at the Gulf Coast. The state's mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain; the coastal plain is composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state; the northeast is a region of fertile black earth. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis and Pascagoula, it is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island, Cat Island.
The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain widens north of Vicksburg; the region has rich soil made up of silt, deposited by the flood waters of the Mississippi River. Areas under the management of the National Park Service include: Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn Gulf Islands National Seashore Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in Tupelo Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000: Mississippi has a humid
Tupelo National Battlefield
Tupelo National Battlefield commemorates the American Civil War battle of Tupelo known as the Battle of Harrisburg, fought from July 14 to 15, 1864, near Tupelo, Mississippi. The Union victory over Confederate forces in northeast Mississippi ensured the safety of Sherman's supply lines during the Atlanta Campaign; the Tupelo National Battlefield was established as "Tupelo Battlefield Site" on February 21, 1929. The site was transferred from the United States War Department to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933, boundary changed on August 10, 1961. In 1936, the Tupelo-Gainesville Tornado destroyed the concrete monument to the battle, ripping it out of the ground and shattering it; the site was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Natchez Trace Parkway National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Mississippi Bearss, Edwin C.. Protecting Sherman's Lifeline: The Battles of Brices Cross Roads and Tupelo 1864.
Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office – via Internet Archive. National Park Service; the National Parks: Index 2001–2003. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office – via Internet Archive. GovernmentOfficial websiteGeneral informationTupelo National Battlefield at the American Battlefield Protection Program Tupelo National Battlefield at the Civil War Trust Tupelo National Battlefield at the National Park Foundation
Wilkinson County, Mississippi
Wilkinson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,878, its county seat is Woodville. The county is named for James Wilkinson, a Revolutionary War military leader and first governor of the Louisiana Territory after its acquisition by the United States in 1803. In the nineteenth century, this county was developed by European-American settlers as cotton plantations along the Mississippi River, which forms the western border of the county. Much of the bottomlands and interior were undeveloped frontier until after the American Civil War; the intensive cultivation depended on the labor of numerous enslaved African Americans. The population of this county became majority black as enslaved workers were brought in; the West Feliciana Railroad was built to help get the cotton commodity crop to market. Some planters got wealthy during the antebellum years and built fine mansions in the county seat of Woodville, Mississippi. Jane and Samuel Emory Davis family moved here in 1812 with their several children, lived at a plantation near Woodville.
Their youngest son, Jefferson Davis, attended the Wilkinson Academy in Woodville for two years before going to Kentucky to another school. After the Civil War and planters negotiated new working arrangements, sharecropping became widespread. Although cotton continued as the commodity crop, a long agricultural depression kept prices low. Following Reconstruction, white violence against blacks increased through the decades of the 19th century and into the early 20th century. According to 2017 data compiled in Lynching in America, some nine lynchings of African Americans were recorded in Wilkinson County; the peak of population in the county was reached in 1900, after which many blacks left in the Great Migration to the North and Midwest, to escape the racial segregation and violence, the disfranchisement suffered in the state since passage by the white Democratic-dominated legislature of a new constitution in 1890 raising barriers to voter registration. More constraints came with Jim Crow laws.
In the early 20th century the boll weevil infestation destroyed much of the cotton crops, mechanization caused a further loss of agricultural jobs. The exit of many African Americans from the state did not change the state's exclusion of African Americans from politics, they were not enabled to vote until after passage of the federal Voting Rights Act in 1965. Cotton cultivation was revived, but it is produced on a mechanized, industrial scale. Southwest Mississippi was an area of white violence against blacks during the Civil Rights Movement. In February 1964, the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan formed. Clifton Walker, 37, a married father of five and employee of International Paper Company in Natchez, not politically active, was killed in an ambush on Poor House Road near his home; the evidence showed. This lynching cold case has never been solved, although it was among numerous ones that the FBI was investigating since 2007, before the Donald Trump administration ended the effort in 2018.
Timber has been processed in the county as a new commodity crop. The population of the rural county has continued to decline because of lack of jobs. Towns have started to develop heritage tourism to attract more visitors. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 688 square miles, of which 678 square miles is land and 9.7 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 61 Mississippi Highway 24 Mississippi Highway 33 Adams County Franklin County Amite County East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana Concordia Parish, Louisiana Homochitto National Forest Clark Creek Natural Area As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 9,878 people residing in the county. 70.8% were Black or African American, 28.7% White, 0.1% Native American, 0.1% of some other race and 0.3% of two or more races. 0.4% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,312 people, 3,578 households, 2,511 families residing in the county; the population density was 15 people per square mile.
There were 5,106 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 68.21% Black or African American, 31.22% White, 0.10% Native American, 0.03% Asian, 0.07% from other races, 0.38% from two or more races. 0.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,578 households out of which 32.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.40% were married couples living together, 24.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.80% were non-families. 27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.16. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 20.60% from 45 to 64, 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 108.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.60 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $18,929, the median income for a family was $23,447. Males had a median income of $24,509 versus $16,088 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,868. About 33.10% of families and 37.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 48.90%
Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge
Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge is a 48,000 acres National Wildlife Refuge located in the U. S. state of Mississippi, in Noxubee and Winston Counties. The refuge serves as a resting and feeding area for migratory birds and as example of proper land stewardship; the refuge extensively manages land for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker. Land for the Noxubee NWR was obtained in the 1930s through the Resettlement Administration. During the 1930s, the land was controlled by the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act. In 1940, the land was established as a National Wildlife Refuge to ensure the wetlands would continue to be protected, providing migratory bird species and other animals a safe haven. Of the 48,000 acres of land 44,500 acres consists of bottomland and upland forest. A variety of species inhabit these lands including quail and turkey. Two major lakes, Bluff with 1,200 acres and Loakfoma with 600 acres provide much of the wetlands within Noxubee. Additionally, there are four green tree reservoirs and sixteen smaller reservoirs which provide a habitat for wood stork, American alligator, bald eagle and other waterfowl.
The refuge partners with nearby Mississippi State University in an extensive research program with the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries and the Department of Forestry. Named the Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, the refuge was renamed for Sam D. Hamilton, a former director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, in February 2012. Goose Overlook is a 30-foot-high observation platform overlooking Bluff Lake; this area provides a wildlife viewing area for animals such as white-tailed deer and migrating Canada Geese. Another observation on Morgan Hill provides a view of the 600 acres Loakfoma Lake; this 1,000-foot-long boardwalk provides access to an overlook at cypress island on Bluff Lake. The refuge has a trail system providing access to wildlife observation points, visit the refuge website for more information on individual hiking trails and boardwalks. List of National Wildlife Refuges Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Website Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Facebook Page Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee NWR Audio Visual Presentation Friends of Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Website
National Trails System
The National Trails System was created by the National Trails System Act, codified at 16 U. S. C. § 1241 et seq. The Act created a series of National trails "to promote the preservation of, public access to, travel within, enjoyment and appreciation of the open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources of the Nation." The Act authorized three types of trails: the National Scenic Trails, National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails. The 1968 Act created two national scenic trails: the Appalachian and the Pacific Crest. In 1978, as a result of the study of trails that were most significant for their historic associations, a fourth category of trail was added: the National Historic Trails. Since 1968, over forty trail routes have been studied for inclusion in the system. Of these studied trails, twenty-one have been established as part of the system. Today, the National Trails System consists of 30 National Scenic and Historic Trails and over 1,000 National Recreation Trail and two connecting-and-side trails, with a total length of more than 50,000 miles.
These National Trails are more than just for hiking, many are open for horseback riding, mountain biking, camping and/or scenic driving. As Congressionally established long-distance trails, each one is administered by a federal agency, either the Bureau of Land Management, United States Forest Service, or National Park Service. Two of the trails are jointly administered by the BLM and the NPS; these agencies acquire lands to protect key sites and viewsheds. More than not, they work in partnership with the states, local units of government, land trusts and private landowners, to protect lands and structures along these trails, enabling them to be accessible to the public. National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails do not require Congressional action, but are recognized by actions of the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture. All of the National Trails are supported by private non-profit organizations that work with the various federal agencies under the Partnership for the National Trails System.
The Act is codified as 16 U. S. C. §§ 1241–1251. However, it has been amended numerous times since its passage, most on October 18, 2004. National Scenic Trails are established to provide access to spectacular natural beauty and to allow the pursuit of healthy outdoor recreation; the National Scenic Trail system provides access to the crest of the Appalachian Mountains in the east, on the Appalachian Trail, to the Rocky Mountains of the west on the Continental Divide Trail. These provide access to viewing the subtle beauties of the southern wetlands and Gulf Coast on the Florida Trail, wandering the North Woods from New York to North Dakota on the North Country Trail, or experiencing the vast diversity of landscapes of the southwest on the Arizona National Scenic Trail. Of the eleven national scenic trails, Natchez Trace, Potomac Heritage are official units of the NPS. National Historic Trails are designated to protect the remains of significant overland or water routes to reflect the history of the nation.
They represent the earliest travels across the continent on the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail. They commemorate the forced displacement and hardships of the Native Americans, on the Trail of Tears. There are 19 Historic Trails. Most of them are scenic routes instead of non-motorized trails. National Historic Trails were authorized under the National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978, amending the National Trails System Act of 1968 The act established a category of trails known as connecting and side trails. To date, only two national side trails have been designated, both in 1990: The Timms Hill Trail, which connects the Ice Age Trail to Wisconsin's highest point, Timms Hill, the 86-mile Anvik Connector, which joins the Iditarod Trail to the village of Anvik, Alaska. Timms Hill Trail Anvik Connector The first National Geologic Trail was established by the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009. Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail National Historic Trails Interpretive Center Recreational Trail Program Protected areas of the United States List of long-distance footpaths Long-distance trails in the United States Karen Berger, Bill McKibben & Bart Smith: America's Great Hiking Trails: Appalachian, Pacific Crest, Continental Divide, North Country, Ice Age, Potomac Heritage, Natchez Trace, Pacific Northwest, New England.
Rizzoli, 2014, ISBN 978-0789327413 About the Partnership for National Trails System PNTS Find a Trail Historic Trail Facts National Trails System Text of the National Trails System Act
Delta National Forest
Delta National Forest is a U. S. National Forest in western Mississippi, it has an area of 60,898 acres. The forest is headquartered in Jackson, as are all six National Forests in Mississippi, but Delta Ranger District office is located in Rolling Fork, it is one of only six National Forests that are contained within a single county and the only bottomland hardwood forest in the National Forest system. The Green Ash-Overcup Oak-Sweetgum Research Natural Areas within the Delta National Forest are a rare example of pristine bottomland hardwood forests, they were declared National Natural Landmarks in May 1976. National Forests in Mississippi
Bienville National Forest
Bienville National Forest is a United States National Forest in central Mississippi. It is named for Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville. In descending order of land area it lies in parts of Scott, Smith and Newton counties, it has an area of 178,541 acres. The forest is headquartered in Jackson, as are all six National Forests in Mississippi, but there are local ranger district offices located in Forest; the Forest lies within the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion and supports mixed forests of pine and oak. The upper courses of the Leaf and Strong Rivers flow through the forest. Visitors can enjoy boating and fishing for bass and crappie on Marathon Lake and Shongelo Lake, campgrounds and trails are open for hiking and camping. There are three Wildlife Management Areas within Beinville National Forest: Bienville WMA; each of these WMAs offer excellent hunting opportunities for white-tailed deer, wild turkey, various small game. Recent years have seen an influx of invasive wild pigs, which can be taken with legal weapons for any open season.