A homograph is a word that shares the same written form as another word but has a different meaning. However, some dictionaries insist that the words must sound different, while the Oxford English Dictionary says that the words should be of "different origin". In this vein, The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography lists various types of homographs, including those in which the words are discriminated by being in a different word class, such as hit, the verb to strike, hit, the noun a blow. If, when spoken, the meanings may be distinguished by different pronunciations, the words are heteronyms. Words with the same writing and pronunciation are considered homonyms. However, in a looser sense the term "homonym" may be applied to words with the same writing or pronunciation. Homograph disambiguation is critically important in speech synthesis, natural language processing and other fields. Identically written different senses of what is judged to be fundamentally the same word are called polysemes.
Examples: sow – to plant seedsow – female pigwhere the two words are spelt identically but pronounced differently. Here confusion could occur in written language. Bear – to support or carrybear – the animalwhere the words are identical in spelling and pronunciation, but differ in meaning and grammatical function; these are called homonyms. Many Chinese varieties have homographs, called 多音字 or 重形字, 破音字. Modern study of Old Chinese has found patterns. One pattern is the addition of the prefix /*ɦ/, which turns transitive verbs into intransitive or passives in some cases: Another pattern is the use of a /*s/ suffix, which seems to create nouns from verbs or verbs from nouns: Many homographs in Old Chinese exist in Middle Chinese. Examples of homographs in Middle Chinese are: Many homographs in Old Chinese and Middle Chinese exist in modern Chinese varieties. Homographs which did not exist in Old Chinese or Middle Chinese come into existence due to differences between literary and colloquial readings of Chinese characters.
Other homographs may have been created due to merging two different characters into the same glyph during script reform. Some examples of homographs in Cantonese from Middle Chinese are: Heterography and homography Interlingual homograph IDN homograph attack Syncretism False friend
6 Below: Miracle on the Mountain is a 2017 American survival drama film directed by Scott Waugh and written by Madison Turner, based on the non-fiction book Crystal Clear by Eric LeMarque and Davin Seay. It stars Josh Hartnett, Mira Sorvino, Sarah Dumont and Jason Cottle, tells the true story of former professional hockey player Eric LeMarque, who finds himself stranded in the High Sierras during a fierce snowstorm and must use his wit and willpower to survive; the film was released in the United States on October 13, 2017. In February 2004, when a snowstorm strands former professional hockey player Eric LeMarque atop the Sierra Nevada Mountains, he is forced to rediscover the power of faith within him in order to survive. In February 2016, it was announced the first film former Relativity Studios president Tucker Tooley would finance 6 Below, based on the memoir by Eric LeMarque. Filming began in Utah in March 2016. In February 2017, Momentum Pictures acquired the distribution rights to the film setting it for an October 13, 2017 release.
On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes the film holds an approval rating of 22% based on 18 reviews, with an average rating of 4.5/10. On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 40 out of 100, based on 5 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". 6 Below: Miracle on the Mountain on IMDb
Challenge to Lassie is an American drama directed by Richard Thorpe in Technicolor and released October 31, 1949, by MGM Studios. It was the fifth feature film starring the original Lassie, a collie named Pal, the fourth and final Lassie film starring Donald Crisp; the movie is based on Eleanor Stackhouse Atkinson's 1912 novel Greyfriars Bobby which in turn is based on the true story of Greyfriars Bobby. Twelve years after starring in Challenge to Lassie, Crisp would star in another movie based on the novel, Greyfriars Bobby: The True Story of a Dog. Set in Scotland in 1860, the film tells the story of a rough collie named Lassie whose master, Jock Gray, is killed by robbers in Edinburgh. After his death, the dog keeps a constant vigil beside her master's grave in Greyfriars Kirkyard, in violation of the local dog laws. In the original novel, the title dog was a Skye Terrier named Bobby and his owner dies from pneumonia. Jock Gray raises his collie Lassie to be companion; when he is beaten to death by robbers after he retires, Lassie keeps vigil over his grave and refuses to let anyone else take ownership of her.
However, the law requires that all dogs be licensed by a legal owner. With no owner to pay her license and her only "home" being the church graveyard, Lassie faces an uncertain future, her late owner's friend John Traill, his law student son William, the keepers of the graveyard struggle to keep Lassie hidden from the zealous police Sergeant Davie and the town magistrate. Matters are brought to a head when they must go to court to plead for the dog's life before the Lord Provost. Pal as Lassie Donald Crisp as Jock Gray Edmund Gwenn as John Traill Geraldine Brooks as Susan Brown Reginald Owen as Sergeant Davie Alan Webb as James Brown Ross Ford as William Traill Henry Stephenson as Sir Charles Loring Alan Napier as The Lord Provost Sara Allgood as Mrs MacFarland Edmund Breon as Magistrate Arthur Shields as Doctor Lee Lumsden Hare as Mr MacFarland Charles Irwin as Sergeant Major Vernon Downing as Soldier Matthew Boulton as Butcher Gordon Richards as Constable Harry Cording as Adam Al Ferguson as Minor Role Olaf Hytten as Reeves In 2010, Film Score Monthly released the complete scores of the seven Lassie feature films released by MGM between 1943 and 1955 as well as Elmer Bernstein’s score for It's a Dog's Life in the CD collection: Lassie Come Home: The Canine Cinema Collection, limited to 1000 copies.
Due to the era when these scores were recorded, nearly half of the music masters have been lost so the scores had to be reconstructed and restored from the best available sources the Music and Effects tracks as well as monaural ¼″ tapes. The score for Challenge to Lassie was composed by André Previn; the music-and-effects tracks from Challenge to Lassie supplied by the studio were missing 10 minutes of the score. In order to provide the most complete listening experience of this early Previn effort, FSM has taken these missing tracks directly from the film, incorporated in chronological film order along with the music-and-effects tracks. Track listing for Challenge to Lassie Main Title and Foreword* - 1:26 Market Day* - 0:48 Lassie’s First Love* - 1:10 First Lesson* - 0:29 Sheep Herding*/Jock and the Flock* - 2:41 You’ve Trained Her Well* - 0:24 There’s My Bonnie* - 0:38 Jock Is Attacked* - 1:17 After the Fight*† - 0:44 Graveyard Lassie* - 0:20 John Sans Pants* - 0:44 Complaining Neighbors* - 1:03 The Journey*/Lassie’s Last Lap* - 4:11 Lassoed Lassie* - 1:05 No Exit* - 0:48 Cornered Collie*† - 0:20 Down the Cliffs*/Here’s Lassie*† - 2:09 I Cannot Apologize*† - 0:47 Laugh After Laugh*† & End Title*/End Cast - 1:18 Contains Sound Effects †Contains Dialogue Total Time: 23:04 According to MGM records the film earned $850,000 in the US and Canada and $330,000 overseas resulting in a loss to the studio of $156,000.
Challenge to Lassie was released to VHS on July 1997 as part of the Lassie Collection series. It was in a clamshell case. A second VHS version was released on September 1, 1998 featuring Donald Crisp and Lassie on the cover and in a standard slipcover case. Both versions are now out of print and no DVD version has been released, however it airs periodically on Turner Classic Movies. Challenge to Lassie on IMDb Challenge to Lassie at AllMovie Challenge to Lassie at the TCM Movie Database Challenge to Lassie at the American Film Institute Catalog