SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Homologation

Homologation is the granting of approval by an official authority. This may be a court of law, a government department, or an academic or professional body, any of which would work from a set of strict rules or standards to determine whether such approval should be given; the word may be considered roughly synonymous with accreditation, in fact in French and Spanish may be used with regard to academic degrees. Certification is another possible synonym. In today's marketplace, for instance, products must be homologated by some public agency to assure that they meet standards for such things as safety and environmental impact. A court action may sometimes be homologated by a judicial authority before it can proceed, the term has a precise legal meaning in the judicial codes of some countries; the equivalent process of testing and certification for conformance to technical standards is known as type approval in English-language jurisdictions. Another usage pertains to the biological sciences, where it may describe the similarities used to assign organisms to the same family or taxon, similarities they have jointly inherited from a common ancestor.

In motorsports a vehicle must be type approved by the sanctioning body to race in a given league, such as World Superbikes, International Level Kart Racing, or other sportscar racing/touring car racing series. Where a racing class requires that the vehicles raced be production vehicles only adapted for racing, manufacturers produce a limited run of such vehicles for public sale so that they can legitimately race them in the class; these vehicles are called "homologation specials". The term is applicable in the Olympic Games, in venue certifications, prior to the start of competition. An issue was raised at Cesana Pariol—the bobsleigh and skeleton track used for the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin—over its safety in luge; this delayed homologation of the track from January 2005 to October 2005 in order to achieve safe runs during luge competitions. In towed water sports, tournaments must adhere to homologation requirements set by the International Waterski & Wakeboard Federation in order to qualify as ranking.

In speed climbing, in order for world, continental or national records to be recognised by the International Federation of Sport Climbing, an official homologated wall must be used, each event must be approved through a homologation visit. European professional qualification directives Homologation reactions that extend an alkyl chain by one methylene unit NARIC Professional certification Standardization Type approval Academic homologation Education, recognition of diplomas and NARIC in the European Union Academic homologation in Spain Dictionary Certificate of Conformity

Human shield

Human shield is a military and political term describing the deliberate placement of non-combatants in or around combat targets to deter the enemy from attacking these combat targets. It may refer to the use of persons to shield combatants during attacks, by forcing them to march in front of the combatants. Using this tactic is considered a war crime by nations that are parties to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, the 1977 Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions, the 1998 Rome Statute. After World War II, it was claimed by German SS general Gottlob Berger that there was a plan, proposed by the Luftwaffe and approved by Adolf Hitler, to set up special POW camps for captured airmen of the Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces in large German cities, to act as human shields against their bombing raids. Berger realized that this would contravene the 1929 Geneva Convention and argued that there was not enough barbed wire—as a result, this plan was not implemented. Wehrmacht and SS forces extensively used Polish civilians as human shields during Warsaw Uprising when attacking the insurgents' positions.

At the Wola massacre in Poland on 7 August 1944, the Nazis forced civilian women onto the armored vehicles as human shields to enhance their effectiveness. In Belgium in May 1940, at least 86 civilians were killed by the German Wehrmacht known as the Vinkt Massacre, when the Germans took 140 civilians and used them as shields to cross a bridge while under fire. During the Battle of Okinawa, Japanese soldiers used civilians as human shields against American troops; when the Japanese were concerned about the incoming Allied air raids on their home islands as they were losing their controlled Pacific islands one by one to the Allies in the Pacific War, they scattered major military installations and factories throughout urban areas, historians argued that Japan was using its civilians as human shields to protect their legitimate military targets against Allied bombardment. As a result, the U. S. Army Air Forces was unable to strike purely military targets due to the limitations of their bombsight, the mixing of military installations and factories with urban areas, the widespread of cottage industry in Japan's cities.

This led the USAAF in early 1945 to switch from precision bombing to carpet bombing which destroyed 67 Japanese cities with incendiary bombs and the use of atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the Battle of the Notch North Korean forces were claimed to have used captured U. S. soldiers as human shields while advancing. During the 1982 Lebanon War, the Palestinian refugee camp of Ain al-Hilweh was surrounded by Israeli forces as the last stronghold of Palestinian militants in southern Lebanon, but "Soldiers of Allah" militants commanded by the Muslim fundamentalist Haj Ibrahim refused to surrender: Their motto was "Victory or death!" Over a two-day period, Israeli forces under the leadership of Brigadier General Yitzhak Mordechai announced "Whoever does not bear arms will not be harmed" and urged civilians in the camp to evacuate, but few did. Three delegations of prominent Sidon figures were sent to persuade Haj Ibrahim's fighters that "their cause was hopeless, whoever was willing to lay down his arms would be allowed to leave the camp unharmed."

None of the delegations were successful. In one grisly incident, three children had been riddled with bullets before their parents' eyes because their father had dared to suggest calling an end to the fighting." After a delegation of Palestinian POWs—"headed by a PLO officer, prepared to give the defenders his professional assessment of Ein Hilweh's grave military situation"—and an offer by Mordechai to "meet with" Haj Ibrahim were rebuffed, "a team of psychologists... was flown to Sidon to advise the command on how to deal with such irrational behavior." However, "the best advice the psychologists could offer was to organize yet another but larger delegation comprising some forty or so people and including women and children". Operation Blue Star was an Indian military operation carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984, ordered by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to remove militant religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his armed followers from the buildings of the Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar, Punjab.

Bhindranwale and large number of his militants were killed in the operation. There was a high civilian casualty in the operation, since the militants had been using the pilgrims, trapped inside the temple as Human shields; the pilgrims were not allowed by the militants to escape from the temple premises in spite of relaxation in the curfew hours by the security forces. The militants had hoped that the presence of thousands of pilgrims inside the temple premises would have prevented the action by army. One of the most famous uses of human shields occurred in Iraq in 1990, following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait that precipitated the Gulf War of 1990–1991. Saddam Hussein's government detained hundreds of citizens of Western countries who were in Iraq for use as human shields in an attempt to deter nations from participating in military operations against the country. A number of these hostages were filmed meeting Hussein, kept with him to deter any targeted attacks, whilst others were held in or near military and industrial targets.

In 1991, during the operations in the Gulf

Coral Way

Coral Way is a neighborhood within Miami, Florida, defined by Coral Way, a road established by Coral Gables founder George E. Merrick during the 1920s, it is located in Miami-Dade County, United States. The Coral Way neighborhood is served by the Miami Metrorail at Coconut Grove stations; the Architecture in the Coral Way neighborhoods reflects the early-20th Century. Some of the oldest sections contain a mixture of Mission Revival Style architecture and Bungalow homes of the 1920s, along with the Art Deco style from the 1930s and the modest post-World War II dwellings; the Coral Way area is best known for its historic urban boulevard along SW 22nd Street. One of the main thoroughfares between Coral Gables and the City of Miami, Coral Way passes through the City of Miami between SW 37th Avenue and Brickell Avenue; the Coral Way Corridor began in 1922 with citrus lined streets. In 1929, a Roadside Beautification Program was started, 1200 Banyan trees were planted along the median of the boulevard.

Today, Coral Way remains one of the most beautiful corridors in South Florida. The sub-neighborhoods within Coral Way include: Shenandoah, Silver Bluff, Vizcaya-Roads, Coral Gate, Parkdale-Lyndale, South Miami, Bryan Park, Golden Pines. Coral Gate is a smaller sub-neighborhood within the larger Coral Way neighborhood, it is located south of SW 16th Street, east of SW 37th Avenue, north of Coral Way and west of SW 32nd Avenue. Coral Gate borders Coral Gables to Golden Pines to the south; the north and east boundaries of Coral Gate are enclosed by walls or street barriers with all vehicles blocked from entering or exiting through these directions. Golden Pines is a smaller sub-neighborhood within the larger Coral Way neighborhood, it is located east of City of Coral Gables, bounded by SW 22 St, South Dixie Highway. 27 Ave and 37 Ave. It is located at 25.734°N 80.242°W / 25.734. Shenandoah is an important neighborhood in Miami, boasting a large number of houses from the 1920s and 1930s and rich in revivalist Architecture.

It is located directly south of Little Havana, between SW 9th Street and Coral Way, SW 27th Avenue and SW 12th Avenue. It is located at 25.76°N 80.222°W / 25.76. Silver Bluff Estates is a smaller sub-neighborhood within the larger Coral Way neighborhood, it is located just south of Coral Way, west of SW 13th Avenue, east of SW 27th Avenue and north of South Dixie Highway. Much of this territory was the "City of Silver Bluff", annexed into the City of Miami in 1926, it is located at 25.749°N 80.236°W / 25.749. As of 2000, Coral Way had a population of 55,951 and 69,041 residents, with 21,363 households, 14,105 families residing in the city; the median household income was $37,168.89. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 81.10% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 0.41% Black or African American, 17.28% White, 1.21% Other races. The zip codes for Coral Way include 33129, 33133, 33135, 33145; the area covers 6.697 square miles. As of 2000, there were 36,162 females; the median age for males were 38.6 years old.

The average household size had 2.5 people. The percentage of married-couple families was 42.3%, while the percentage of married-couple families with children was 15.7%, the percentage of single-mother households was 7.1%. The percentage of never-married males 15 years old and over was 14.6%, while the percentage of never-married females 15 years old and over was 12.1%. As of 2000, the percentage of people that speak English not well or not at all made up 35.8% of the population. The percentage of residents born in Florida was 19.4%, the percentage of people born in another U. S. state was 8.1%, the percentage of native residents but born outside the U. S. was 2.1%, while the percentage of foreign born residents was 70.4%. The Consulate-General of Costa Rica in Miami is located in Suite 401 at 2730 SW 3rd Avenue in Coral Way. See also: Transportation in MiamiCoral Way is served by Metrobus throughout the area, by the Miami Metrorail at: Vizcaya Coconut Grove Douglas Road Miami-Dade County Public Schools operates area public schools: Silver Bluff Elementary School Frances S Tucker Elementary School Coral Way K-8 Center Merrick Educational Center Coral Way K-8 Center The English Center José Martí Schools Lincoln Martí School Brito Miami Private School Douglas Park Coral Gate Park Cuban Memorial Boulevard Park Woodlawn Park Cemetery