Motorcycles are versatile and may be put to many uses as the rider sees fit. In the past there were few if any specialized types of motorcycles, the introduction of the Honda CB750 in 1969 marked a dramatic increase in the power and speed of practical and affordable sport bikes available to the general public. This was followed in the 1970s by improvements in suspension and braking commensurate with the power of the inline fours that had begun to dominate the sport bike world. In the 1980s sport bikes again took a leap ahead, becoming almost indistinguishable from racing motorcycles, since the 1990s sport bikes have become more diverse, adding new variations like the naked bike and streetfighter to the more familiar road racing style of sport bike. With the emphasis of a bike being on speed, braking. Sport bikes have comparatively high-performance engines resting inside a lightweight frame, high tech and expensive materials are often used on sport bikes to reduce weight. Braking systems combine higher performance brake pads and disc brakes with multi-piston calipers that clamp onto oversized vented rotors, suspension systems are advanced in terms of adjustments and materials for increased stability and durability.
Front and rear tires are larger and wider than tires found on other types of motorcycles to allow higher cornering speeds and greater lean angles. Fairings may or may not be used on a sport bike, correct front-to-rear weight distribution is of particular importance to the handling of sport bikes, and the changing position of the riders body dynamically changes the handling of the motorcycle. There is no universal authority defining the terminology of sport bikes or any other motorcycle classes, marketing messages about a model from the manufacturer can diverge from the consensus of the motorcycling media and the public. Sometimes the classes used in racing are approximated in production models, often. The sport bike classes in common usage are, called entry level, some two strokes in this class have dramatically higher performance than the four strokes, being likened to miniature superbikes. Sport bikes with displacements of up to about 500 cc are usually in this class. Displacements of 600–750 cc are typical, liter-class, or literbike, i. e.1,000 cc.
As with supersport, many of the models in this class compete in superbike racing, open class, hypersport or hyperbike, are terms sometimes used in lieu of superbike as a catch-all for everything larger than middleweight. Alternatively, these terms mark a class above the superbikes for the largest displacement sport bikes with the highest top speeds, hyperbike was in use by 1979. The terms supersport and superbike are sometimes applied indiscriminately to all high-performance motorcycles, in the less developed world, smaller engine sizes are the norm, and relative terms like small, mid-sized and large displacement can have different meanings. For example, in India in 2002 there were about 37 million two-wheelers, the perception of relative sizes has shifted over time in developed countries, from smaller to larger displacements
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
Superbike World Championship
Superbike World Championship is the worldwide Superbike racing Championship. The championship was founded in 1988, the Superbike World Championship consists of a series of rounds held on permanent racing facilities. Each round has two races and the results of each race are combined to two annual World Championships, one for riders and one for manufacturers. The motorcycles that race in the championship are tuned versions of motorcycles available for sale to the public, MotoGP is the motorcycle worlds equivalent of Formula One, whereas Superbike racing is similar to touring car racing. Europe is Superbike World Championships traditional centre and leading market, an Indonesian race was proposed for the 2008 season, but this was canceled by the FIM. The championship is regulated by the FIM, the governing body of motorcycle racing. FGSport became part of the Infront Group in 2007 and in 2008 was rebranded as Infront Motor Sports, as of 2013 the championship is organised by Dorna. The Superbike World Championship began in 1988, being open to modified versions of road bike models available to the public, for many years, the formula allowed for machines with 1,000 cc V-twin engines to go up against the 750 cc four-cylinder engines.
For the first few seasons Honda won with the RC30, using 1,000 cc V-twin engines benefited Ducati and it was able to dominate the championship for many years, but the 750 cc was second or third each year between 1994 and 1999. Held under the FIM, the Formula TT from 1977 to 1989 once constituted the official motorcycle World Cup. Having proven itself both popular and commercially viable, it was decided by the end of the 1990 season to end the Formula TT, from 1993 to 1999 Carl Fogarty and Ducati dominated, Fogarty won the title a record 4 times and finished as runner-up twice on factory Ducatis. Troy Corser won the 1996 title and finished as runner-up in 1995, realizing that 1,000 cc V-twin engines suited the superbike racing formula more, Honda introduced its own V-Twin powered motorcycle the VTR1000 SPW in 2000. The result was clear right away as Colin Edwards won the championship in the bikes first year of competition, Ducati regained the title in 2001 with Troy Bayliss. Colin Edwards again reclaimed the title in 2002 on the same VTR1000 SPW bike, Colin Edwards won his 2nd championship in what was arguably the most impressive comeback in the history of motorcycle racing.
The season started with Troy Bayliss winning the first 6 races, Race 2 at Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca was the start of Colin Edwards comeback, he went on to win all 9 remaining races and Edwards won the championship at the final race of the season at Imola. The final race of the season saw both riders fighting wheel to wheel for the entire race, the race is known by fans as the Showdown at Imola. The manufacturers championship was won by Ducati, during these years the Superbike World Championship reached the zenith of its popularity, with global fan and full factory support. In 2003 the FIM changed the rules to allow 1,000 cc machines to race, rule changes in MotoGP to allow four-stroke engines meant that the Japanese manufacturers focused their resources there, leaving the Superbike World Championship with limited factory involvement
A sports car is a small, usually two seater, two door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the first known use of the term was in 1928, Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious, but high maneuverability and minimum weight are requisite. The basis for the car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars and roadsters. These raced in rallies, such as the Herkomer Cup, Prinz-Heinrich-Fahrt. These would shortly be joined by the French DFP and the Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost. In 1921, Ballot premiered its 2LS, with a remarkable 75 hp DOHC two liter, designed by Ernest Henry, capable of 150 km/h, at most, one hundred were built in four years and this was followed by the SOHC 2LT and 2LTS. The same year, Benz built a supercharged 28/95PS four for the Coppa Florio, duerkopps Zoller-blown two liter in 1924, as well. There was a clear cleavage by 1925, by the end of the 1920s, AC produced a 2-liter six, the 3. Benz introduced the powerful SS and SSK, and Alfa Romeo, hispano-Suizas Alfonso XIII is considered the first sportcar developed between 1911 and 1914.
Two companies would offer really reliable sports cars, Austin with the Seven, the drive train and engine layout significantly influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, and is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, and the Chevrolet Corvette, more specifically, many such sports cars have a FMR layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used, the RMR layout is commonly found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, and powers only the rear wheels. Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout, Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout.
The motors distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic driving aids to counteract these inherent design shortcomings. The front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout which is the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, its conservative handling effect, particularly understeer, and the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it. The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, and Berkeley cars are cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had added a lot of weight
AMA Superbike Championship
MotoAmerica Superbike Championship is an American motorcycle racing series. It is the premiere superbike racing series in the United States, the series was organised by the AMA until 2008. From 2009 to 2014, the Daytona Motorsports Group was the organiser under supervision of the AMA, current MotoAmerica classes are aligned with the FIM, similar to the Spanish CEV championship, and their names will be aligned with the FIM. Four non-Americans won the title – Englishman Reg Pridmore, Australians Mat Mladin and Troy Corser, starting in 2016, television rights are held by the Al Jazeera Media Networks beIN Sports brand. List of AMA Superbike champions AMA Pro Daytona Sportbike Championship AMA Supersport Championship Official website Superbike Champions at SportNetwork. net
The Ducati 1098 is a sport bike made by Ducati from 2007 to 2009, in three versions, the 1098, 1098S, and 1098R. The 1098 was succeeded by the 1198 in 2009, though the 1098R remained in production that year, the 1098 shares more design elements with the older 998 than with its predecessor the 999, such as horizontally placed headlights and a non-integrated exhaust system. Another carryover from its 916/998 heritage is the single-sided swingarm and this return to a more traditional Ducati design has been welcomed by many Ducati fans who criticized the design of the 999. The Ducati 1098/1098 S/1098 R were available in black, yellow, the 1098 was designed by Ducati designer, Giandrea Fabbro. The 1098/1098 S makes a manufacturer claimed 160 hp,138 hp rear wheel,90.4 lb·ft torque,77.9 lb·ft rear wheel, and weighs 173 kg. The 0-60 mph time is less than 3.0 seconds and 1/4 mile at 10.015 seconds at 143.94 mph, the 1098 R, with its larger displacement 1198 cc engine, makes a manufacturer claimed 180 hp,99.1 lb·ft torque.
All these figures give the 1098 the highest torque-to-weight ratio of any production sport bike ever made, with the release of the 1098, Ducati created a stir not only with road riders, but in the racing world, specifically the Superbike World Championship. In an attempt to level the field, WSBK regulations provide for concessions to motorcycles depending on the number of cylinders in their engine design. The fewer the cylinders, the concessions, and with its two cylinder V-twin design Ducati was able to capitalize on many of these concessions. Ducati argued that the current engine was at the end of its design life, the 2007 WSBK rules limited V-twin engines to 1000 cc, so Ducati effectively did not have a guarantee that the 1098 was eligible for entry in the premier class. Before releasing the 1098, Ducati lobbied the FIM to update the WSBK rules to accommodate its new bike, Ducati prevailed when, in June 2007, the FIM announced that the engine capacity limit would increase to 1200 cc for 2008.
However, this increase in displacement was not afforded without concessions on the part of Ducati, with the new 1200 cc maximum displacement for two-cylinders granted, the extra engine modifications allowed two-cylinder machines were surrendered. Engine modification rules for two-cylinder and four-cylinder machines are now parallel, rules for three-cylinder machines remain as before. Ducati won the 2008 and 2011 Superbike World Championship with its 1098 R, Ducati have won 17 World Championships since the Superbike World Championship was established in 1988. Xavier Siméon won the 2009 FIM Superstock 1000 Cup season, michael Rutter won the Macau Grand Prix in 2011. For 2009, Ducati took the past success of the 1098 and modified it to honour a racing legend, key changes include an upgrade into a 180 hp 90° V-twin Testastretta Evoluzione engine, and the inclusion of the Ducati Traction Control for better handling. The more common version of the bike is called 1098-09 R, which comes with the traditional Ducati red fairing, black chassis, the wheel rims are gold colored.
The main reason for Ducati to re-model this bike was to celebrate Troy Bayliss victory in the 2008 Superbike World Championship season riding for Ducati, Ducati built the remodelled 1098 to salute the career of Bayliss and his three World Championships
Since then, Group GT3 has expanded to become the de facto category for many national and international grand touring series, although some series modify the ruleset from the FIA standard. By 2013, nearly 20 automobile manufacturers have built or been represented with GT3 machines, Group GT3 allows for a wide variety of car types to be homologated with almost no limit on engine sizes and configurations or chassis construction or layout. GT3 cars must be based on road car models in mass production. The cars in GT3 are designed to have a weight between 1200kg and 1300kg with horsepower between 500hp and 600hp. All cars have a similar power to weight ratio but achieved either by high power and high weight such as the Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG or low power. GT3 cars have control, ABS and built in air jacks for quick pit stops. The concept behind Group GT3 was introduced by Stéphane Ratel, head of the SRO Group and this would allow drivers a bridge between smaller national series and the professional international FIA GT Championship.
Further, the category was conceived to use sprint formats for races, a similar category, under the same name, had been in use in the British GT Championship which the SRO Group organized. The British GT Championship, International GT Open, Spanish GT Championship, the SRO Group expanded the category in 2007 with the launch of two new regional championships, the Brazilian GT Championship and the German ADAC GT Masters, exclusively running Group GT3 cars. The British GT Championship abandoned Group GT2 cars, promoting GT3 to their premiere category, the French FFSA GT Championship added a new GT3 category. The Australian GT Championship brought on board the GT3 category in 2008 while the VLN Series and 24 Hours Nürburgring added GT3 categories in 2009, GT3 category cars replaced Group GT1 cars in the FIA GT1 World Championship before rebranding as the FIA GT Series in 2013. As of March 2017,47 cars have been homologated in Group GT3 by the FIA, although four of these homologations have expired. S
Porsche 911 GT3
The Porsche 911 GT3 is a high performance version of the Porsche 911 sports car primarily intended for racing. It is a line of models, which began with the 1973911 Carrera RS. The GT3 is named after the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile Group GT3 class in which it was designed to compete, a number of variations, designed for road and track duty, have been introduced since its launch in 1999. More than 14,000911 GT3 cars have been produced, the GT3 has had a successful racing career in the one-make national Porsche Carrera Cup series, and the international Porsche Supercup. The GT3 nameplate was introduced in 1999 as part of the first generation of the Porsche 996 model range, as with Porsches previous 911 RS models, the 996 GT3 was focused on racing, and so was devoid of items that added unnecessary weight to the car. The engine of the 996 GT3 set it apart from most of the other Porsche 996 models, the engine is naturally aspirated and based on the unit used in the Porsche 962 and Porsche 911 GT1 race cars.
That engine was known as the Mezger engine, after its designer Hans Mezger, the engine uses the original air-cooled 911s versatile dry-sump crankcase, with an external oil reservoir. The 996 GT3 has 360 PS, compared to the 300 PS of the regular Porsche 996, the GT3 engine is very similar to the completely water-cooled Porsche 962 racing cars engine, which is based on the same crankcase. The 962 differs, however, by using six individual cylinder heads while the GT1/GT3, like the air and water-cooled Porsche 959, the GT3 engine could thus be thought of as similar to a 959 engine, but with water-cooled cylinders. Up to early model year 2004996 GT3 production, the casting used for the crankcase of the GT3 was the same as the air-cooled engine. The 964 casting number was visible on the bottom of the crankcase, and on areas normally machined in air-cooled applications, the crankcase casting was changed in mid-2004 to a 996 casting number crankcase to eliminate these external air-cooled remnants, but internally it was the same.
Because the 911 air-cooled crankcase uses the Porsche 356 engine to transmission mounting flange configuration and this gearbox has interchangeable gear ratios and is more durable making it more suitable for racing than the standard 911 type 996 gearbox. Porsche offered a no-cost option for the GT3 called the Clubsport package, the Clubsport option was never offered to US customers, ostensibly due to the additional DOT crash testing that would have been required to allow US sales. Porsche made significant updates to the GT3 for 2004, using the 2002996 facelift including headlights that were differentiated from the Porsche Boxster, the 2004 version is commonly known as the 996.2 GT3. Horsepower was raised to 381 PS and torque to 284 lb·ft, the braking setup was upgraded, now featuring 6-piston calipers on the front, and the Porsche Ceramic Composite Brake system was offered as an option. In track testing by American automotive journals, the GT3 managed a 0-60 mph time of 4.5 seconds, during skidpad testing the vehicle posted 1. 03g.
Porsches official test-driver Walter Röhrl completed the Nürburgring Nordschleife with the 996 GT3 in 7 minutes 56 seconds, in 2003, Porsche introduced the Porsche 911 GT3 RS, an even more track-focused version of the 996 GT3. RS is short for the German RennSport, literally racing sport in English