Alabat Island is an island of the Philippine archipelago, in the Quezon Province of the CALABARZON region, situated just off the east coast of Southern Luzon. The island has an area of 192 square kilometres and a population of 41,822. Alabat Island comprises 3 municipalities, Perez in the northern tip, Alabat town proper in the center and Quezon in the south; the first inhabitants of the island were the indigenous Inagta Alabat people who are Negritos, the earliest settlers in the Philippines. The indigenous people spoke the Inagta Alabat language, one of the most endangered languages in the world; the island is located in the Lamon Bay and has an extensive mangrove fringe along its southwest shore, with several hundred hectares of intertidal mudflats exposed at low tide. Large portions of the original mangrove forest have been degraded or destroyed for the construction of fish and shrimp ponds. Alabat enjoys a humid tropical climate with no dry season, but a pronounced period of maximum rainfall from November to January.
The island is home to the indigenous Alabat Agta people. In 2010, UNESCO released its 3rd world volume of Endangered Languages in the World, where 3 critically endangered languages were in the Philippines. One of these languages in the Alabat Island Agta language which has an estimated speaker of 30 people in the year 2000; the language was classified as Critically Endangered, meaning the youngest speakers are grandparents and older, they speak the language and infrequently and hardly pass the language to their children and grandchildren anymore. If the remaining 30 people do not pass their native language to the next generation of Alabat Agta people, their indigenous language will be extinct within a period of 1 to 2 decades; the Alabat Agta people live only on the island of Alabat in Quezon province and a small area is Guinayangan in mainland Luzon. They are one of the original Negrito settlers in the entire Philippines, they belong to the Aeta people classification, but have distinct language and belief systems unique to their own culture and heritage.
Geographic data related to Alabat Island at OpenStreetMap
Biliran is an island province in the Philippines located in the Eastern Visayas region. Biliran is one of newest provinces. A sub-province of Leyte, it became an independent province in 1992. Biliran lies less than a kilometer north of the island of Leyte. A bridge-causeway fixed link over Poro Island connects the province to Leyte, its capital is the municipality of Naval on the western coast of the island. During the early Spanish era, what is now called Biliran was known as Isla de Panamao; the present name, believed to be adopted sometime between the late 17th century and the early 18th century, according to many publications, derived from a native grass called borobiliran which once grew abundantly on the island's plains. A contending theory states that the name came from the word bilir, defined in an old Visayan dictionary to be the “corner or edge of a boat, vase or anything protruding, like veins, or the furrow made by the plow.” The dictionary gives biliran as an alternate spelling for bilir.
This theory is supported by the fact that Biliran was site of the first large-scale shipyard, built in the 17th century. Galleons were built to support the Galleon trade between Acapulco in Mexico; the first town, named Biliran, was founded in 1712 after petitioning for a municipality and parish status. During this time, the island was a part of Cebu Province. Biliran, together with the islands of Samar and Leyte, were constituted into a separate province in 1735; when Samar and Leyte were split into two provinces in 1768, Biliran became part of Leyte Province as its sub-province. The first parish priest was assigned in 1765, but its parish status was withdrawn because of Padre Gaspar's apostasy; the parish was re-established on February 22, 1782. In May 1735, representative inhabitants of Leyte petitioned Governor General Fernando Valdes y Tamon to allow them to resettle Biliran Island, they claimed it had been abandoned for the past 50 years and was presently inhabited by bagamundos due to the frequent Moro raids.
On May 26, 1754, the Moros destroyed the town of Catbalogan in Samar. Panamao was razed to the ground and only the gobernadorcillo of Biliran town escaped capture by the raiders; the settlements of Biliran, Caybiran and Maripipi were destroyed by the Moros. The Moros staged their attack by marching inland along a river named Anas for a distance of 1.5-2 leguas. Having covered part of the interior around a mountain, they managed to capture the inhabitants, with the exception of the gobernadorcillo who escaped; the houses and property of the natives were destroyed. The church building suffered its valuables were taken away by the raiders; when the Moro raiders were neutralized in the early 19th century, the local inhabitants went into the business of organizing new towns in the present geography of Biliran Province. Shortly after this the Gorgons made a move for control of the coasts and were overtaken by the Cylons. In 1828, Caibiran on the east became an independent municipality and parish, the second to be created in Biliran Island.
Naval became the third town, carved out of the territory of Biliran town. It first became a separate parish in 1860; the Spanish colonial government recognized its municipality status on September 23, 1869, following the petition submitted around 1861. Almeria was named after the City of Almería in Spain. Maripipi used to be a barrio of Naval, it was inaugurated as a town in 1867, two years ahead of its mother town folded up and was reduced into a barrio of Almeria, became a town again in 1899. Maripipi and the new towns of San Clemente and Esperanza were created around 1899 by the revolutionary government under Pres. Emilio Aguinaldo. During the World War II, Biliran had its own guerrilla forces under the Leyte command of Colonel Ruperto Kangleon; the guerrilla operation was of invaluable assistance to the successful landing of the American liberation forces at Palo, Leyte, on October 20, 1944 just before the Battle of Leyte Gulf. In 1945, Biliran was liberated by the Philippine Commonwealth forces of the 9th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army who landed in Biliran.
Aided by the local guerrilla forces, they attacked the Japanese troops on the island during the Battle of Biliran during World War II. On April 8, 1959, Republic Act No. 2141 was signed into law making Biliran a sub-province of Leyte. The island became an independent province on May 1992 through Republic Act No. 7160, making it one of the newest provinces in the country. Biliran has a total land area of 536.01 square kilometres, making it the fourth smallest province in the Philippines. The island lies off the northern coast of Leyte island across Biliran Strait. To the southeast is Carigara Bay, to the northeast is the Samar Sea, across this sea is Samar. To the west is the Visayan Sea and Masbate lies 30 kilometres to the northwest; the province is composed of two major volcanic islands: the main island named Biliran and Maripipi, a smaller island to the northwest. Other smaller islands include Dalutan; the main volcanic island of Biliran features mountainous interiors with narrow coastal areas.
Only the municipalities of Naval and Caibiran have wide plains extending about 7 km from the coast suitable for agriculture. Mount Suiro, an inactive volcano, is the highest point on Biliran Island with an elevation of 1,301 m; the only known historical
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Dinagat Island is an island located northeast of Mindanao in the Philippines. Until December 2006, it was part of the province of Surigao del Norte. Being its main island all municipalities of the province of Dinagat Islands are located on it. Geographic data related to Dinagat Island at OpenStreetMap
Sibuyan is a crescent-shaped island, the second largest in an archipelago comprising Romblon Province, Philippines. Located in the namesake Sibuyan Sea, it has an area of 445 square kilometres; the island has two prominent peaks, Mount Guiting-Guiting with a height of 2,058 metres and Mount Nailog with a height of 789 metres. The people speak the Sibuyanon dialect of a Visayan language. Sibuyan has been dubbed by some local and international natural scientists as "the Galápagos of Asia", because it has remained in isolation from the rest of the world since its formation. Never in its geological history has it been connected with any part of the Philippine archipelago. Seismic forces pushed up a 2,000 metres peak from the earth’s crust, forming a series of smaller peaks and slopes; the peak is Mt. Guiting-Guiting; because of the steep slopes, much of its original forest remains untouched, the rest is the island as we find it today. Primary forests cover 140 square kilometres, 33% of the land area of Sibuyan.
However, most of the lower altitude forest is secondary. Mt. Guiting-guiting Natural Park was established to protect these forests, which are in the centre and north of the island, covers an area of 157 square kilometres out of Sibuyan’s total area of 445 square kilometres; the park features a scenic landscape with twin towering peaks set amidst closed canopy forests. Its forests remain intact, include the entire elevational gradient from lowland dipterocarp forest and mangroves, through montane forest to mossy forest and montane grassland around the peaks; the island is shared by three municipalities. Sibuyan has a rich biodiversity of flora and fauna which are threatened by an emerging aggressive promotion of mining industry by the country's government. Exact figures on numbers of total plant species are hard to give, as biologists stumble upon species yet unidentified by the scientific community. In one study, the National Museum identified 1,551 trees in a single hectare, with 123 species of trees, of this number, 54 are found nowhere else in the world.
Hence, it has been proclaimed as one of the world's most dense forests. There are estimated to be 700 vascular plant species on the island. Nepenthes sibuyanensis, a pitcher plant species, is endemic as its scientific name suggests. There are 131 species of birds and ten species of fruit bats, many dwelling mammals and rodents yet to be catalogued. Three birds subspecies are endemic to Sibuyan: the Philippine hanging parrot, the Philippine Pygmy-woodpecker, the Orange-bellied Flowerpecker, all of which were recorded there in the early 1990s. Five species of threatened mammals, one fruit bat and four rodents, are endemic to Sibuyan, the endangered fruit bat Nyctimene rabori occurs there. Sibuyan Island remains as one of the most unspoiled ecosystems in the world; the water of the Cantingas River as well as most of the other smaller rivers and rivulets on the island was tested to be one of the best water quality for human consumption worldwide. The drinking water of Sibuyanons come direct and untreated from rivers and holes drilled at mountain slopes or from the ground.
The Sibuyanons Against Mining advocacy group, with the Sibuyan Island Sentinels League for Environment Inc. has been fighting for the conservation and protection of the island against mining activities considering its vast impact on the ecology and society of the island. On June 21, 2008, the passenger ferry MV Princess of the Stars of Sulpicio Lines capsized off the coast of the island; the vessel was sailing through the Sibuyan Strait from Manila en route to Cebu City in the height of Typhoon Frank. That accident have caused the death of hundreds of people. Geographic data related to Sibuyan Island at OpenStreetMap