Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, bisexual or transgender. It has been defined as contempt, aversion, hatred or antipathy, may be based on irrational fear and ignorance, is related to religious beliefs. Homophobia is observable in critical and hostile behavior such as discrimination and violence on the basis of sexual orientations that are non-heterosexual. Recognized types of homophobia include institutionalized homophobia, e.g. religious homophobia and state-sponsored homophobia, internalized homophobia, experienced by people who have same-sex attractions, regardless of how they identify. Negative attitudes toward identifiable LGBT groups have similar yet specific names: lesbophobia is the intersection of homophobia and sexism directed against lesbians, biphobia targets bisexuality and bisexual people, transphobia targets transgender and transsexual people and gender variance or gender role nonconformity.
According to 2010 Hate Crimes Statistics released by the FBI National Press Office, 19.3 percent of hate crimes across the United States "were motivated by a sexual orientation bias." Moreover, in a Southern Poverty Law Center 2010 Intelligence Report extrapolating data from fourteen years, which had complete data available at the time, of the FBI's national hate crime statistics found that LGBT people were "far more than any other minority group in the United States to be victimized by violent hate crime."The term homophobia and its usage have been criticized by several sources as unwarrantedly pejorative. Although sexual attitudes tracing back to Ancient Greece (8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity have been termed homophobia by scholars, is used to describe an intolerance towards homosexuality and homosexuals that grew during the Middle Ages by adherents of Islam and Christianity, yet the term itself is new. Coined by George Weinberg, a psychologist, in the 1960s, the term homophobia is a blend of the word homosexual, itself a mix of neo-classical morphemes, phobia from the Greek φόβος, phóbos, meaning "fear", "morbid fear" or "aversion".
Weinberg is credited as the first person to have used the term in speech. The word homophobia first appeared in print in an article written for the May 23, 1969, edition of the American pornographic magazine Screw, in which the word was used to refer to heterosexual men's fear that others might think they are gay. Conceptualizing anti-LGBT prejudice as a social problem worthy of scholarly attention was not new. A 1969 article in Time described examples of negative attitudes toward homosexuality as "homophobia", including "a mixture of revulsion and apprehension" which some called homosexual panic. In 1971, Kenneth Smith used homophobia as a personality profile to describe the psychological aversion to homosexuality. Weinberg used it this way in his 1972 book Society and the Healthy Homosexual, published one year before the American Psychiatric Association voted to remove homosexuality from its list of mental disorders. Weinberg's term became an important tool for gay and lesbian activists and their allies.
He describes the concept as a medical phobia: phobia about homosexuals.... It was a fear of homosexuals which seemed to be associated with a fear of contagion, a fear of reducing the things one fought for — home and family, it was a religious fear and it had led to great brutality as fear always does. In 1981, homophobia was used for the first time in The Times to report that the General Synod of the Church of England voted to refuse to condemn homosexuality. However, when taken homophobia may be a problematic term. Professor David A. F. Haaga says that contemporary usage includes "a wide range of negative emotions and behaviours toward homosexual people," which are characteristics that are not consistent with accepted definitions of phobias, that of "an intense, illogical, or abnormal fear of a specified thing." Five key differences are listed as distinguishing homophobia, as used, from a true phobia. Homophobia manifests in different forms, a number of different types have been postulated, among which are internalized homophobia, social homophobia, emotional homophobia, rationalized homophobia, others.
There were ideas to classify homophobia and sexism as an intolerant personality disorder. In 1992, the American Psychiatric Association, recognizing the power of the stigma against homosexuality, issued the following statement, reaffirmed by the Board of Trustees, July 2011: "Whereas homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, reliability, or general social or vocational capabilities, the American Psychiatric Association calls on all international health organizations, psychiatric organizations, individual psychiatrists in other countries to urge the repeal in their own countries of legislation that penalizes homosexual acts by consenting adults in private. Further, APA calls on these organizations and individuals to do all, possible to decrease the stigma related to homosexuality wherever and whenever it may occur." Many world religions contain anti-homosexual teachings, while other religions have varying degrees of ambivalence, neutrality, or incorporate teachings that regard homosexuals as third gender.
Within some religions which discourage homosexuality, there are people who view homosexuality positively, some religious denominations bless or conduct same-sex marriages. There exist so-called Queer religions, dedicated to serving the spiritual needs of LGBTQI persons. Queer theology seeks to provide a counterpoint to religious homophobia. In 2015, attorney and autho
The University of Exeter is a public research university in Exeter, South West England, United Kingdom. It was founded and received its royal charter in 1955, although its predecessor institutions, St Luke's College, Exeter School of Science, Exeter School of Art, the Camborne School of Mines were established in 1838, 1855, 1863, 1888 respectively. In post-nominals, the University of Exeter is abbreviated as Exon. and is the suffix given to honorary and academic degrees from the university. The university has four campuses: St Luke's; the university is located in the city of Exeter, where it is the principal higher education institution. Streatham is the largest campus containing many of the university's administrative buildings The Penryn campus is maintained in conjunction with Falmouth University under the Combined Universities in Cornwall initiative; the Exeter Streatham Campus Library holds more than 1.2 million physical library resources, including historical journals and special collections.
Exeter was named the Sunday Times University of the Year in 2013 and was the Times Higher Education University of the Year in 2007. It has maintained a top ten position in the National Student Survey since the survey was launched in 2005; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £415.5 million of which £76.1 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £414.2 million. Exeter is a member of the Russell Group of leading research-intensive UK universities and is a member of Universities UK, the European University Association, the Association of Commonwealth Universities and an accredited institution of the Association of MBAs; the university's origins can be traced back to three separate educational institutions that existed in the city of Exeter and in Cornwall in the middle of the nineteenth century. To celebrate the educational and scientific work of Prince Albert, inspired by the Great Exhibition of 1851, Exeter School of Art in 1855 and the Exeter School of Science in 1863 were founded.
In 1868, the Schools of Art and Science relocated to Royal Albert Memorial Museum in Queen Street, Exeter and, with support from the University of Cambridge, became the Exeter Technical and University Extension College in 1893. In 1900 its official title was changed to the Royal Albert Memorial College and the college moved to Bradninch Place in Gandy Street; the college was again renamed to the University College of the South West of England in 1922 after the college was incorporated under the Companies Act and included on the list of institutions eligible to receive funds from the University Grants Committee. As was customary for new university institutions in England in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the college prepared students for external degrees of the University of London. Alderman W H Reed, a former mayor of Exeter, donated Streatham Hall on the Streatham Estate to the new University College in 1922. Streatham Hall was renamed to Reed Hall after its benefactor. At the same time, the first principal of the University College Sir Hector Hetherington, persuaded the Council of the College to buy a major portion of the Streatham Estate.
A slow move to the Streatham Estate from the centre of the city occurred over time. The first new building erected on the Streatham Estate was the Washington Singer building; the building was opened in 1931. The first of the purpose-built halls of residence, Mardon Hall, opened in 1933; the second academic building on the estate was the Roborough Library named in recognition of the interest taken in the development of the college by the first Lord Roborough, one of its early benefactors. Roborough Library was completed around 1939; the University College of the South West of England became the University of Exeter and received its Royal Charter in 1955 one hundred years after the formation of the original Exeter School of Art. Queen Elizabeth II presented the Charter to the university on a visit to Streatham the following year; the university underwent a period of considerable expansion in the 1960s. Between 1963 and 1968, a period when the number of students at Exeter doubled, no fewer than ten major buildings were completed on the Streatham estate as well as halls of residence for around 1,000 students.
These included homes for the Chemistry and Physics departments, the Newman and Engineering Buildings and Streatham Court. Queen's Building had been opened for the Arts Faculty in 1959 and the Amory Building, housing Law and Social Sciences, followed in 1974. In the following two decades, considerable investment was made in developing new self-catering accommodation for students. Gifts from the Gulf States made it possible to build a new university library in 1983 and more have allowed for the creation of a new Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies. A further major donation enabled the completion of the Xfi Centre for Investment. Since 2009, significant further investment has been made into new student accommodation, new buildings in The Exeter Business School, the Forum: a new development for the centre of Streatham Campus. In 1838, the Exeter Diocesan Board of Education resolved to found an institution for the education and training of schoolmasters, the first such initiative in England; as a result, a year the Exeter Diocesan Training College was created in Cathedral Close, Exeter at the former house of the Archdeacon of Totnes, adjacent to Exeter Cathedral.
The first Principal was appointed and the college opened in 1
The 720th Military Police Battalion is a military police battalion of the United States Army based at Fort Hood, Texas. It is a subordinate unit under the Training and Readiness Authority of the 89th Military Police Brigade. Constituted on 10 January 1942 in the Army as the 720th Military Police Battalion, it was activated during the Second World War at Fort Meade, Maryland on 20 January 1942; the battalion served during that time while stationed in New Guinea. From there it was relocated to Yokohama, Japan on 2 September 1945 until it moved to Fort Hood, Texas on 21 February 1955. 720th Military Police Battalion protects III Corps readiness by conducting Law Enforcement operations to neutralize terrorist and criminal threats at Fort Hood, TX. Additionally, on order, execute detention operations, police operations, security and mobility support in support of Decisive Action for COCOM requirements; the battalion is subordinate to the 89th Military Police Brigade. It is headquartered at Texas; the battalion consists of four military police companies, a law and order detachment, a military working dog detachment and a headquarters and headquarters detachment: Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment 64th Military Police Company 178th/226th Military Police Detachments 401st Military Police Company 410th Military Police Company 411th Military Police Company The 720th Military Police Battalion, "Soldiers of the Gauntlet," was first constituted on 10 January 1942 in the Regular Army as the 720th Military Police Battalion.
It was activated during World II at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland on 20 January 1942; the Battalion served in three major campaigns during the Second World War while based in Australia and New Guinea before relocating to Yokohama, Japan on 2 September 1945, as part of the occupational force. The Battalion relocated to Fort Hood, Texas on 21 February 1955. In 1950, at the start of the Korean War, the X Corps MP Company was formed when C Company was reflagged, filled their TO&E with volunteers from A and B Company, sent to Korea where it served with distinction, earning a Meritorious Unit Commendation. From October 1966-August 1972 the battalion served in South Vietnam, III & IV Corps Tactical Zones, subordinate to the 89th MP Group, 18th MP Brigade, they performed convoy escort, POW guard/escort, highway security, physical security, were the first MP unit in the history of the US Armed Forces to perform a three-year infantry counterinsurgency pacification mission, from 1967-1970. Operation Stabilize included Village Outpost's, River Patrol.
Another MP Corps historical first was to direct air and infantry support for B Company Ambush Teams defending Long Binh Post during the 23 February Tet 1969 attack. On 13 August 1972 the battalion was inactivated in South Vietnam. Between 1990 and 1997 Battalion elements deployed to Kuwait for Operation Desert Shield/Storm, in support of Operation Intrinsic Action. Elements deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina as part of Operation Joint Endeavor/Guard and Joint Forge; the soldiers of the 720th were deployed to Iraq from March 2003 to March 2004, where they operated in Tikrit and Samarra in support of the 4th Infantry Division. They performed many military police missions, including area security, convoy escort, detainee operations, they started a program of joint operations with the Iraqi police. The 410th Military Police Company deployed to Afghanistan in May 2009 and returned in May 2010; the 401st and 64th Military Police Companies deployed to Afghanistan in May 2010 and returned in April 2011. The 411th Military Police Company deployed to Kandahar Province in May 2011 and returned to Fort Hood in May 2012.
HHD, 720th Military Police Battalion deployed in December 2011 and returned in December 2012. The coat of arms was approved on 2 May 1952, it was cancelled on 19 July 1973. On 11 August 1999 the coat of arms amended to include a crest; the Distinctive Unit Insignia is a gold color metal and enamel insignia 1 5/32 inches in height consisting of a shield blazoned: Vert, a dexter gauntlet in fess Or grasping an imp, head to base, Sable. Attached below the shield a Gold color metal scroll inscribed "ORDERLY REGULATION" in Green enamel letters; the golden restraining hand grasping the inverted black imp, symbolical of a petty devil or malignant spirit, is symbolical of the restraining functions of the organization, implying the means by which undesirable factions are kept under control. In the crest, the cross recalls the Cross of Gallantry awarded the unit for outstanding service in Vietnam; the sea-lion refers to the Philippine Presidential Unit Citation awarded for service between 1944 and 1945.
The wreath represents achievement. The drawn swords denote readiness and recall the many campaigns in which the 720th Military Police Battalion has distinguished itself. Black signifies resolve. Gold symbolizes excellence, with green represents the Military Police branch; the motto "ORDERLY REGULATION" is expressive of the determination of the personnel to regulate with order, alludes to the charges on the shield. Military Police reunion webpage 720th Military Police Battalion Fort Hood website