Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language and history. It is one of the communities and language areas of Belgium, the demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish. The official capital of Flanders is Brussels, although Brussels itself has an independent regional government, in historical contexts, Flanders originally refers to the County of Flanders, which around AD1000 stretched from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary. In accordance with late 20th century Belgian state reforms the area was made two political entities, the Flemish Community and the Flemish Region. These entities were merged, although geographically the Flemish Community, which has a cultural mandate, covers Brussels. Flanders has figured prominently in European history, as a consequence, a very sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of northern Italy.
Belgium was one of the centres of the 19th century industrial revolution, Flanders is generally flat, and has a small section of coast on the North Sea. Much of Flanders is agriculturally fertile and densely populated, with a density of almost 500 people per square kilometer. It touches France to the west near the coast, and borders the Netherlands to the north and east, the Brussels Capital Region is an enclave within the Flemish Region. Flanders has exclaves of its own, Voeren in the east is between Wallonia and the Netherlands and Baarle-Hertog in the consists of 22 exclaves surrounded by the Netherlands. It comprises 6.5 million Belgians who consider Dutch to be their mother tongue, the political subdivisions of Belgium, the Flemish Region and the Flemish Community. The first does not comprise Brussels, whereas the latter does comprise the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Brussels, the political institutions that govern both subdivisions, the operative body Flemish Government and the legislative organ Flemish Parliament.
The two westernmost provinces of the Flemish Region, West Flanders and East Flanders, forming the central portion of the historic County of Flanders, a feudal territory that existed from the 8th century until its absorption by the French First Republic. Until the 1600s, this county extended over parts of France, one of the regions conquered by the French in Flanders, namely French Flanders in the Nord department. French Flanders can be divided into two regions, Walloon Flanders and Maritime Flanders. The first region was predominantly French-speaking already in the 1600s, the latter became so in the 20th century, the city of Lille identifies itself as Flemish, and this is reflected, for instance, in the name of its local railway station TGV Lille Flandres. The region conquered by the Dutch Republic in Flanders, now part of the Dutch province of Zeeland, the significance of the County of Flanders and its counts eroded through time, but the designation remained in a very broad sense. In the Early modern period, the term Flanders was associated with the part of the Low Countries
James Marshall Jimi Hendrix was an American rock guitarist and songwriter. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame describes him as arguably the greatest instrumentalist in the history of rock music, born in Seattle, Hendrix began playing guitar at the age of 15. In 1961, he enlisted in the U. S. Army and trained as a paratrooper in the 101st Airborne Division, within months, Hendrix had earned three UK top ten hits with the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Hey Joe, Purple Haze, and The Wind Cries Mary. Hendrix was inspired musically by American rock and roll and electric blues and he favored overdriven amplifiers with high volume and gain, and was instrumental in utilizing the previously undesirable sounds caused by guitar amplifier feedback. He helped to popularize the use of a pedal in mainstream rock. Holly George-Warren of Rolling Stone commented, Hendrix pioneered the use of the instrument as a sound source. Hendrix was the recipient of several awards during his lifetime. In 1967, readers of Melody Maker voted him the Pop Musician of the Year and Music Echo honored him with the World Top Musician of 1969 and in 1970, Guitar Player named him the Rock Guitarist of the Year.
The Jimi Hendrix Experience was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992, Jimi Hendrix was of African American descent. Both his mother Lucille and father Al were African Americans and his paternal grandmother, Zenora Nora Rose Moore, was African American and one-quarter Cherokee. On June 10,1919, Hendrix and Moore had a son they named James Allen Ross Hendrix, in 1941, Al met Lucille Jeter at a dance in Seattle, they married on March 31,1942. Al, who had been drafted by the U. S. Army to serve in World War II, Johnny Allen Hendrix was born on November 27,1942, in Seattle, he was the first of Lucilles five children. In 1946, Johnnys parents changed his name to James Marshall Hendrix, in honor of Al and he spent two months locked up without trial, and while in the stockade received a telegram announcing his sons birth. During Als three-year absence, Lucille struggled to raise their son, when Al was away, Hendrix was mostly cared for by family members and friends, especially Lucilles sister Delores Hall and her friend Dorothy Harding.
Al received a discharge from the U. S. Army on September 1,1945. After returning from service, Al reunited with Lucille, but his inability to find steady work left the family impoverished and they both struggled with alcohol, and often fought when intoxicated. The violence sometimes drove Hendrix to withdraw and hide in a closet in their home and his relationship with his brother Leon was close but precarious, with Leon in and out of foster care, they lived with an almost constant threat of fraternal separation. In addition to Leon, Hendrix had three siblings, born in 1949, Kathy in 1950, and Pamela,1951, all of whom Al and Lucille gave up to foster care
Purple Haze is a song written by Jimi Hendrix and released as the second record single by the Jimi Hendrix Experience on March 17,1967. As a record chart hit in countries and the opening number on the Experiences debut American album. The song features his guitar playing, which uses the signature Hendrix chord. Because of ambiguities in the lyrics, listeners often interpret the song as referring to a psychedelic experience, Purple Haze is one of Hendrixs best-known songs and appears on many Hendrix compilation albums. The song featured regularly in concerts and each of Hendrixs group configurations issued live recordings and it was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame and is included on lists of the greatest guitar songs, including at number two by Rolling Stone and number one by Q magazine. By January 5,1967, the Jimi Hendrix Experiences first single, Hey Joe, backed with Stone Free, Hey Joe was not a Hendrix composition – it was written by Billy Roberts and recorded by several groups prior to the Experience.
Hendrix commented, That record isnt us, the next ones gonna be different. Were working on an LP which will mainly be our stuff, the group recorded several demos of original material at studios in London, including Can You See Me, Foxy Lady, Third Stone from the Sun, Red House, and Remember. In the middle of December, producer Chas Chandler heard Hendrix toying around with a new guitar riff, I heard him playing it at the flat and was knocked out. I told him to working on that, Thats the next single. Chandler claimed that some more urging, Hendrix wrote the rest of Purple Haze in the dressing room of a London club during the afternoon of December 26,1966. In several interviews, Hendrix spoke about writing the song, the Experience began recording Purple Haze on January 11,1967, at De Lane Lea Studios in London. According to drummer Mitch Mitchell, he and bassist Noel Redding learned the song in the studio, Hendrix came in and kind of hummed us the riff and showed Noel the chords, I listened to it and we went, OK, lets do it.
We got it on the take as I recall. The basic track was recorded in four hours, according to Chandler, multitrack recording technology allowed engineers to record and complete additional parts on the final master. It wasnt like we were there for days on end and we recorded it, and Hendrix and I would be sitting at home saying, Lets try that. Then we would go in for an hour or two, Thats how it was in those days. However long it took to one specific idea, thats how long we would book
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, the BBC is the worlds oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total,16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting, the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBCs radio, TV, britains first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mails Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba, the Melba broadcast caught the peoples imagination and marked a turning point in the British publics attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications.
By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests, John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers, to this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to inform and entertain. The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate, set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee and this was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired.
The BBCs broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, the BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00, and required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee, by now the BBC under Reiths leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production and with restrictions on news bulletins waived the BBC suddenly became the source of news for the duration of the crisis.
The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position, the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PMs own
A Venn diagram is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of different sets. These diagrams depict elements as points in the plane, and sets as regions inside closed curves, a Venn diagram consists of multiple overlapping closed curves, usually circles, each representing a set. In Venn diagrams the curves are overlapped in every possible way and they are thus a special case of Euler diagrams, which do not necessarily show all relations. Venn diagrams were conceived around 1880 by John Venn and they are used to teach elementary set theory, as well as illustrate simple set relationships in probability, statistics and computer science. A Venn diagram in which in addition the area of each shape is proportional to the number of elements it contains is called an area-proportional or scaled Venn diagram and this example involves two sets, A and B, represented here as coloured circles. The orange circle, set A, represents all living creatures that are two-legged, the blue circle, set B, represents the living creatures that can fly.
Each separate type of creature can be imagined as a point somewhere in the diagram, living creatures that both can fly and have two legs—for example, parrots—are in both sets, so they correspond to points in the region where the blue and orange circles overlap. That region contains all such and only living creatures. Humans and penguins are bipedal, and so are in the circle, but since they cannot fly they appear in the left part of the orange circle. Mosquitoes have six legs, and fly, so the point for mosquitoes is in the part of the circle that does not overlap with the orange one. Creatures that are not two-legged and cannot fly would all be represented by points outside both circles, the combined region of sets A and B is called the union of A and B, denoted by A ∪ B. The union in this case contains all living creatures that are either two-legged or that can fly, the region in both A and B, where the two sets overlap, is called the intersection of A and B, denoted by A ∩ B. For example, the intersection of the two sets is not empty, because there are points that represent creatures that are in both the orange and blue circles.
They are rightly associated with Venn, because he comprehensively surveyed and formalized their usage, Venn himself did not use the term Venn diagram and referred to his invention as Eulerian Circles. Of these schemes one only, viz. that commonly called Eulerian circles, has met with any general acceptance, the first to use the term Venn diagram was Clarence Irving Lewis in 1918, in his book A Survey of Symbolic Logic. Venn diagrams are similar to Euler diagrams, which were invented by Leonhard Euler in the 18th century. Baron has noted that Leibniz in the 17th century produced similar diagrams before Euler and she observes even earlier Euler-like diagrams by Ramon Lull in the 13th Century. In the 20th century, Venn diagrams were further developed, D. W. Henderson showed in 1963 that the existence of an n-Venn diagram with n-fold rotational symmetry implied that n was a prime number
Rhoticity in English
The English dialects of Scotland and most of the United States and Canada preserve historical /r/, and are thus termed the rhotic varieties. In non-rhotic varieties, speakers no longer pronounce /r/ in postvocalic environments – that is, a non-rhotic speaker usually still pronounces the /r/ in the continuously spoken phrase butter and jam, since in this case the /r/ is followed by a vowel. Loss of postvocalic /r/ began sporadically in informal speech in the 15th century, in the mid-18th century it was still pronounced in most environments, but may occasionally have been deleted entirely, especially after low vowels. By the 1790s, postvocalic /r/-less pronunciation had become common in London and surrounding areas, by the early 19th century, the southern British standard was fully transformed into a non-rhotic variety, though some variation persisted as late as the 1870s. Other terms for rhotic dialects include /r/–pronouncing or r–ful, and for non-rhotic include /r/-deleting, r-dropping, r-vocalized, the earliest traces of a loss of /r/ in English appear in the early 15th century and occur before coronal consonants, especially /s/, giving modern ass, and bass. A second phase of /r/-loss began during the 15th century, and was characterized by sporadic and lexically variable deletion, such as monyng morning and cadenall cardinal.
These /r/-less spellings appear throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, but are uncommon and are restricted to private documents, no English authorities describe loss of /r/ in the standard language prior to the mid-18th century, and many do not fully accept it until the 1790s. During the mid-17th century, a number of sources describe /r/ as being weakened, the English playwright Ben Jonsons English Grammar, published posthumously in 1640, records that /r/ was sounded firme in the beginning of words, and more liquid in the middle, and ends. By the 1770s, postvocalic /r/-less pronunciation was becoming common around London even in more formal, the English actor and linguist John Walker uses the spelling ar to indicate the long vowel of aunt in his 1775 rhyming dictionary. Americans returning to England after the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783 reported surprise at the significant changes in fashionable pronunciation. By the early 19th century, the southern British standard was fully transformed into a non-rhotic variety, like regional dialects in England, the accents of other areas in America remained rhotic in a display of linguistic lag that preserved the original pronunciation of /r/.
In most non-rhotic accents, if a word ending in r is followed closely by a word beginning with a vowel. This phenomenon is referred to as linking R, many non-rhotic speakers insert an epenthetic /r/ between vowels when the first vowel is one that can occur before syllable-final r. The typical alternative used by RP speakers is to insert a glottal stop where an intrusive R would otherwise be placed, for non-rhotic speakers, what was historically a vowel plus /r/ is now usually realized as a long vowel. This is called compensatory lengthening, lengthening that occurs after the elision of a sound, so in RP and many other non-rhotic accents card, born are pronounced, or similar. This length may be retained in phrases, so while car pronounced in isolation is, but a final schwa usually remains short, so water in isolation is. For some speakers, some long vowels alternate with an ending in schwa, so wear may be. Even General American speakers commonly drop the /r/ in non-final unstressed syllables when another syllable in the word contains /r/
The carrot is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, red and yellow cultivars exist. Carrots are a form of the wild carrot, Daucus carota, native to Europe. The plant probably originated in Persia and originally cultivated for its leaves, the most commonly eaten part of the plant is the taproot, although the greens are sometimes eaten as well. The domestic carrot has been bred for its greatly enlarged, more palatable. The carrot is a plant in the umbellifer family Apiaceae. At first, it grows a rosette of leaves while building up the enlarged taproot, fast-growing cultivars mature within three months of sowing the seed, while slower-maturing cultivars are harvested four months later. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports that production of carrots and turnips for the calendar year 2013 was 37.2 million tonnes. Carrots are widely used in many cuisines, especially in the preparation of salads, in Old English, carrots were not clearly distinguished from parsnips, the two were collectively called moru or more.
Various languages still use the word for carrot as they do for root. Molecular and genetic studies, along with history, support the idea that the cultivated/domesticated carrot has a single origin in Central Asia. The wild ancestors of the carrot are likely to have originated in Persia, which remains the centre of diversity for Daucus carota, when they were first cultivated, carrots were grown for their aromatic leaves and seeds rather than their roots. Carrot seeds have been found in Switzerland and Southern Germany dating back to 2000–3000 BC, some close relatives of the carrot are still grown for their leaves and seeds, for example, cilantro/coriander, fennel and cumin. Three different types of carrots are depicted, and the states of them that the root can be cooked. The plant appears to have been introduced into Spain by the Moors in the 8th century, in the 10th century, in worldwide locations like West Asia and Europe, the roots were purple. The modern carrot originated in Afghanistan at about this time, the Jewish scholar Simeon Seth describes both red and yellow carrots in the 11th century.
The 12th-century Arab-Andalusian agriculturist, Ibn al-Awwam, mentions roots of these colours, cultivated carrots appeared in China in the 14th century, and in Japan in the 18th century. Orange-coloured carrots appeared in the Netherlands in the 17th century, which has been related to the fact that the Dutch flag at the time, the Princes Flag, included orange. These, the carrots, were intended by the English antiquary John Aubrey when he noted in his memoranda
The Ford Ka is a small car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company from 1996 to 2016, as a city car, and from 2014 to present as a subcompact car. It entered its second generation in 2008, being produced by Fiat in Tychy, a third generation was introduced in 2014. There is the Ford Ka NOW, the third generation is produced as a five-door hatchback and as a four-door sedan. It was initially only in Brazil, being introduced in India, South Africa, Argentina. The name Ka has a number of possible pronunciations, for example, with a long or short a, or with the letters pronounced separately. Fords press office has used all three, according to Auto Trader, Ford top brass have given the correct pronunciation as Ka like Cat. The car was introduced on 11 September 1996 as a small and it was based on the Mark IV Ford Fiesta platform, but with a completely different exterior design. The design borrowed a lot from Ghias Saetta show car, a designed by Filippo Sapino. The Ka evolved from concept vehicles to production with minor changes, the large, one piece, moulded bumpers and wheel arches made the vehicle more durable and easier to repair.
The vehicle was manufactured on the existing Fiesta production line in Almussafes, the Chief Program Engineer was Kevin O’Neill. The designer of the car was Chris Svensson of Sunderland, who had designed a car when at the Royal College of Art in 1992. When the Ka was introduced to the public it provoked mixed reactions, due to its original and striking New Edge design, overseen by Jack Telnack and executed by Claude Lobo. Besides the styling, the Ka, like its sister cars Fiesta, under Richard Parry-Jones supervision, the suspension and steering settings allowed for hard cornering and high levels of grip, providing strong handling characteristics. An anti-lock braking system option was added in January 1997, aside from corrosion, the main drawback was the 1,300 cc OHV four-cylinder Endura-E engine, a design dating to the 1950s Kent engine used in the Ford Anglia. Although not very modern, it provided enough torque to allow relaxed if not spirited driving, for the first three years of production, all models had black plastic bumpers to minimise parking damage to paintwork in city conditions.
These bumpers contained a stabiliser to prevent UV degradation which made them unsuitable for painting because the paint would not adhere properly, however, it became clear that many owners wanted body-coloured bumpers, so they were introduced in 1999 using different bumper mouldings. The Ka has proved profitable for Ford despite its low selling price. In 2006, Ford sold 17,000 examples of the Ka model in the United Kingdom, in Australia, the Ka was introduced in October 1999 and was sold until 2002
Pronunciation is the way a word or a language is spoken, or the manner in which someone utters a word. If one is said to have correct pronunciation, it refers to both within a particular dialect, syllables are counted as units of sound that they use in their language. The branch of linguistics which studies these units of sound is phonetics, phones which play the same role are grouped together into classes called phonemes, the study of these is phonemics or phonematics or phonology. Phones as components of articulation are usually described using the International Phonetic Alphabet
He became widely popular in his lifetime and remained so after his premature death at the age of 39 in New York City. By he had acquired a reputation, which he had encouraged, as a roistering, Thomas was born in Swansea, Wales, in 1914. An undistinguished pupil, he left school at 16 and became a journalist for a short time. Many of his works appeared in print while he was still a teenager, while living in London, Thomas met Caitlin Macnamara, whom he married in 1937. Their relationship was defined by alcoholism and was mutually destructive, in the early part of their marriage and his family lived hand-to-mouth, they settled in the Welsh fishing village of Laugharne. Thomas came to be appreciated as a poet during his lifetime. He began augmenting his income with reading tours and radio broadcasts and his radio recordings for the BBC during the late 1940s brought him to the publics attention, and he was frequently used by the BBC as a populist voice of the literary scene. Thomas first travelled to the United States in the 1950s and his readings there brought him a level of fame, while his erratic behaviour and drinking worsened.
His time in America cemented his legend, and he went on to record to vinyl such works as A Childs Christmas in Wales. During his fourth trip to New York in 1953, Thomas became gravely ill and fell into a coma and he died on 9 November 1953. His body was returned to Wales where he was interred at the churchyard in Laugharne on 25 November 1953. Though Thomas wrote exclusively in the English language, he has acknowledged as one of the most important Welsh poets of the 20th century. He is noted for his original and ingenious use of words and his position as one of the great modern poets has been much discussed, and he remains popular with the public. Dylan Thomas was born on 27 October 1914 in Swansea, the son of Florence Hannah, a seamstress, and David John Thomas, a teacher. His father had an honours degree in English from University College, Aberystwyth. Thomas had one sibling, Nancy Marles, who was eight years his senior, the children spoke only English, though their parents were bilingual in English and Welsh, and David Thomas gave Welsh lessons at home.
Thomass father chose the name Dylan, which could be translated as son of the sea, after Dylan ail Don and his middle name, was given in honour of his great-uncle, William Thomas, a Unitarian minister and poet whose bardic name was Gwilym Marles. Dylan, pronounced ˈ in Welsh, caused his mother to worry he might be teased as the dull one, when he broadcast on Welsh BBC, early in his career, he was introduced using this pronunciation
Word games are spoken or board games often designed to test ability with language or to explore its properties. Word games are generally engaged as a source of entertainment, but have found to serve an educational purpose as well. For instance, young children can find enjoyment playing modestly competitive games such as Hangman, solving crossword puzzles, which requires familiarity with a larger vocabulary, is a pastime that mature adults have long credited with keeping their minds sharp. There are popular televised word games with valuable prizes for the winning contestants. Many word games enjoy international popularity across a multitude of languages, a word game or word puzzle can be of several different types, The goal is to form words out of given letters. Charades Fictionary LINQ Mad Libs Scattergories Taboo These are games based on words and letters
The Four Candles sketch, originally titled The Hardware Shop or Annie Finkhouse is a sketch from the BBC comedy duo The Two Ronnies. Written by Ronnie Barker under the pseudonym of Gerald Wiley, it was first broadcast on Saturday,18 September 1976 on BBC1, word play and homophones exhibit Barkers fascination with the English language and are cleverly used to powerful comic effect in this sketch. A shopkeeper, played by Ronnie Corbett, in a hardware shop becomes increasingly frustrated by a customer, played by Barker, the script was sold at auction for £48,500 in December 2007. The sketch was inspired by an incident in a hardware shop in Broadstairs in Kent. The sketch opens with a joke as the hardware shopkeeper hands a lady a roll of toilet paper. The lady exits and the shopkeeper is confronted by a customer, the customer requests what sounds like four candles. The shopkeeper takes out four candles, but the customer merely repeats his request, the customer rephrases his request to reveal he in fact wanted fork andles.
To try to avoid a similar mistake the shopkeeper asks what kind and is told a rubber one, believing that he is asking for rubber bath plugs the shopkeeper gets out a box of them and asks for the size. The customers answer is thirteen amp revealing he in fact wants an insulated electric plug and he next asks for saw tips. Confused, the shopkeeper asks if he wants an ointment for sore tips, after a better explanation the shopkeeper explains they do not have any. This causes little or no frustration, the box of garden gate letters is noticeably difficult to get to and put back, requiring a ladder. When he asks for peas the shopkeeper, believing him to be asking for the letter P for a gate, is understandably annoyed as they are in the box he has just put back. The customer waits for him to get the box down before better explaining what he wants - tins of peas, at this point the shopkeeper first suspects it may be a joke. He asks for pumps and the shopkeeper asks him to elaborate, the customer complies by asking for foot pumps.
The shopkeeper brings a foot operated pneumatic pump to the counter, the customer reveals he wants brown pumps size nine. At this point the shopkeeper becomes convinced that the customer is playing a joke on him. After he asks for washers the shopkeeper, out of desperation and annoyance, the customer explains he wants tap washers, almost the only type of washer that the shopkeeper failed to list. At this point the shopkeeper, having had enough, snatches the shopping list the customer has been holding to complete the order without any confusions, however, he seems to take offence at something written on the list