Saint-Mihiel is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Saint-Mihiel lies on the banks of the Meuse River. A Benedictine abbey was established here in 709 by Count Wulfoalde and his wife Adalsinde; the library, containing over 9,000 works, is still on the original site. During World War I, Saint-Mihiel was captured by the Germans in 1914, was recaptured during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel from 12 September to 19 September 1918. Saint-Mihiel is known for its sculptures by Renaissance sculptor Ligier Richier. Saint-Mihiel serves both as the starting and ending point of the 2014 video game Valiant Hearts: The Great War. Communes of the Meuse department Léopold Durand INSEE commune file Official website. World War 1 Memorials and Cemeteries in the St Mihiel salient by Ligier Richier in the St Mihiel area
Saint Stephen's Church, Strasbourg
Saint Stephen’s Church in Strasbourg is located inside the catholic ‘Saint-Étienne’ college in Strasbourg, for which it serves as a chapel. Saint Stephen's is one of the oldest churches in Strasbourg; the crypt contains the remains of a fifth-century Roman basilica. The site was occupied by a Roman fort. A new church was built on the site in early in 717 by Duke Adalbert of Alsace, brother of Saint Odile, as part of a new convent, in which he installed his daughter Attala as the first abbess; the Church served for many years as the episcopal seat for the north of Alsace. The church was rebuilt in 1220 in Romanesque-Gothic style. At the beginning of the 16th century, St Stephen's was a parish church, the parish of Stephen's being one of the nine parishes of Strasbourg. In 1534, as the reform was being introduced in Strasbourg, the parish of St Stephen's was transferred to St William's, on account of the opposition of the cannonesses of St Stephen's to the new teaching. In the seventeenth century Louis XIV closed the abbey and transferred it to the Visitandines to serve as a boarding school for young women, a function which continued up until the French Revolution.
In 1714 the church was equipped with an organ by Andreas Silbermann, now in Bischheim. After the French Revolution, the building was used as a warehouse as a theatre. In 1802, the church was deprived of its tower and in 1805 this was transformed into a theatre; the college, of which the church now forms part, began life in 1861 as a'Petit seminaire', educating future priests as well as lay students. Allied bombing destroyed much of the building in 1944. Only the wide transept with its triple apse survived. In 1956, the ancient site was excavated and a Merovingian apse was discovered beneath the foundations of the old tower. In 1961, the nave was renovated; the church was classified as a historical monument in 1962. In 2016, the monumental concert organ from the former conservatory located in the National Theatre of Strasbourg was moved into the nave in order to be used as a church organ; the instrument, a 1963 work by organ builder Curt Schwenkedel, had been out of use since 1995. It was restored by Quentin Blumenroeder from Haguenau.
As the Church is now part of a school, public access is only possible on special occasions, such as European Heritage Days. The school owns some valuable historical tapestries from the abbey church, some of which can be seen in the nearby Notre Dame museum. Eglise Saint Etienne - 2 rue de la Pierre Large on archi-wiki.org website of the Saint-Etienne college Aerial photo on French historical monuments website
Charlemagne or Charles the Great, numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, Holy Roman Emperor from 800. He united much of central Europe during the Early Middle Ages, he was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is called the Carolingian Empire, he was canonized by Antipope Paschal III. Charlemagne was the eldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, born before their canonical marriage, he became king in 768 following his father's death as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman's sudden death in December 771 under unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the sole ruler of the Frankish Kingdom, he continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain. He campaigned against the Saxons to his east, Christianizing them upon penalty of death and leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden.
He reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Rome's Old St. Peter's Basilica. Charlemagne has been called the "Father of Europe", as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the classical era of the Roman Empire and united parts of Europe that had never been under Frankish or Roman rule, his rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of energetic cultural and intellectual activity within the Western Church. All Holy Roman Emperors considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagne's empire, as did the French and German monarchies. However, the Eastern Orthodox Church views Charlemagne more controversially, labelling as heterodox his support of the filioque and the Pope's recognition of him as legitimate Roman Emperor rather than Irene of Athens of the Byzantine Empire; these and other machinations led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054. Charlemagne died in 814, having ruled as emperor for 14 years and as king for 46 years.
He was laid to rest in his imperial capital city of Aachen. He married at least four times and had three legitimate sons, but only his son Louis the Pious survived to succeed him. By the 6th century, the western Germanic tribe of the Franks had been Christianised, due in considerable measure to the Catholic conversion of Clovis I. Francia, ruled by the Merovingians, was the most powerful of the kingdoms that succeeded the Western Roman Empire. Following the Battle of Tertry, the Merovingians declined into powerlessness, for which they have been dubbed the rois fainéants. All government powers were exercised by their chief officer, the mayor of the palace. In 687, Pepin of Herstal, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, ended the strife between various kings and their mayors with his victory at Tertry, he became the sole governor of the entire Frankish kingdom. Pepin was the grandson of two important figures of the Austrasian Kingdom: Saint Arnulf of Metz and Pepin of Landen. Pepin of Herstal was succeeded by his son Charles known as Charles Martel.
After 737, Charles declined to call himself king. Charles was succeeded in 741 by his sons Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne. In 743, the brothers placed Childeric III on the throne to curb separatism in the periphery, he was the last Merovingian king. Carloman resigned office in 746. Pepin brought the question of the kingship before Pope Zachary, asking whether it was logical for a king to have no royal power; the pope handed down his decision in 749, decreeing that it was better for Pepin to be called king, as he had the powers of high office as Mayor, so as not to confuse the hierarchy. He, ordered him to become the true king. In 750, Pepin was elected by an assembly of the Franks, anointed by the archbishop, raised to the office of king; the Pope ordered him into a monastery. The Merovingian dynasty was thereby replaced by the Carolingian dynasty, named after Charles Martel. In 753, Pope Stephen II fled from Italy to Francia, appealing to Pepin for assistance for the rights of St. Peter.
He was supported in this appeal by Charles' brother. In return, the pope could provide only legitimacy, he did this by again anointing and confirming Pepin, this time adding his young sons Carolus and Carloman to the royal patrimony. They thereby became heirs to the realm that covered most of western Europe. In 754, Pepin accepted the Pope's invitation to visit Italy on behalf of St. Peter's rights, dealing with the Lombards. Under the Carolingians, the Frankish kingdom spread to encompass an area including most of Western Europe. Orman portrays the Treaty of Verdun between the warring grandsons of Charlemagne as the foundation event of an independent France under its first king Charles the Bald; the middle kingdom had broken up by 890 and absorbed into the Western kingdom and the Eastern kingdom and the rest developing into smaller "buffer" nations that exist between Fr
The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in an northerly direction through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and the Franco-German border flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and empties into the North Sea; the largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s; the Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. Its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire is supported by the many castles and fortifications built along it. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism.
Among the biggest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam and Basel. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, adapted in Roman-era geography as Greek Ῥῆνος, Latin Rhenus; the spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch Rijn. The diphthong in modern German Rhein is a Central German development of the early modern period, the Alemannic name Rī retaining the older vocalism, as does Ripuarian Rhing, while Palatine has diphthongized Rhei, Rhoi. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-; the Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, run" found in other names such as the Reno in Italy.
The grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as feminine; the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers", a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland. The river is shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century; the "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine, it belongs exclusively to the Swiss canton of Graubünden, ranging from Saint-Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino and Italy in the south to the Flüela Pass in the east.
Traditionally, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Anterior Rhine and the Rhine as a whole. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn; the source of the river is considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. The Anterior Rhine springs from Lai da Tuma/Tomasee, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide; the Posterior Rhine starts near the Rheinwaldhorn. One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory. After three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau in Tamins; the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. One source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it.
Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. All streams in the source area are sometimes captured and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta; the whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichen
Müstair is a village in the Val Müstair municipality in the district of Inn in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. In 2009 Müstair merged with Fuldera, Lü, Santa Maria Val Müstair and Valchava to form Val Müstair; the easternmost point of Switzerland, at Piz Chavalatsch, is located in the municipality. The main tourist attraction in the area is the Benedictine Convent of Saint John. Müstair is first mentioned in the early 9th Century as monasterium Tuberis. Müstair has an area, as of 2006, of 77.7 km2. Of this area, 24.1 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 0.6% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The village is located in the Val Müstair sub-district of the Inn district, it is the lowest and largest village in the Val Müstair. It is the most eastern village in Switzerland; until 1943 Müstair was known as Münster. Müstair has a population of 748. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -9.4%. As of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 49.6% male and 50.4% female.
The age distribution, as of 2000, in Müstair is. 71 teenagers or 9.5% are 10 to 14, 40 teenagers or 5.4% are 15 to 19. Of the adult population, 66 people or 8.9% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 107 people or 14.4% are 30 to 39, 109 people or 14.6% are 40 to 49, 100 people or 13.4% are 50 to 59. The senior population distribution is 68 people or 9.1% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 76 people or 10.2% are 70 to 79, there are 28 people or 3.8% who are 80 to 89, there are 4 people or 0.5% who are 90 to 99. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP; the next three most popular parties were the SVP, the SPS and the FDP. The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Müstair about 69.1% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Müstair has an unemployment rate of 0.95%. As of 2005, there were 45 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 25 businesses involved in this sector.
121 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 14 businesses in this sector. 270 people are employed with 50 businesses in this sector. The historical population is given in the following table: Most of the population speaks Rhaeto-Romance, with German being second most common and Portuguese being third. Most of the population speaks the Jauer dialect of Romansh. In 1880 about 87% spoke Romansh as a first language, in 1910 88% spoke Romansh and in 1941 it was 89%. In 1990 about 88% understood Romansh as a first or second language, in 2000 it was 86%; the Benedictine Convent of Saint John is both listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Müstair has an average of 86.7 days of rain per year and on average receives 690 mm of precipitation. The wettest month is August. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 9.3 days. The month with the most days of precipitation is May, with an average of 10, but with only 80 mm of precipitation.
The driest month of the year is February with an average of 33 mm of precipitation over 9.3 days. Müstair in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Rhinau is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department of Grand Est in north-eastern France. Until 1398, the village was located on the bank of the Rhine; the present village dates from the sixteenth century. At periods of low water in the Rhine, it is possible to see the old foundations of the village, as happened in 1749. After a flood in 1541, an uninhabited 58% of its territory happened to end up on the right bank of the Rhine, in Germany; the German part of Rhinau is the Taubergiessen. A ferry crosses the river, linking the two banks in Germany; the village of Rhinau is situated on the Rhine about 30 kilometers sound of Strasbourg. It is a notable city in that it has 997 hectares of territory on the right bank of the Rhine, in Germany; these 997 hectares are thus managed under German sovereignty, but, de facto run by the commune of Rhinau. This is due to a meander of the Rhine in 1541, was made note of in the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 as the Thirty Years Wars was brought to a close. Rhinau belongs to the arrondissement of Sélestat-Erstein.
The inhabitants are called the Rhinois. Access to all territories of Rhinau are maintained by the ferry "Rhenanus", giving access to one of the more beautiful natural preserves of countryside in the Ried. Rhinau is a stop in the Véloroute Rhin EV 15 which connects the source of the Rhine in Andermatt and its terminus in Rotterdam. Prior to 1398, the village of Rhinau was situated at the bank of Rhine. Today's village dates from the 16th Century. At that time, the city was being submerged into the waters of the Rhin. To avoid this fate, the village was rebuilt further inland. Though further from the river that gave it its name, the name continued. In 1267 Rhinau allied with the city of Strasbourg. In 1290, the bishop of Strasbourg transferred the chapter of Honau to Rhinau, conferred the full rights over this chapter to Rhinau, without prejudice for the rector of the local parish church. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file de:Taubergießen
Old Saint Peter's Church, Strasbourg
The Church of Old Saint Peters is a by simultaneum Catholic and Lutheran church building in Strasbourg, Alsace is first mentioned in 1130. In the Middle Ages it was one of Diocese of Strasbourg's nine parish churches. On 22 May 1398 the Chapter of the Abbey of Honau, in Rhinau since 1290, moved to Old St Peter's because of flooding in Rhinau; the Chapter stayed there until 1529, conducting its services in the choir, while the parish occupied the nave. When the Catholic rite was restored in 1683, the Chapter returned to the Church and stayed there until 1790, when it was wound up. On 20 February 1529, when Strasbourg joined the Reformation and suspended the practice of the mass, the Church became Lutheran. Martin Bucer and the other Strasbourg reformers had campaigned for several years to have Protestant services in all of Strasbourg's churches, but in 1525 the city council had voted to retain the mass in several churches, including Old St Peter's. In 1535, in the context of the Reform, a Latin school, or'Middle school' was opened at Old Saint Peters.
In 1683, two years after the annexation of Strasbourg by France, Louis XIV ordered that part of the Church be returned to the Catholics and that a wall be constructed inside the church by the rood screen, to restrict the Protestant services to the Nave. It was not until 2012. In the 19th century, the Catholic part of the Church was extended; the extension was designed by the architect Conrath and opened in 1867. The Catholic Church contains relics of Brigit of Kildare as well as a number of important works of art classified as Monuments historiques such as the "Passion of Christ", a series of ten Gothic paintings by Heinrich Lutzelmann, the "Scenes from the Life of St Peter" an series of four wooden early Renaissance or late Gothic reliefs made around 1500 and a series of four 1504 paintings depicting "Scenes of the Life of Christ after the Resurrection"; the Lutheran part of the church, presently owned and used by a congregation within the Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine features some notable works of art, among which the wooden Renaissance relief "Holy Family" by Hans Wydyz, classified as a Monument historique.
Views of the Catholic Church Views of the Protestant Church Media related to Églises St Pierre le Vieux at Wikimedia Commons