Subcompact car is the American classification for small cars, broadly equivalent to the B-segment or supermini classifications. According to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency car size class definition, the subcompact category sits between minicompact and compact categories; the EPA definition of a subcompact is a passenger car with a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Current examples of subcompact cars are the Ford Chevrolet Sonic; the smaller cars in the A-segment / city car category are sometimes called subcompacts in the U. S. because the EPA's name for this smaller category— minicompact— is not used by the general public. The prevalence of small cars in the United States increased in the 1960s increased imports of cars from Europe and Japan. Widespread use of the term subcompact coincided with the early 1970s increase in subcompact cars built in the United States. Early 1970s subcompacts include Chevrolet Vega and Ford Pinto; the term subcompact originated during the 1960s, however it came into popular use in the early 1970s, as car manufacturers in the United States began to introduce smaller cars into their line-up.
Cars in this size were variously categorized, including "small cars" and "economy cars". Several of these small cars were produced in the U. S. in limited volumes, including the 1930 American Austin and the 1939 Crosley. From the 1950s onwards, various imported small cars were sold in the U. S. including the Nash Metropolitan, Volkswagen Beetle and various small British cars. Due to the increasing populary of small cars imported from Europe and Japan during the late 1960s, the American manufacturers to began releasing competing locally-built models in the early 1970s; the AMC Gremlin was described at its April 1970 introduction as "the first American-built import" and the first U. S. built subcompact car. Introduced in 1970 were the Chevrolet Vega and Ford Pinto. Sales of American-built "low weight cars" accounted for more than 30% of total car sales in 1972 and 1973, despite inventory shortages for several models; the Gremlin and Vega were all rear-wheel drive and available with four-cylinder engines.
The Pontiac Astre, the Canadian-born re-badged Vega variant was released in the U. S. September 1974. Due to falling sales of the larger pony cars in the mid-1970s, the Vega-based Chevrolet Monza was introduced as an upscale subcompact and the Ford Mustang II temporarily downsized from the pony car class to become a subcompact car for its second generation; the Monza with its GM variants Pontiac Sunbird, Buick Skyhawk, Oldsmobile Starfire, the Mustang II continued until the end of the decade. The Chevrolet Chevette was GM's new entry-level subcompact introduced as a 1976 model, it was an ` Americanized' design from GM's German subsidiary. And there were subcompacts that were imported but sold through a domestic manufacturers dealer network Captive imports, the Renault Le Car and the Ford Fiesta In 1977, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency began to use a new vehicle classification system, based on interior volume instead of exterior size; this resulted in cars classified as subcompact now being classified as compact cars, a smaller group of cars now being classified as subcompact.
In 1978, Volkswagen began producing the "Rabbit" version of the Golf— a modern, front-wheel drive design— in Pennsylvania. In 1982, American Motors began manufacturing the U. S. Renault Alliance— a version of the Renault 9— in Wisconsin. Both models benefiting from European designs and experience. To replace the aging Chevette in the second half of the 1980s, Chevrolet introduced marketed imported front-wheel drive subcompact cars: the Suzuki Cultus and the Isuzu Gemini. During the 1990s GM offered the Geo brand featuring the Suzuki-built Metro subcompact; because of consumer demand for fuel-efficient cars during the late-2000s, sales of subcompact cars made it the fastest growing market category in the U. S; as of 2016, numerous models of subcompacts are sold in North America. As of 2012, the Chevrolet Sonic was the only subcompact assembled in the United States. Imported subcompact cars include Korean models such as Hyundai Accent, Kia Rio along with Japanese models such as Honda Fit, Mazda 2, Nissan Micra, Scion xD, Suzuki Swift, Toyota Yaris and Toyota Prius C.
Car classification Mini SUV Economy car
Honda Motor Company, Ltd. is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft and power equipment. Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001. Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world in 2015. Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, other products. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and released their ASIMO robot in 2000, they have ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012.
Honda has three joint-ventures in China. In 2013, Honda invested about 5.7 % of its revenues in development. In 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, while importing only 88,357. Throughout his life, Honda's founder, Soichiro Honda, had an interest in automobiles, he worked as a mechanic at the Art Shokai garage, where he entered them in races. In 1937, with financing from his acquaintance Kato Shichirō, Honda founded Tōkai Seiki to make piston rings working out of the Art Shokai garage. After initial failures, Tōkai Seiki won a contract to supply piston rings to Toyota, but lost the contract due to the poor quality of their products. After attending engineering school without graduating, visiting factories around Japan to better understand Toyota's quality control processes, by 1941 Honda was able to mass-produce piston rings acceptable to Toyota, using an automated process that could employ unskilled wartime laborers.
Tōkai Seiki was placed under control of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry at the start of World War II, Soichiro Honda was demoted from president to senior managing director after Toyota took a 40% stake in the company. Honda aided the war effort by assisting other companies in automating the production of military aircraft propellers; the relationships Honda cultivated with personnel at Toyota, Nakajima Aircraft Company and the Imperial Japanese Navy would be instrumental in the postwar period. A US B-29 bomber attack destroyed Tōkai Seiki's Yamashita plant in 1944, the Itawa plant collapsed in 13 January 1945 Mikawa earthquake. Soichiro Honda sold the salvageable remains of the company to Toyota after the war for ¥450,000, used the proceeds to found the Honda Technical Research Institute in October 1946. With a staff of 12 men working in a 16 m2 shack, they built and sold improvised motorized bicycles, using a supply of 500 two-stroke 50 cc Tohatsu war surplus radio generator engines.
When the engines ran out, Honda began building their own copy of the Tohatsu engine, supplying these to customers to attach to their bicycles. This was the Honda A-Type, nicknamed the Bata Bata for the sound. In 1949, the Honda Technical Research Institute was liquidated for ¥1,000,000, or about US$5,000 today. At about the same time Honda hired engineer Kihachiro Kawashima, Takeo Fujisawa who provided indispensable business and marketing expertise to complement Soichiro Honda's technical bent; the close partnership between Soichiro Honda and Fujisawa lasted until they stepped down together in October 1973. The first complete motorcycle, with both the frame and engine made by Honda, was the 1949 D-Type, the first Honda to go by the name Dream. Honda Motor Company grew in a short time to become the world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles by 1964; the first production automobile from Honda was the T360 mini pick-up truck, which went on sale in August 1963. Powered by a small 356-cc straight-4 gasoline engine, it was classified under the cheaper Kei car tax bracket.
The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car, which followed the T360 into production in October 1963. Its chain-driven rear wheels pointed to Honda's motorcycle origins. Over the next few decades, Honda worked to expand its product line and expanded operations and exports to numerous countries around the world. In 1986, Honda introduced the successful Acura brand to the American market in an attempt to gain ground in the luxury vehicle market; the year 1991 saw the introduction of the Honda NSX supercar, the first all-aluminum monocoque vehicle that incorporated a mid-engine V6 with variable-valve timing. CEO Tadashi Kume was succeeded by Nobuhiko Kawamoto in 1990. Kawamoto was selected over Shoichiro Irimajiri, who oversaw the successful establishment of Honda of America Manufacturing, Inc. in Marysville, Ohio. Irimajiri and Kawamoto shared a friendly rivalry within Honda. Following the death of Soichiro Honda and the departure of Irimajiri, Honda found itself being outpaced in product development by other Japanese automakers and was caught off-guard by the truck and sport utility vehicle boom of the 1990s, all which took a toll on the profitability of the company.
Japanese media reported in 1992 and 1993 that Honda was at serious risk of an unwanted and hostile takeov
The Honda Amaze is a 4-door sedan produced by Honda. It is the sedan version of the Brio hatchback for the first generation model, it followed the same design and architecture with the Brio until 2018, where it goes on its own platform for the second generation model. Honda launched the Amaze in India in April 2013 and was developed at Honda R&D Asia Pacific Co. Ltd. located in Bangkok, Thailand. The Amaze is available in diesel engine; the Amaze is being manufactured at the company's facility in Greater Noida, with a localization level of more than 90%. The Amaze is Honda's first diesel offering in India; the car is available with the 1.2 L L12B i-VTEC petrol engine, used in the Fit/Jazz and Brio hatchbacks. Apart from being the company's first diesel car in India, the Amaze is slotted in the lucrative sub 4-meter entry-level sedan segment, where it competes against the Maruti Swift DZire, Tata Indigo eCS, Tata Tigor, Volkswagen Ameo, Ford Figo Aspire and Hyundai Xcent. In the Philippines, the Brio Amaze competes with the Mitsubishi Mirage G4.
Honda provides a new India-specific 1.5 L diesel engine in the Amaze. This engine gets the i-DTEC moniker and it is a derivative of the new 1.6 L Civic diesel engine launched in Europe. This India-specific derivative was developed around excise/taxation rules which offer a favorable tax regime for cars of sub 4-meter cars with engines of less than 1.5 L capacity. Honda claims; the turbocharger used in the Amaze's 1.5 L i-DTEC diesel engine was built by Honeywell. The first generation Amaze was updated in 2016; this updates includes a new grille, dashboard design, new taillights and the use of continuous variable transmission, replacing the 5-speed automatic one. The engine choices remained the same. Similar to the pre-2016 update models, both the engines can be had with a 5-speed manual transmission, while the CVT is offered on the petrol variant only; the Honda Amaze was launched in India with April 2013 with four trim levels: E, EX, S and VX. In January 2014, an additional trim known as the "SX" variant was launched and positioned in between the "S" and "VX" trims.
In conjunction of the first anniversary of the Honda Amaze in India, an "Anniversary Edition" was launched. The updated Amaze is offered in E, S, SX and VX trims in the Indian market. A limited edition "Privilege Edition" was launched in July 2017 and in January 2018, a special edition named the "Pride Edition" was launched; the 2016 update was launched in Thailand in May 2016 with only the 1.2 L L12B i-VTEC I4 petrol engine paired with a CVT transmission. Four trims levels were available: S MT, S CVT, V MT and V CVT. After facelifted,only Two trim was available were V CVT and SV CVT. In June 2013, the first generation Honda Amaze went on sale in Nepal with only a manual petrol variants being available. Three trim levels were available: E, EX and S; the 2016 updated version of the Amaze was launched in Nepal by Syakar Trading Pvt. Ltd. in June 2016 with only the 1.2 L L12B i-VTEC I4 petrol engine paired with either a 5-speed manual of CVT transmission. In September 2014, the first generation Honda Amaze was launched in Philippines as the Brio Amaze at the 2014 Philippine International Motor Show.
All Philippine-market Brio Amaze are imported from Thailand. The Brio Amaze is powered by a 1.3 L L13A i-VTEC I4 gasonline engine with either a 5-speed manual or 5-speed automatic transmission. The second generation Amaze was unveiled at the February 2018 Auto Expo in India, which Honda claims to be built on a new platform; the diesel engine is now mated to a CVT. The car has been developed at Honda R&D Asia Pacific Co. Ltd in Thailand; the second generation Amaze is offered in E, S, V and VX trims. In July 2018, Honda Cars India Ltd. recalled 7290 second generation Honda Amaze in regards to a potential issue with the electric power steering. Effected Amaze's were manufactured from 17 April to 24 May 2018; the sales figures in February 2015, were released by Honda Cars India and the Amaze was the highest selling model for the Japanese firm, with 7,163 units sold. Official websitesIndia Philippines Thailand
A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar volatile fuels. In most petrol engines, the fuel and air are mixed after compression; the pre-mixing was done in a carburetor, but now it is done by electronically controlled fuel injection, except in small engines where the cost/complication of electronics does not justify the added engine efficiency. The process differs from a diesel engine in the method of mixing the fuel and air, in using spark plugs to initiate the combustion process. In a diesel engine, only air is compressed, the fuel is injected into hot air at the end of the compression stroke, self-ignites; the first practical petrol engine was built in 1876 in Germany by Nikolaus August Otto, although there had been earlier attempts by Étienne Lenoir, Siegfried Marcus, Julius Hock and George Brayton. With both air and fuel in a closed cylinder, compressing the mixture too much poses the danger of auto-ignition — or behaving like a diesel engine.
Because of the difference in burn rates between the two different fuels, petrol engines are mechanically designed with different timing than diesels, so to auto-ignite a petrol engine causes the expansion of gas inside the cylinder to reach its greatest point before the cylinder has reached the "top dead center" position. Spark plugs are set statically or at idle at a minimum of 10 degrees or so of crankshaft rotation before the piston reaches T. D. C, but at much higher values at higher engine speeds to allow time for the fuel-air charge to complete combustion before too much expansion has occurred - gas expansion occurring with the piston moving down in the power stroke. Higher octane petrol burns slower, therefore it has a lower propensity to auto-ignite and its rate of expansion is lower. Thus, engines designed to run high-octane fuel can achieve higher compression ratios. Most modern automobile petrol engines have a compression ratio of 10.0:1 to 13.5:1. Engines with a knock sensor can and have C.
R higher than 11.1:1 and approaches 14.0:1 and engines without a knock sensor have C. R of 8.0:1 to 10.5:1. Petrol engines run at higher rotation speeds than diesels due to their lighter pistons, connecting rods and crankshaft and due to petrol burning more than diesel; because pistons in petrol engines tend to have much shorter strokes than pistons in diesel engines it takes less time for a piston in a petrol engine to complete its stroke than a piston in a diesel engine. However, the lower compression ratios of petrol engines give petrol engines lower efficiency than diesel engines. Most petrol engines have 20% thermal efficiency, nearly half of diesel engines; however some newer engines are reported to be much more efficient than previous spark-ignition engines. Petrol engines have many applications, including: Automobiles Motorcycles Aircraft Motorboats Small engines, such as lawn mowers and portable engine-generators Before the use of diesel engines became widespread, petrol engines were used in buses, lorries and a few railway locomotives.
Examples: Bedford OB bus Bedford M series lorry GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab locomotive Petrol engines may run on the four-stroke cycle or the two-stroke cycle. For details of working cycles see: Four-stroke cycle Two-stroke cycle Wankel engine Common cylinder arrangements are from 1 to 6 cylinders in-line or from 2 to 16 cylinders in V-formation. Flat engines – like a V design flattened out – are common in small airplanes and motorcycles and were a hallmark of Volkswagen automobiles into the 1990s. Flat 6s are still used in many modern Porsches, as well as Subarus. Many flat engines are air-cooled. Less common, but notable in vehicles designed for high speeds is the W formation, similar to having 2 V engines side by side. Alternatives include rotary and radial engines the latter have 7 or 9 cylinders in a single ring, or 10 or 14 cylinders in two rings. Petrol engines may be air-cooled, with fins; the coolant was water, but is now a mixture of water and either ethylene glycol or propylene glycol.
These mixtures have lower freezing points and higher boiling points than pure water and prevent corrosion, with modern antifreezes containing lubricants and other additives to protect water pump seals and bearings. The cooling system is slightly pressurized to further raise the boiling point of the coolant. Petrol engines use spark ignition and high voltage current for the spark may be provided by a magneto or an ignition coil. In modern car engines the ignition timing is managed by an electronic Engine Control Unit; the most common way of engine rating is what is known as the brake power, measured at the flywheel, given in kilowatts or horsepower. This is the actual mechanical power output of the engine in a complete form; the term "brake" comes from the use of a brake in a dynamometer test to load the engine. For accuracy, it is important to understand what is meant by complete. For example, for a car engine, apart from friction and thermodynamic losses inside the engine, power is absorbed by the water pump and radiator fan, thus reducing the power available at the flywheel to move the car along.
Power is abso
Karawang Regency is a regency of West Java, Indonesia. Karawang is its capital, it has a 2010 census population of 2,127,791 people. The district borders Bekasi and Bogor regencies in the west, the Java Sea in the north, Subang Regency in the east, Purwakarta Regency in the southeast, Cianjur Regency in the south; the regency lies on the eastern outskirts of Metropolitan Jakarta, just outside the Jabodetabek region, is the site of industrial activity. The area continues to grow which marked the establishment of new factories by domestic and multinational companies in industrial areas. However, due to expanding Jakarta, it has seen a heavy influx of housing developments as well and a surge of people. Karawang Regency is divided into thirty districts, listed below with their areas and populations at the 2010 Census
Anti-lock braking system
An anti-lock braking system is a safety anti-skid braking system used on aircraft and on land vehicles, such as cars, motorcycles and buses. ABS operates by preventing the wheels from locking up during braking, thereby maintaining tractive contact with the road surface. ABS is an automated system that uses the principles of threshold braking and cadence braking, techniques which were once practised by skilful drivers before ABS braking systems were widespread. ABS operates at a much faster rate and more than most drivers could manage. Although ABS offers improved vehicle control and decreases stopping distances on dry and some slippery surfaces, on loose gravel or snow-covered surfaces ABS may increase braking distance, while still improving steering control. Since ABS was introduced in production vehicles, such systems have become sophisticated and effective. Modern versions may only prevent wheel lock under braking, but may alter the front-to-rear brake bias; this latter function, depending on its specific capabilities and implementation, is known variously as electronic brakeforce distribution, traction control system, emergency brake assist, or electronic stability control.
The concept for ABS predates the modern systems. In 1908, for example, J. E. Francis introduced his'Slip Prevention Regulator for Rail Vehicles'. In 1920 the French automobile and aircraft pioneer Gabriel Voisin experimented with systems that modulated the hydraulic braking pressure on his aircraft brakes to reduce the risk of tire slippage; these systems used a valve attached to a hydraulic line that feeds the brake cylinders. The flywheel is attached to a drum. In normal braking, the drum and flywheel should spin at the same speed. However, when a wheel slows down the drum would do the same, leaving the flywheel spinning at a faster rate; this causes the valve to open, allowing a small amount of brake fluid to bypass the master cylinder into a local reservoir, lowering the pressure on the cylinder and releasing the brakes. The use of the drum and flywheel meant. In testing, a 30% improvement in braking performance was noted, because the pilots applied full brakes instead of increasing pressure in order to find the skid point.
An additional benefit was the elimination of burst tires. The first patented system was created by German engineer Karl Wessel in 1928. Wessel, never developed a working product and neither did Robert Bosch who produced a similar patent eight years later. By the early 1950s, the Dunlop Maxaret anti-skid system was in widespread aviation use in the UK, with aircraft such as the Avro Vulcan and Handley Page Victor, Vickers Viscount, Vickers Valiant, English Electric Lightning, de Havilland Comet 2c, de Havilland Sea Vixen, aircraft, such as the Vickers VC10, Hawker Siddeley Trident, Hawker Siddeley 125, Hawker Siddeley HS 748 and derived British Aerospace ATP, BAC One-Eleven, the Dutch Fokker F27 Friendship, being fitted with Maxaret as standard. Maxaret, while reducing braking distances by up to 30% in icy or wet conditions increased tire life, had the additional advantage of allowing take-offs and landings in conditions that would preclude flying at all in non-Maxaret equipped aircraft. In 1958, a Royal Enfield Super Meteor motorcycle was used by the Road Research Laboratory to test the Maxaret anti-lock brake.
The experiments demonstrated that anti-lock brakes can be of great value to motorcycles, for which skidding is involved in a high proportion of accidents. Stopping distances were reduced in most of the tests compared with locked wheel braking on slippery surfaces, in which the improvement could be as much as 30 percent. Enfield's technical director at the time, Tony Wilson-Jones, saw little future in the system, it was not put into production by the company. A mechanical system saw limited automobile use in the 1960s in the Ferguson P99 racing car, the Jensen FF, the experimental all wheel drive Ford Zodiac, but saw no further use; the first electronic anti lock system was developed in the late 1960s for the Concorde aircraft. Chrysler, together with the Bendix Corporation, introduced a computerized, three-channel, four-sensor all-wheel ABS called "Sure Brake" for its 1971 Imperial, it was available for several years thereafter, functioned as intended, proved reliable. In 1970, Ford added an antilock braking system called "Sure-track" to the rear wheels of Lincoln Continentals as an option.
In 1971, General Motors introduced the "Trackmaster" rear-wheel only ABS as an option on their rear-wheel drive Cadillac models and the Oldsmobile Toronado. In the same year, Nissan offered an EAL developed by Japanese company Denso as an option on the Nissan President, which became Japan's first electronic ABS.1971: Electronically controlled anti-skid brakes on Toyota Crown In 1972, four wheel drive Triumph 2500 Estates were fitted with Mullard electronic systems as standard. Such cars were rare however and few survive today. 1971: First truck application: "Antislittamento" system developed by Fiat Veicoli Industriali and installed on Fiat truck model 691N1.1976: WABCO began the development of anti-locking braking system on commercial vehicles to prevent locking on slippery roads, followed in 1986 by the electronic braking system for heavy duty vehicles.1978: Mercedes-Benz W116 became the first production car
Honda Cars India
Honda Cars India Ltd is a subsidiary of Honda of Japan for the production and export of passenger cars in India. Known as Honda Siel Cars India Ltd, it began operations in 1995 as a joint venture between Honda Motor Company and Usha International of Siddharth Shriram Group. In August 2012, Honda bought out Usha International's entire 3.16 percent stake for ₹1.8 billion in the joint venture. The company changed its name to Honda Cars India Ltd and became a 100% subsidiary of Honda. HCIL's first manufacturing plant at Greater Noida began operations in 1997. Set up at an initial investment of over ₹4.5 billion, the plant is spread over 150 acres. The initial capacity of the plant was 30,000 cars per year, increased to 50,000 cars on a two-shift basis; the capacity was further enhanced to 100,000 units annually in 2008. This expansion led to an increase in the covered area in the plant from 107,000 square metres to over 130,000 m2. In 2015-2016 revenue of 16,870 crore, 360 crore net profit after 6 years losses in Indian operations.
In July 2017, monthly sales touched over 17,000 cars thanks to the launch of WR-V. The City and WR-V sales figures were over 4,500 units a month. Honda set up its second plant in India at Tapukara in Alwar District of Rajasthan, spread over 450 acres with an investment of ₹3526 crores, it operates under the ISO 9001 standard for quality management and ISO 14001 for environment management. Honda City — 1998-Present Honda Accord — 2000-Present Honda Jazz — 2009-Present Honda CR-V — Imported Since 2003. HCIL has 331 dealership outlets across 3 Union Territories of India, it sold 189,062 units during the period between April 2014 and March 2015 as against 1,34,399 units during the same period a year ago, recording an increase of over 44%. Honda, the Japanese carmaker, launched a new compact SUV on the Jazz platform called WRV in March 2017. 2017March ended revenue touches 16,870crore,First profit 360crore after 6 years losses. Corporate - Engine of the year - honda eco technology 1000cc engineSedan Of The Year - Honda City Best Indian Company by Business Standard Group Manufacturer of the Year by NDTV Profit-Car India Manufacturer of the Year by CNBC-TV 18 Autocar India No 1 Mid Size Car.