Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype
Honda Accord (North America eighth generation)
The North American eighth generation Honda Accord is a mid-size car introduced for the 2008 model year. It is marketed in parts of Asia and as the Honda Inspire in Japan; the size of the 2008 Accord has been increased by 3 inches in width. As a result, the interior space is enlarged: an Accord sedan is considered a nearly executive car by EPA standards, having a combined interior space of 120 cubic feet; the Accord coupe is classified as a mid-size car, as it has a combined interior space of 105 cubic feet. A hybrid version is no longer offered, as Honda felt their "hybrid system works better on smaller cars"; the Honda Accord Coupe concept car was unveiled at the 2007 North American International Auto Show. It previewed the production 2-door model with i-VTEC VCM V6 engine and Advanced Compatibility Engineering body structure; the production sedan and coupe were unveiled on August 21, 2007. Sales of US models began on September 12, 2007 for the sedan, on September 20, 2007 for the coupe. At the 2007 SEMA Show, Honda unveiled a concept Accord coupe showcasing Honda Factory Performance products.
In Canada, sedan trims include the SE, EX, EX-L, EX-L with Navi, EX-L V6, EX-L V6 with Navi, while coupes have the EX, EX-L, EX-L with Navi, EX-L V6 with Navi. The SE designation was the de facto replacement for the LX, VP, DX-G trims in the previous generation, while the EX replaced the SE; the LX includes anti-lock brakes with brake assist and electronic brake force distribution, electronic stability control and rear disc brakes, air conditioning, keyless entry, power windows, power locks, cruise control as standard features, while having body-colored door handles and mirrors. The EX includes a more powerful version of the 2.4L DOHC i-VTEC engine with 190 hp, power moonroof, 17-inch alloy wheels, 8-way adjustable driver's seat, security system, a 6-disc CD changer. EX-L denotes Accords with leather upholstery, XM satellite radio, an optional navigation system and hands-free Bluetooth interface. V6 models have chrome handles, dual exhaust pipes, fog lamps; the EX-L V6 coupe has 18-inch alloy rims, a rear lip spoiler, an option of the six-speed manual in lieu of the standard five-speed automatic transmission.
In the United States, additional models offered include LX trim name instead of SE, the LX-P sedan, which adds illuminated power window switches, an 8-way driver's seat and 16-inch alloy wheels, the LX-S coupe, which replaces the 177 hp engine with a 190 hp, 17-inch alloy wheels, a 6-disc CD changer. Both the Accord sedan and coupe went through a mid-life cycle update. Both cars feature updated tail lamps; the sedan features the reflective strips seen on the Japanese Honda Inspire. Inside, Honda has added steering wheel-mounted paddle shifters to the EX-L V6 Coupe, USB connectivity for all coupe models and EX/EX-L sedans. A rearview camera is now standard with the available navigation system on the sedan. EX-L V6 models gain memory seats and all models get new cloths and some minor instrument panel and control modifications. A new SE model will be offered mid range. New improved aerodynamics and a reworked five-speed automatic transmission help the Accord achieve 23 mpg and 34 mpg; the North American 4-cylinder and V-6 Accords were first produced in Honda's Marysville, plant.
With the eighth generation this plant is now the sole global source of the Accord coupe. Beginning in mid-2009, the majority of the V-6 Accord sedan production was moved to the Honda auto plant in Lincoln, Alabama. Honda's Anna, Engine Plant produces the 4-cylinder engines; the US plants supply the majority of Accords to both South America. The North American Accord model is manufactured in Thailand and sold in Southeast Asia and New Zealand. Variants of the North American Accord models are manufactured for the domestic markets in China and Taiwan; the Japanese-built Accord is sold in the New Zealand markets as the Accord Euro. In New Zealand the North American Accord is badged as the Accord V6. In 2008, it powered Honda ahead of BMW, Mercedes Benz and Lexus, to become the number one import brand in Korea as sales of Honda vehicles surged 95% in the first seven months in that year. A right-hand-drive variant of the North American Accord model is sold as the Honda Inspire in Japan. Honda entered a strategic collaboration with Proton of Malaysia in October 2012 as part of Japan's Abenomics plan.
The result of the collaboration was the Proton Perdana, a rebadged eighth generation Honda Accord which launched on 11 December 2013, for exclusive sale to the Malaysian government and civil servants. It serves as the replacement to the ageing Mitsubishi Galant-based Proton Perdana V6 fleet in use since the 1990s; the V6 i-VTEC VCM engines feature improved fuel efficiency due to the Variable Cylinder Management system, which shuts off two or three of the cylinders depending on the type of driving. Engines lacking VCM results in a decrease of 4 MPG in highway fuel economy; the V-6 engines were re-rated in 2009 model year. The North American Accord uses the CP2 chassis code for the 2.4-litre 4-cylinder sedan and CS1 for the 4-cylinder coupe. CP3 is for the V6 sedan and CS2 is for the V6 coupe. CP1 is for the 2.0-litre 4-cylinder saloon in Brazil market. All 4-cylinder models are available in PZEV configurations. V6 PZEV models include only i-VTEC VCM engines with 5-speed automatic transmissions. PZEV engines include 2 modes of exhaust valve operation.
At Below 2,500 rpm, only 1 exhaust valve operates, creating a strong rotational flow in the exhaust gases that creates a "thermal reactor" effe
San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun Bay estuaries in the northern part of the U. S. state of California. Although the exact boundaries of the region vary depending on the source, the Bay Area is defined by the Association of Bay Area Governments to include the nine counties that border the aforementioned estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano and San Francisco. Other sources may exclude parts of or entire counties, or expand the definition to include neighboring counties that don't border the bay such as San Benito, San Joaquin, Santa Cruz. Home to 7.68 million people, Northern California's nine-county Bay Area contains many cities, towns and associated regional and national parks, connected by a complex multimodal transportation network. The larger combined statistical area of the region, which includes twelve counties, is the second-largest in California, the fifth-largest in the United States, the 41st-largest urban area in the world with 8.75 million people.
The Bay Area's population is ethnically diverse: for example half of the region's residents are Hispanic, African American, or Pacific Islander, all of whom have a significant presence throughout the region. The earliest archaeological evidence of human settlements in the Bay Area dates back to 3000 BC. In 1769, the Bay Area was inhabited by the Ohlone people when a Spanish exploration party led by Gaspar de Portolà entered the Bay – the first documented European visit to the Bay Area. After Mexico established independence from Spain in 1821, the region was controlled by the Mexican government until the United States purchased the territory in 1846 during the Mexican–American War. Soon after, discovery of gold in California attracted a flood of treasure seekers, many using ports in the Bay Area as an entry point. During the early years of California's statehood, state legislative business rotated between three locations in the Bay Area before a permanent state capital was established in Sacramento.
A major earthquake leveled the city of San Francisco and environs in 1906, but the region rebuilt in time to host the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition. During World War II, the Bay Area played a major role in America's war effort in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, with San Francisco's Fort Mason acting as a primary embarkation point for American forces. In 1945, the United Nations Charter was signed in San Francisco, establishing the United Nations, in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco ended the U. S.'s war with Japan. Since the Bay Area has experienced numerous political and artistic movements, developing unique local genres in music and art and establishing itself as a hotbed of progressive politics. Economically, the post-war Bay Area saw huge growth in the financial and technology industries, creating a vibrant and diverse economy with a gross domestic product of over $800 billion, home to the second highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the United States. Despite its urban character, the San Francisco Bay is one of California's most ecologically important habitats, providing key ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers, supporting a number of endangered species.
The region is known for the complexity of its landforms, the result of millions of years of tectonic plate movements. Because the Bay Area is crossed by six major earthquake faults, the region is exposed to hazards presented by large earthquakes; the climate is temperate and very mild, is ideal for outdoor recreational and athletic activities such as hiking. The Bay Area is host to seven professional sports teams and is a cultural center for music and the arts, it is host to several institutions of higher education, ranging from primary schools to major research universities. Home to 101 municipalities and nine counties, governance in the Bay Area is multifaceted and involves numerous local and regional actors, each with wide-ranging and overlapping responsibilities; the borders of the San Francisco Bay Area are not delineated, the unique development patterns influenced by the region's topography, as well as unusual commute patterns caused by the presence of three central cities and employment centers located in various suburban locales, has led to considerable disagreement between local and federal definitions of the area.
Because of this, professor of geography at the University of California, Berkeley Richard Walker claimed that "no other U. S. city-region is as definitionally challenged."When the region began to develop during and after World War II, local planners settled on a nine-county definition for the Bay Area, consisting of the counties that directly border the San Francisco, San Pablo, Suisun estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Sonoma counties. Today, this definition is accepted by most local governmental agencies including San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board, Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Restoration Authority, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, the Association of Bay Area Governments, the latter two of which partner to deliver a Bay Area Census using the nine-county definition. Various U. S. Federal government agencies use definitions that differ from their local counterparts' nine-county definition.
For example, the Federal Communications Commission which regulates broadcast and satellite transmissions, includes nearby Colusa and Mendocino counties in their "San Francisco-Oaklan
The iPod is a line of portable media players and multi-purpose pocket computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first version was released on October 23, 2001, about 8 1⁄2 months after the Macintosh version of iTunes was released; as of July 27, 2017, only the iPod Touch remains in production. Like other digital music players, iPods can serve as external data storage devices. Apple's iTunes software can be used to transfer music, videos, contact information, e-mail settings, Web bookmarks, calendars, to the devices supporting these features from computers using certain versions of Apple macOS and Microsoft Windows operating systems. Before the release of iOS 5, the iPod branding was used for the media player included with the iPhone and iPad, a combination of the Music and Videos apps on the iPod Touch; as of iOS 5, separate apps named "Music" and "Videos" are standardized across all iOS-powered products. While the iPhone and iPad have the same media player capabilities as the iPod line, they are treated as separate products.
During the middle of 2010, iPhone sales overtook those of the iPod. The iPod was released in late 2001; the iPod line came from Apple's "digital hub" category, when the company began creating software for the growing market of personal digital devices. Digital cameras and organizers had well-established mainstream markets, but the company found existing digital music players "big and clunky or small and useless" with user interfaces that were "unbelievably awful," so Apple decided to develop its own; as ordered by CEO Steve Jobs, Apple's hardware engineering chief Jon Rubinstein assembled a team of engineers to design the iPod line, including hardware engineers Tony Fadell and Michael Dhuey, design engineer Sir Jonathan Ive. Rubinstein had discovered the Toshiba hard disk drive while meeting with an Apple supplier in Japan, purchased the rights to it for Apple, had already worked out how the screen and other key elements would work; the aesthetic was inspired by the 1958 Braun T3 transistor radio designed by Dieter Rams, while the wheel-based user interface was prompted by Bang & Olufsen's BeoCom 6000 telephone.
The product was developed in less than one year and unveiled on October 23, 2001. Jobs announced it as a Mac-compatible product with a 5 GB hard drive that put "1,000 songs in your pocket."Apple did not develop the iPod software in-house, instead using PortalPlayer's reference platform based on two ARM cores. The platform had rudimentary software running on a commercial microkernel embedded operating system. PortalPlayer had been working on an IBM-branded MP3 player with Bluetooth headphones. Apple contracted another company, Pixo, to help design and implement the user interface under the direct supervision of Steve Jobs; as development progressed, Apple continued to feel. Starting with the iPod Mini, the Chicago font was replaced with Espy Sans. IPods switched fonts again to Podium Sans—a font similar to Apple's corporate font, Myriad. Color display iPods adopted some Mac OS X themes like Aqua progress bars, brushed metal meant to evoke a combination lock. In 2007, Apple modified the iPod interface again with the introduction of the sixth-generation iPod Classic and third-generation iPod Nano by changing the font to Helvetica and, in most cases, splitting the screen in half by displaying the menus on the left and album artwork, photos, or videos on the right.
In 2006 Apple presented a special edition for iPod 5G of Irish rock band U2. Like its predecessor, this iPod has engraved the signatures of the four members of the band on its back, but this one was the first time the company changed the colour of the metal; this iPod was only available with 30GB of storage capacity. The special edition entitled purchasers to an exclusive video with 33 minutes of interviews and performance by U2, downloadable from the iTunes Store. In September 2007, during a lawsuit with patent holding company Burst.com, Apple drew attention to a patent for a similar device, developed in 1979. Kane Kramer applied for a UK patent for his design of a "plastic music box" in 1981, which he called the IXI, he was unable to secure funding to renew the US$120,000 worldwide patent, so it lapsed and Kramer never profited from his idea. The name iPod was proposed by Vinnie Chieco, a freelance copywriter, called by Apple to figure out how to introduce the new player to the public. After Chieco saw a prototype, he thought of the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey and the phrase "Open the pod bay doors, Hal", which refers to the white EVA Pods of the Discovery One spaceship.
Chieco saw an analogy to the relationship between the spaceship and the smaller independent pods in the relationship between a personal computer and the music player. Apple researched the trademark and found that it was in use. Joseph N. Grasso of New Jersey had listed an "iPod" trademark with the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office in July 2000 for Internet kiosks; the first iPod kiosks had been demonstrated to the public in New Jersey in March 1998, commercial use began in January 2000, but had been discontinued by 2001. The trademark was registered by the USPTO in November 2003, Grasso assigned it to Apple Computer, Inc. in 2005. The earliest recorded use in commerce of an "iPod" trademark was in 1991 by Chrysalis Corp. of Sturgis, styled "iPOD". In mid-2015, several new color schemes for all of the current iPod models were spotted in the latest version of iTunes, 12.2. Belgian website Belgium iPhone found the images
Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. Located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in Northern California's Sacramento Valley, Sacramento's estimated 2018 population of 501,334 makes it the sixth-largest city in California and the ninth largest capital in the United States. Sacramento is the seat of the California Assembly, the Governor of California, Supreme Court of California, making it the state's political center and a hub for lobbying and think tanks. Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which had 2010 population of 2,414,783, making it the fifth largest in California. Sacramento is the fastest-growing major city in California, owing to its status as a notable financial center on the West Coast and as a major educational hub, home of Sacramento State University and University of California, Davis. Sacramento is a major center for the California healthcare industry, as the seat of Sutter Health, the world-renowned UC Davis Medical Center, the UC Davis School of Medicine, notable tourist destination in California, as the site of The California Museum, the Crocker Art Museum, California Hall of Fame, the California State Capitol Museum, the Old Sacramento State Historic Park.
Sacramento is known for its evolving contemporary culture, dubbed the most "hipster city" in California. In 2002, the Harvard University Civil Rights Project conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City". Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area was inhabited by the Nisenan people indigenous peoples of California. Spanish cavalryman Gabriel Moraga surveyed and named the Rio del Santísimo Sacramento in 1808, after the Blessed Sacrament, referring to the Eucharist in the Catholic Church. In 1839, Juan Bautista Alvarado, Mexican governor of Alta California granted the responsibility of colonizing the Sacramento Valley to Swiss-born, Mexican citizen John Augustus Sutter, who subsequently established Sutter's Fort and the settlement at the Rancho Nueva Helvetia. Following the American Conquest of California and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the waterfront developed by Sutter began to be developed and incorporated in 1850 as the City of Sacramento; as a result of the California Gold Rush, Sacramento became a major commercial center and distribution point for Northern California, serving as the terminus for the Pony Express and the First Transcontinental Railroad.
Nisenan and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region, by fruits, bulbs and roots gathered throughout the year. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths; the air was like champagne, drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. "¡Es como el sagrado sacramento!" The valley and the river were christened after the "Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ", referring to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist. John Sutter Sr. first arrived in the area on August 13, 1839, at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutter's Fort, a massive adobe structure with walls eighteen feet high and three feet thick. Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847 Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. That same year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.'s "empire" had been built on some thin margins of credit. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, a large number of gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the population.
In August 1848 Sutter Sr.'s son, John Sutter Jr. arrived in the area to assist his father in relieving his indebtedness. Now compounding the problem of his father's indebtedness, was the additional strain placed on the Sutters by the ongoing arrival of thousands of new gold miners and prospectors in the area, many quite content to squat on unwatched portions of the vast Sutter lands, or to abscond with various unattended Sutter properties or belongings if they could. In Sutter's case, rather than being a'boon' for Sutter, his employee's discovery of gold in the area turned out to be more of a personal'bane' for him. By December 1848, John Sutter Jr. in association with Sam Brannan, began laying out the City of Sacramento, 2 miles south of his father's settlement of New Helvetia. This venture was undertaken against the wishes of Sutter Sr. however the father, being in debt, was in no position to stop the venture. For
Alternative fuel vehicle
An alternative fuel vehicle is a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than traditional petroleum fuels. Because of a combination of factors, such as environmental concerns, high oil prices and the potential for peak oil, development of cleaner alternative fuels and advanced power systems for vehicles has become a high priority for many governments and vehicle manufacturers around the world. Hybrid electric vehicles such as the Toyota Prius are not alternative fuel vehicles, but through advanced technologies in the electric battery and motor/generator, they make a more efficient use of petroleum fuel. Other research and development efforts in alternative forms of power focus on developing all-electric and fuel cell vehicles, the stored energy of compressed air. An environmental analysis extends beyond emissions. A life-cycle assessment of a vehicle involves post-use considerations. A cradle-to-cradle design is more important than a focus on a single factor such as the type of fuel; as of 2017, there were more than 1.4 billion motor vehicles on the world's roads, compared with just more than 116 million alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles, sold or converted worldwide at the end of 2016 and consisting of: About 55 million flex fuel automobiles and light duty trucks manufactured and sold worldwide by mid 2015, led by Brazil with 29.5 million by mid 2015, followed by the United States with 17.4 million by the end of 2014, Canada with about 1.6 million by 2014, Sweden with 243,100 through December 2014.
The Brazilian flex fuel fleet includes over 4 million flexible-fuel motorcycles produced since 2009 through March 2015. 22.7 million natural gas vehicles as of August 2015, led by China Iran with 4.00 million, followed by Pakistan, Argentina and Brazil. 24.9 million LPG powered vehicles by December 2013, led by Turkey with 3.93 million, South Korea, Poland. More than 12 million hybrid electric vehicles have been sold worldwide; as of April 2016, Japan ranked as the market leader with more than 5 million hybrids sold, followed by the United States with cumulative sales of over 4 million units since 1999, Europe with about 1.5 million hybrids delivered since 2000. As of January 2017, global sales are by Toyota Motor Company with more than 10 million Lexus and Toyota hybrids sold, followed by Honda Motor Co. Ltd. with cumulative global sales of more than 1.35 million hybrids as of June 2014. As of January 2017, global hybrid sales are led by the Prius family, with cumulative sales of 6.1 million units.
The Toyota Prius liftback is the world's top selling hybrid electric car with cumulative sales of 3.985 million units through January 2017. 5.7 million neat-ethanol only light-vehicles built in Brazil since 1979, with 2.4 to 3.0 million vehicles still in use by 2003. and 1.22 million units as of December 2011. More than 4 million highway-legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles had been sold worldwide at the end of September 2018. Cumulative global sales of all-electric cars and vans passed the 1 million unit milestone in September 2016; as of September 2018, the Nissan Leaf is the world's all-time top selling highway-capable plug-in electric car, with global sales of over 350,000 units since its inception. As of December 2016, ranking second was the all-electric Tesla Model S with about over 158,000 units, followed by the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid, which together with its sibling the Opel/Vauxhall Ampera has combined global sales of about 134,500 units, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, with global sales of about 119,500 units.
As of September 2018, China has the world's largest stock of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars with cumulative sales of 2 million units. Among country markets, the United States ranks second with 1 million plug-in electric cars sold through September 2018. Cumulative sales of highway legal plug-in electric cars and vans in Europe achieved the one million unit milestone in June 2018; as of September 2018, sales in the European light-duty plug-in electric segment are led by Norway with 275,000 units registered. China is the world's leader in the plug-in heavy-duty segment, including electric all-electric buses, plug-in commercial and sanitation trucks; the stock of new energy vehicles sold in China totaled 2.21 million units up until September 2018. As of December 2015, China was the world's largest plug-in electric bus market with a stock of 173,000 vehicles; the air engine is an emission-free piston engine. The first compressed air car was invented by a French engineer named Guy Nègre.
The expansion of compressed air may be used to drive the pistons in a modified piston engine. Efficiency of operation is gained through the use of environmental heat at normal temperature to warm the otherwise cold expanded air from the storage tank; this non-adiabatic expansion has the potential to increase the efficiency of the machine. The only exhaust is cold air, which could be used to air condition the car; the source for air is a pressurized carbon-fiber tank. Air is delivered to the engine via a rather conventional injection system. Unique crank design within the engine increases the time during which the air charge is warmed from ambient sources and a two-stage process allows improved heat transfer rates. Battery electric vehicles known as all-electric vehicles, are electric vehicles whose main energy storage is in the chemic