Types of motorcycles
There are many systems for classifying types of motorcycles, describing how the motorcycles are put to use, or the designer's intent, or some combination of the two. Six main categories are recognized: cruiser, touring, dual-purpose, dirt bike. Sometimes sport touring motorcycles are recognized as a seventh category. Strong lines are sometimes drawn between motorcycles and their smaller cousins, mopeds and underbones, but other classification schemes include these as types of motorcycles. There is no universal system for classifying all types of motorcycles. There are strict classification systems enforced by competitive motorcycle sport sanctioning bodies, or legal definitions of a motorcycle established by certain legal jurisdictions for motorcycle registration, road traffic safety rules or motorcyclist licensing. There are informal classifications or nicknames used by manufacturers and the motorcycling media; some experts do not recognize sub-types, like naked bike, that "purport to be classified" outside the six usual classes, because they fit within one of the main types and are recognizable only by cosmetic changes.
Street motorcycles are motorcycles designed for being ridden on paved roads. They have smooth tires with a light tread pattern and engines in the 125 cc and over range. Most are capable of speeds up to 100 mph, many of speeds in excess of 125 mph. Standards called naked bikes or roadsters, are versatile, general-purpose street motorcycles, they are recognized by their upright riding position, partway between the reclining rider posture of the cruisers and the forward leaning sport bikes. Footpegs are below the rider and handlebars are high enough to not force the rider to reach too far forward, placing the shoulders above the hips in a natural position; because of their flexibility, lower costs, moderate engine output, standards are suited to motorcycle beginners. Standards do not come with fairings or windscreens, or if they have them, they are small. Standard is a synonym for naked bike, a term that became popular in the 1990s in response to the proliferation of faired sport bikes; the standard seemed to have disappeared, fueling nostalgia for the return of the Universal Japanese Motorcycle, which were admired for their simplicity and versatility.
Muscle bike is a nickname for a motorcycle type, derived from either a standard or sport bike design, that puts a disproportionately high priority on engine power. Roadster is naked. Cruisers are styled after American machines from the 1930s to the early 1960s, such as those made by Harley-Davidson and Excelsior-Henderson. Harley-Davidsons define the cruiser category, large-displacement V-twin engines are the norm, although other engine configurations and small to medium displacements exist, their engines are tuned for low-end torque, making them less demanding to ride because it is not necessary to shift as to accelerate or maintain control. The riding position places the feet forward and the hands are up high, so that the spine is erect or leaning back slightly. At low to moderate speeds, cruisers are more comfortable than other styles, but riding for long periods at freeway speeds can lead to fatigue from pulling back on the handlebars to resist the force of the wind against the rider's chest.
Cruisers have limited cornering ability due to a lack of ground clearance. Choppers are a type of cruiser, so called because they are a "chopped", or cut-down, version of a production cruiser. Choppers are custom projects that result in a bike modified to suit the owner's ideals, and, as such, are a source of pride and accomplishment. Stereotypically, a chopper may have small fuel tanks and high handlebars. Choppers were popularised in the Peter Fonda film Easy Rider. Being designed for visual effect, choppers will not be the most efficient riding machines. Related to the chopper motorcycle is the bobber, created by "bobbing" a factory bike by removing dead weight and bodywork from a motorcycle to reduce mass and increase performance. A common element of these motorcycles is a shortened rear fender. A distinguishing feature between a chopper and a bobber is that bobbers reuse the factory motorcycle frame, whereas choppers use custom frames with increased rake; the more conservative steering geometry of a bobber will in most cases lead to superior cornering performance relative to a chopper.
Power cruiser is a name used to distinguish bikes in the cruiser class that have higher levels of power. They come with upgraded brakes and suspensions, better ground clearance, premium surface finishes, as well as more exotic or non-traditional styling. Sport bikes emphasize top speed, braking and grip on paved roads at the expense of comfort and fuel economy in comparison to less specialized motorcycles; because of this, there are certain design elements. Sport bikes have comparatively high performance engines resting inside a lightweight frame. Inline-four engines dominate the sport bike category, with V-twins having a significant presence, nearly every other engine configuration appearing in small numbers at one time or another; the combination of these elements helps maintain chassis rigidity. Braking systems combine higher performance brake pads and multi-piston calipers that clamp onto oversized vented rotors. Suspension systems are advanced in terms of adjustments and materials for increased stability and durability.
Most sport bikes have fairings
Air-cooled engines rely on the circulation of air directly over hot parts of the engine to cool them. Most modern internal combustion engines are cooled by a closed circuit carrying liquid coolant through channels in the engine block and cylinder head, where the coolant absorbs heat, to a heat exchanger or radiator where the coolant releases heat into the air. Thus, while they are not cooled by the liquid, because of the liquid-coolant circuit they are known as water-cooled. In contrast, heat generated by an air-cooled engine is released directly into the air; this is facilitated with metal fins covering the outside of the Cylinder Head and cylinders which increase the surface area that air can act on. Air may be force fed with the use of a fan and shroud to achieve efficient cooling with high volumes of air or by natural air flow with well designed and angled fins. In all combustion engines, a great percentage of the heat generated escapes through the exhaust, not through either a liquid cooling system nor through the metal fins of an air-cooled engine.
About 8% of the heat energy finds its way into the oil, which although meant for lubrication plays a role in heat dissipation via a cooler. Many motorcycles use air cooling for the sake of reducing complexity. Few current production automobiles have air-cooled engines, but it was common for many high-volume vehicles. Examples of past air-cooled road vehicles, in chronological order, include: Franklin New Way - limited production run out from the "CLARKMOBILE" GM "copper-cooled" models of Chevrolet and Oakland Tatra all-wheel-drive military trucks. Tatra 11 and subsequent models Tatra T77 Tatra T87 Tatra T97 Tatra T600 Tatraplan Tatra T603 Tatra T613 Tatra T700 Crosley The East German Trabant Trabant 500 Trabant 600 Trabant 601 ZAZ Zaporozhets Fiat 500 Fiat 126 Porsche 356 VW-Porsche 914 Porsche 911 The Volkswagen Beetle, Type 2, SP2, Karmann Ghia, Type 3 all utilized the same air-cooled engine with various displacements. Volkswagen Type 2. Volkswagen Type 4 Volkswagen Gol Chevrolet Corvair Citroën 2CV.
Citroën GS and GSA Honda 1300 NSU Prinz Royal Enfield Motorcycles: The 350cc and 500cc Twinspark motorcycle engines are air-cooled Oltcit_Club T13/653, G11/631 and VO36/630 Most aviation piston engines are air-cooled. While water cooled engines were used from the early days of flight, air cooled engines were the dominant choice in aircraft. Following the Second World War and jet turbine powered aircraft have come to dominate flight regimes where water cooled piston engines offered the advantage of reduced drag. Today, piston engines are used in slower general aviation aircraft where the greater drag produced by air cooled engines is not a major disadvantage. Therefore, most aero engines produced. Today, most of the engines manufactured by Lycoming and Continental and used by major manufacturers of light aircraft Cirrus, Cessna and so on. Other engine manufactures using air-cooled engine technology are ULPower and Jabiru, more active in the Light-Sport Aircraft and ultralight aircraft market.
Rotax uses a combination of liquid-cooled cylinder heads. Some small diesel engines, e.g. those made by Lister Petter are air-cooled. The only big Euro 5 truck air-cooled engine is being produced by Tatra. Stationary or portable engines were commercially introduced early in the 1900s; the first commercial production was by the New Way Motor Company of Lansing, Michigan, US. The company produced air-cooled engines in single and twin cylinders in both horizontal and vertical cylinder format. Subsequent to their initial production, exported worldwide, other companies took up the advantages of this cooling method in small portable engines. Applications include mowers, outboard motors, pump sets, saw benches and auxiliary power plants and more. Sloan, Alfred P. McDonald, John, ed. My Years with General Motors, Garden City, NY, USA: Doubleday, LCCN 64011306, OCLC 802024. Republished in 1990 with a new introduction by Peter Drucker. Biermann, A. E.. "The design of fins for air-cooled cylinders". Report Nº 726.
NACA. P V Lamarque, "The design of cooling fins for Motor-Cycle Engines". Report of the Automobile Research Committee, Institution of Automobile Engineers Magazine, March 1943 issue, in "The Institution of Automobile Engineers. Proceedings XXXVII, Session 1942-1943, pp 99-134 and 309-312. Julius Mackerle, "Air-cooled Automotive Engines", Charles Griffin & Company Ltd. London 1972
A single-cylinder engine is a basic piston engine configuration of an internal combustion engine. It is seen on motorcycles, auto rickshaws, motor scooters, dirt bikes, go-karts, radio-controlled models, has many uses in portable tools and garden machinery; some single-cylinder automobiles and tractors have been produced, but are rare today due to developments in engine technology. Single-cylinder engines are simple and compact, will deliver the maximum power possible within a given envelope. Cooling is simpler than with multiple cylinders saving further weight if air cooling is used. Single-cylinder engines require more flywheel than multi-cylinder engines, the rotating mass is large, restricting acceleration and sharp changes of speed. In the basic arrangement they are prone to vibration - though in some cases it may be possible to control this with balance shafts. A variation known as the split-single makes use of two pistons which share a single combustion chamber. Single-cylinder engines are economical in construction.
The vibration they generate is acceptable in many applications in others. Counterbalance shafts and counterweights can be fitted but such complexities tend to counter the listed advantages. Components such as the crankshaft of a single-cylinder engine have to be nearly as strong as that in a multi-cylinder engine of the same capacity per cylinder, meaning that some parts are four times heavier than they need to be for the total displacement of the engine; the single-cylinder engine will inevitably develop a lower power-to-weight ratio than a multi-cylinder engine of similar technology. This can be a disadvantage in mobile operations, although it is of little significance in others and in most stationary applications. Early motorcycles and other applications such as marine engines all tended to be single-cylinder; the configuration remains in widespread use in motorcycles, motor scooters, dirt bikes, go-karts, auto rickshaws, radio-controlled models and is exclusively used in portable tools, along with garden machinery such as lawn mowers.
Lanz Bulldog tractors and several copies by the Polish company URSUS featured large horizontally mounted single cylinder engines. The bestselling motor vehicle of the world, the Honda Super Cub, has a fuel-efficient 49 cc single-cylinder engine; every scooter in the market has a single-cylinder engine. Many motorcycles with strong single-cylinder engines are available as well. There are sportbikes like the KTM 690 Duke R which has a 70 hp 690 cc single-cylinder engine, dual-sport motorcycles like the BMW G650GS, scooters like Gilera Fuoco 500 as well as classics like the Royal Enfield 500 Bullet with a long-stroke single-cylinder engine. Small engine Split single List of motorcycles by type of engine Images of several single-cylinder marine engines
A drum brake is a brake that uses friction caused by a set of shoes or pads that press outward against a rotating cylinder-shaped part called a brake drum. The term drum brake means a brake in which shoes press on the inner surface of the drum; when shoes press on the outside of the drum, it is called a clasp brake. Where the drum is pinched between two shoes, similar to a conventional disc brake, it is sometimes called a pinch drum brake, though such brakes are rare. A related type called a band brake uses a flexible belt or "band" wrapping around the outside of a drum; the modern automobile drum brake was first used in a car made by Maybach in 1900, although the principle was only patented in 1902 by Louis Renault. He used woven asbestos lining for the drum brake lining, as no alternative dissipated heat like the asbestos lining, though Maybach had used a less sophisticated drum brake. In the first drum brakes and rods or cables operated the shoes mechanically. From the mid-1930s, oil pressure in a small wheel cylinder and pistons operated the brakes, though some vehicles continued with purely mechanical systems for decades.
Some designs have two wheel cylinders. As the shoes in drum brakes wear, brakes required regular manual adjustment until the introduction of self-adjusting drum brakes in the 1950s. Drums are prone to brake fading with repeated use. In 1953, Jaguar fielded three cars equipped with disc brakes at Le Mans, where they won, in large part due to their superior braking over drum-equipped rivals; this spelled the beginning of the crossover of drum brakes to disc brakes in passenger cars. From the 1960s to the 1980s, disc brakes replaced drum brakes on the front wheels of cars. Now all cars use disc brakes on the front wheels, many use disc brakes on all four wheels. In the United States, the Jeep CJ-5 was the final automobile to use front drum brakes when it was phased out in 1984. However, drum brakes are still used for handbrakes, as it has proven difficult to design a disc brake suitable for holding a parked car. Moreover, it is easy to fit a drum handbrake inside a disc brake so that one unit serves as both service brake and handbrake.
Early brake shoes contained asbestos. When working on brake systems of older cars, care must be taken not to inhale any dust present in the brake assembly; the United States Federal Government began to regulate asbestos production, brake manufacturers had to switch to non-asbestos linings. Owners complained of poor braking with the replacements. A majority of daily-driven older vehicles have been fitted with asbestos-free linings. Many other countries limit the use of asbestos in brakes. Drum brake components include the backing plate, brake drum, wheel cylinder, various springs and pins; the backing plate provides a base for the other components. The back plate increases the rigidity of whole set-up, supports the housing, protects it from foreign materials like dust and other road debris, it absorbs the torque from the braking action, and, why back plate is called the "Torque Plate". Since all braking operations exert pressure on the backing plate, it must be strong and wear-resistant. Levers for emergency or parking brakes, automatic brake-shoe adjuster were added in recent years.
The brake drum is made of a special type of cast iron, heat-conductive and wear-resistant. It rotates with the axle; when a driver applies the brakes, the lining pushes radially against the inner surface of the drum, the ensuing friction slows or stops rotation of the wheel and axle, thus the vehicle. This friction generates substantial heat. One wheel cylinder operates the brake on each wheel. Two pistons operate one at each end of the wheel cylinder; the leading shoe is known as the primary shoe. The trailing shoe is known as the secondary shoe. Hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder acts on the piston cup, pushing the pistons toward the shoes, forcing them against the drum; when the driver releases the brakes, the brake shoe springs restore the shoes to their original position. The parts of the wheel cylinder are shown to the right. Brake shoes are made of two pieces of steel welded together; the friction material is either attached with adhesive. The crescent-shaped piece is called the Web and contains holes and slots in different shapes for return springs, hold-down hardware, parking brake linkage and self-adjusting components.
All the application force of the wheel cylinder is applied through the web to the lining table and brake lining. The edge of the lining table has three “V"-shaped notches or tabs on each side called nibs; the nibs rest against the support pads of the backing plate. Each brake assembly has a primary and secondary; the primary shoe is located toward the front of the vehicle and has the lining positioned differently from the secondary shoe. Quite the two shoes are interchangeable, so close inspection for any variation is important. Linings must be resistant to heat and wear and have a high friction coefficient unaffected by fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Materials that make up the brake shoe include, friction modifiers, powdered metal such as lead, brass and other metals that resist heat fade, curing agents and fillers such as rubber chips to reduce brake noise. In the UK two common grades of brake shoe material used to be available. DON 202 was a hig
A motorcycle transmission is a transmission created for motorcycle applications. They may be found in use on other light vehicles such as motor tricycles and quadbikes, go-karts offroad buggies, auto rickshaws and other utility vehicles and some superlight racing cars. Most manual transmission two-wheelers use a sequential gearbox. Most modern motorcycles change gears by foot lever. On a typical motorcycle either first or second gear can be directly selected from neutral, but higher gears may only be accessed in order – it is not possible to shift from second gear to fourth gear without shifting through third gear. A five-speed of this configuration would be known as "one down, four up" because of the placement of the gears with relation to neutral, though some motorcycle gearboxes and/or shift mechanisms can be reversed so that a "one up, four down" shifting pattern can be used. Neutral is to be found "half a click" away from first and second gears, so shifting directly between the two gears can be made in a single movement.
Automatic transmissions are less common on motorcycles than manual, are found only on scooters and some custom cruisers and exotic sports bikes. Types include continuously variable transmission, semi-automatic transmission and dual clutch transmission; the weight of the largest touring motorcycles is sometimes such that they cannot be pushed backwards by a seated rider, they are fitted with a reverse gear as standard. In some cases, including the Honda Gold Wing and BMW K1200LT, this is not a reverse gear, but a feature of the starter motor which when reversed, performs the same function. To avoid accidental operation, reverse is engaged using an separate control switch - e.g. a pull-toggle at the head of the fuel tank - when the main gearshift is in neutral. In earlier times, hand-operated gear changes were common, with a lever provided to the side of the fuel tank. British and many other motorcycles after World War II used a lever on the right, but today gear-changing is standardised on a foot-operated lever to the left.
Traditional scooters still have manual gear-changing by a twist grip on the left hand side of the handlebar, with a co-rotated clutch lever. Modern scooters were fitted with a throttle-controlled continuously variable transmission, thus earning the term twist-and-go. Underbone and miniature motorcycles have a three to five-speed foot change, but the clutch is automatic; the clutch in a manual-shift motorcycle transmission is an arrangement of plates stacked in alternating fashion, one geared on the inside to the engine and the next geared on the outside to the transmission input shaft. Whether wet or dry, the plates are squeezed together by a spring, causing friction build up between the plates until they rotate as a single unit, driving the transmission directly. A lever on the handlebar exploits mechanical advantage through a cable or hydraulic arrangement to release the clutch spring, allowing the engine to freewheel with respect to the transmission. Automatic and semi-automatics use a centrifugal clutch which operates in a different fashion.
At idle, the engine is disconnected from the gearbox input shaft, allowing both it and the bike to freewheel. As the throttle is opened and engine speed rises, counterweights attached to movable inner friction surfaces within the clutch assembly are thrown further outwards, until they start to make contact with the inside of the outer housing and transmit an increasing amount of engine power; the effective "bite point" is found automatically by equilibrium where the power being transmitted through the clutch is equal to what the engine can provide. This allows fast full-throttle takeoffs without the engine slowing or bogging down, as well as more relaxed starts and low-speed maneuvers at lower throttle settings and rpms. Above a certain engine speed - when the bike is properly in motion, so the gearbox input shaft is rotating and so allowing the engine to accelerate further by way of clutch slip - the outward pressure of the weighted friction plates is sufficient that the clutch will enter full lock-up, the same as a conventional plate-clutch with a released lever or pedal.
After this, there is no clutch slip, the engine is locked to and providing all of its available power to the transmission. In a typical CVT, the gear ratio will be chosen so the engine can reach and maintain its maximum-power speed as soon as possible, but in a semi-auto the rider is responsible for this choice, they can ride around all day in top gear if they so prefer; when the engine is turning fast enough to lock the clutch, it will stay engaged until the RPMs fall below that critical point again if the throttle is released. Below the lock-up point or releasing the throttle can lead to the RPM falling off thanks to the feedback loop of lower engine speed meaning less friction pressure; this toggle-like mode of operation can lead to certain characteristic cen
The Mobylette, sometimes shortened as Moby, is a model of moped by French manufacturer Motobécane during the second half of the 20th century. The Mobylette was launched in 1949 and was manufactured until 1997, with production numbers exceeding 14 million with peak production in the 1970s, averaging around 750,000 annually; the word "Mobylette" has since become something of a genericized trademark in the French language, referring to mopeds in general. All Motobécane mopeds are referred to Mobylette, however there are several styles of submodel. During the moped boom of the 1970s, several variations were available incorporating a number/letter combination such as 40T, 40TL, 40V, 50V; these naming conventions determined which types of equipment were standard or available with the moped. For example, the 40T was a slower version, capable of just 25mph maximum speed and having no rear suspension; the top of the line 50V had front and rear suspension, a heavier body, was capable of 30 to 35 miles per hour.
In 1978, Canadian Walter Muma rode a 50V 11,500 miles on a 3-month trip that began in Toronto, brought him to Alaska, back to Toronto. In India, the earlier version of Mobylette was manufactured under license by Mopeds India Ltd from 1965 till the late 1980s under the name Suvega, they had a factory-supported race team, successful in annual Sholavaram races in 50 cubic centimetres class
The Puch Maxi is a moped, manufactured by the Austrian manufacturing company Puch through the 1970s and 1980s, well known for its reliability, ease of maintenance, fuel economy. These mopeds gained wide acceptance during the 1973 oil crisis and are still available for aftermarkets, mint examples are still valued by collectors today, it is started using a pedal start mechanism where the user provides the force needed to start the 49.9 cc two stroke engine, or can be ridden like a bicycle when the engine is disengaged. The models feature a kick start mechanism; the Puch Maxi comes in several models: Maxi S: this is the full suspension model with the single speed E50 engine/transmission. Maxi D or LS: same as the S, but with a longer seat for a passenger. Maxi Luxe: A Maxi with a stock Hi-Torque head and mudflaps. Maxi N: A rigid frame lacking a speedometer, the cheapest model, dubbed the "Poor man's maxi". Maxi Sport MKII: Has a full suspension, mag wheels, the ZA50 engine/transmission, a longer seat.
Maxi Nostalgia: was only available in 1976. It is a black/gold Maxi with decals styled after Puch's turn-of-the-century motorcycle logo, its predecessor is the Newport. Newport: Same as a Maxi S, but has different decals and hand pinstriping and sometimes a brown saddle, comes with reflective whitewalls. Newport L: An updated Newport with swoop decals instead of pinstriping, a black transmission and flywheel cover, a puffy saddle. Newport Auto-start/Oil Inject: A newport that features metallic paint, oil injection, lacks a clutch lever. Newport II: Newport that features the ZA50 engine/transmission. Maxi Guam Edition: a few Maxis that showed up in the United States that claimed to be manufactured in Guam; these have Honda-style controls where the switches integrate into the lever/throttle housings and come stock with turn signals and sidecovers that enclose a battery. Guam built; the Puch Maxi uses a 2 stroke 49cc gasoline engine that comes in three horsepower ratings: 1, 1.5, 2 HP that limits the speed to 20, 25 and 30 mph respectively.
However, these can be modified by de-restricting the airbox, exhaust manifold and the use of aftermarket and performance parts. The engine is coupled to either a two speed ZA50 transmission; the versions of the transmissions can be identified by the shape of the gearboxes: The E50 has a round gearbox whereas the two speed has a rectangular gearbox. Both transmissions use a centrifugal clutch