A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Illinois's 15th congressional district
The 15th Congressional District of Illinois is located in eastern and southeastern Illinois. Republican John Shimkus represents the district; the congressional district covers parts of Bond, Champaign and Madison counties, all of Clark, Clinton, Crawford, Douglas, Edwards, Fayette, Hamilton, Jasper, Lawrence, Massac, Pope, Saline, Vermilion, Washington and White counties. All or parts of Centralia, Danville, Effingham, Glen Carbon and Rantoul will be included; the representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. Republican John Shimkus representing the 19th district, was on the 2012 ballot for the 15th congressional district. Angela Michael, a retired nurse and pro-life activist, ran on a single-issue pro-life Democratic ticket. Shimkus won reelection again, after facing a primary challenge from Illinois State Senator Kyle McCarter with Tea Party backing and funding from the Club for Growth. Shimkus continues to loom large in the 15th, but faces credible Democratic opposition from a local teacher and former Obama campaign worker.
The district included the cities of Charleston, Urbana and Champaign, all or parts of Livingston, Ford, McLean, DeWitt, Vermillion, Piatt, Edgar, Coles, Clark, Lawrence, Edwards, White and Gallatin counties. District created March 4, 1873 As of May 2015, two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Illinois's 15th congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was Tim Lee Hall on November 12, 2008. The most serving representative to die was Edward Rell Madigan on December 7, 1994. Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2002 Census of Agriculture - 15th Congressional District Profile District map Congressional district profiles Washington Post page on the 15th District of Illinois U.
S. Census Bureau - 15th District Fact Sheet
Lamotte Township, Crawford County, Illinois
Lamotte Township is one of ten townships in Crawford County, Illinois, USA. As of the 2010 census, its population was 2,046 and it contained 995 housing units, its name changed from Palestine Township sometime before 1921. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 51.41 square miles, of which 50.81 square miles is land and 0.59 square miles is water. The Wabash River defines its eastern border. Palestine Gordon Richwoods Trimble The township contains these seven cemeteries: Barbee, East Union, Higgins, Kitchell and Oak Grove. Illinois Route 33 Robinson Municipal Airport Leaverton Park Hutsonville Community Unit School District 1 Palestine Community Unit School District 3 Robinson Community Unit School District 2 Oblong Community Unit School District 4 Illinois' 15th congressional district State House District 109 State Senate District 55 "Lamotte Township, Crawford County, Illinois". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-01-10.
United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States National Atlas City-Data.com Illinois State Archives
Oblong is a village in Crawford County, United States. The population was 1,466 at the 2010 census. Oblong was incorporated in 1883; the original town site was on a occurring rectangular prairie, hence the name. The crossroads at the town site was the location of a general store owned by Henry Peck; the prominent sign "Hen. Peck" gave rise to the village's original moniker, Henpeck. Oblong is located at 39°0′5″N 87°54′30″W. According to the 2010 census, Oblong has a total area of 0.978 square miles, of which 0.97 square miles is land and 0.008 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,580 people, 681 households, 439 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,662.8 people per square mile. There were 761 housing units at an average density of 800.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.92% White, 0.19% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.57% of the population.
Sociologist James W. Loewen has described Oblong as a sundown town. There were 681 households out of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.4% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.81. In the village, the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 23.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.5 males. The median income for a household in the village was $27,409, the median income for a family was $36,532. Males had a median income of $27,135 versus $20,560 for females; the per capita income for the village was $14,926.
About 7.0% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. It is the home of the Illinois Oil Field Museum and Resource Center, a collection of early oilfield artifacts from the early days of the oil industry in the Illinois Basin and a resource center featuring a collection of early oil field records and resource books. Oblong has one public four year high school and one public grade school. Oblong Chamber of Commerce
Crawford County, Illinois
Crawford County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,817, its county seat is Robinson. Crawford County was formed in Illinois Territory on December 1816 out of Edwards County. At the time of its formation, it encompassed about one third of the State, but it was reduced to its present borders by 1831 as it spawned new counties, it was named in honor of William H. Crawford, from Georgia, serving as Secretary of War and Secretary of the Treasury at the time. Crawford County was home to several battles between the settlers and Indians, the location of the only woman hanged in Illinois. In 1818, the town of Palestine was designated as the county seat. After elections in 1843, a new site was chosen. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 446 square miles, of which 444 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles is water. Some of the county's eastern border is defined by the Wabash River. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Robinson have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 89 °F in July, although a record low of −23 °F was recorded in December 1989 and a record high of 114 °F was recorded in July 1954.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.45 inches in January to 4.67 inches in May. Clark County - north Sullivan County, Indiana - east Knox County, Indiana - southeast Lawrence County - south Richland County - southwest Jasper County - west Illinois Route 1 Illinois Route 33 As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 19,817 people, 7,763 households, 5,154 families residing in the county; the population density was 44.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,661 housing units at an average density of 19.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.8% white, 4.7% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.0% were German, 14.4% were American, 12.4% were Irish, 9.9% were English. Of the 7,763 households, 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families, 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 41.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,434 and the median income for a family was $51,218. Males had a median income of $40,050 versus $30,870 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,545. About 11.1% of families and 16.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.0% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. Robinson Flat Rock Hutsonville Oblong Palestine Stoy Annapolis West York Crawford County is divided into ten townships: Although Crawford County was solidly Democratic before the Populist-backed candidacy of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, it has since become Republican; the last Democrat to gain a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in his 1964 landslide, although Bill Clinton won a plurality in 1992. Like all the rural Upland South, Crawford County has shown dramatic swings against the Democratic Party in recent elections, with Hillary Clinton’s 22.8 percent in 2016 the worst performance by a Democrat.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Crawford County, Illinois Perrin, William Henry, ed.. History of Crawford and Clark Counties, Illinois Chicago, Illinois. O. L. Baskin & Co.. Specific GeneralUnited States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas Crawford County, Illinois History and Genealogy