Honeywell UOP known as UOP LLC or Universal Oil Products, is a multi-national company developing and delivering technology to the petroleum refining, gas processing, petrochemical production, major manufacturing industries. The company's roots date back to 1914, when the revolutionary Dubbs thermal cracking process created the technological foundation for today's modern refining industry. In the ensuing decades, UOP engineers generated thousands of patents, leading to important advances in process technology, profitability consultation, equipment design. UOP was founded in 1914 to exploit the market potential of patents held by inventors Jesse A. Dubbs and his son, Carbon Petroleum Dubbs; because he was born in Pennsylvania oil country, Jesse Dubbs was enamored with the oil business. He named his son Carbon after one of the elemental constituents of oil. Carbon added the P. to make his name "euphonious," he said. People started calling him "Petroleum" for fun, the name stuck. C. P.'s son and grandson were named Carbon, but each had a different middle initial.
When founded in 1914 it was a held firm known as the National Hydrocarbon Company. J. Ogden Armour kept the firm going the first years it lost money. Most of the losses were incurred during lengthy legal battles with petroleum firms that were using technology patented by Dubbs. In 1919 the firm's name became Universal Oil Products. By 1931, petroleum firms saw a possible competitive advantage to owning UOP. A consortium of firms banded together to purchase the firm; these firms were Shell Oil Company, Standard Oil Company of California, Standard Oil Company of Indiana, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, The Texas Company, N. V. de Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij. This worried oil firms that were not part of the group and it helped prompt the Justice Department to begin an investigation of this arrangement as a possible violation of antitrust laws; the oil firms placed the assets of UOP into a trust to support the American Chemical Society. In 1959 UOP went public and the income from that sale still provides monies to the American Chemical Society to administer grants to universities worldwide.
In August 1988 Union Carbide Corporation and AlliedSignal formed a joint venture combining the latter's wholly owned subsidiary, UOP Inc. and the Catalyst and Process Systems business of Union Carbide. AlliedSignal assumed the latter's name. In 2005, what was now known as Honeywell acquired Union Carbide's stake in UOP, making it again a wholly owned subsidiary; the reported payment to Union Carbide was valuing UOP at $1.6 billion. The UOP Riverside research and development laboratory in McCook, Illinois was conceived in 1921 by Hiram J. Halle, the chief executive officer of Universal Oil Products, as a focal point where the best and brightest scientists could create new products and provide scientific support for the oil refining industry. Between 1921 and 1955, Riverside research resulted in 8,790 U. S. and foreign patents and provided the foundation. The company benefited immensely by the addition to its research staff of Professor Vladimir Ipatieff, famous Russian scientist known internationally for his work in high-pressure catalysis.
His contribution in catalytic chemistry gave UOP a position of leadership in the development of catalysis as applied to petroleum processing, the first being catalytic polymerization. Vladimir Haensel, a student of Ipatieff's, developed Platforming in the 1950s; this process used small amounts of platinum as a catalyst for the high yield of high-octane gasoline from petroleum-based feeds. The Riverside facility was recognized as a National Historic Chemical Landmark by the American Chemical Society in 1995. UOP products fall into two groupings, physical products that can be seen, technology products that provide knowledge and design. Physical products tend to be items used within a refinery or petrochemical plant to help convert chemicals into a desired product. Technology products tend to be based upon the ability to convert one chemical into another, refine crude oil, separate chemicals from each other. For example: One area of UOP's expertise is fluid catalytic cracking that breaks long-chain hydrocarbons from crude oil into shorter compounds.
Distillation is the most common way to separate chemicals with different boiling points. The greater the difference in boiling points, the easier it is to do. However, when boiling points are too similar, this isn't feasible. Adsorption separation might be possible. In adsorption separation, a mixture of chemicals flows past a porous solid called the adsorbent and some chemicals tend to "hang out" longer. A valid analogy is to imagine a busy street with people walking in the same direction past great places to eat; the hungriest people will tend to stop right away. The people that were pretty full will make it far down the street. Now imagine flooding the whole town with water and everyone runs out where you can collect them according to how hungry they were. In technical terms the liquid flush is called the desorbent; this type of separation was first used in the laboratory to separate small test samples. UOP pioneered a method of separating large volumes of chemicals, they call the counter-current embodiment of it the Sorbex family of processes.
These are the major ones designed by UOP: Parex: separation of para-xylene from a mixture of xylene isomers MX Sorbex: separation of meta-xylene from a mixed of xylene isomers Molex: linear paraffins from branched and cyclic hydrocarbons Olex: olefins from paraffins Cresex: para-cresol or meta-cresol from other cresol isomers Cymex: para-cymene or meta-cy
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
An index register in a computer's CPU is a processor register used for modifying operand addresses during the run of a program for doing vector/array operations. The contents of an index register is added to an immediate address to form the "effective" address of the actual data. Special instructions are provided to test the index register and, if the test fails, increments the index register by an immediate constant and branches to the start of the loop; some instruction sets allow more than one index register to be used. While processors that allow an instruction to specify multiple index registers add the contents together, IBM had a line of computers in which the contents were or'd together. In early computers without any form of indirect addressing, array operations had to be performed by modifying the instruction address, which required several additional program steps and used up more computer memory, a scarce resource in computer installations of the early era. Index registers known as a B-line in early British computers, were first used in the British Manchester Mark 1 computer, in 1949.
In general, index registers became a standard part of computers during the technology's second generation 1954–1966. Most machines in the IBM 700/7000 mainframe series had them, starting with the IBM 704 in 1954, though they were optional on some smaller machines such as the IBM 650 and IBM 1401. Early "small machines" with index registers include the AN/USQ-17, around 1960, the 9 series of real-time computers from Scientific Data Systems, from the early 1960s. While the Intel 8080 allowed indirect addressing via a register, the first microprocessor with a true index register appears to have been the Motorola 6800, the similar MOS Technology 6502 made good use of two such registers. Modern computer designs do not include dedicated index registers. Early computers designed this way include the PDP-6 and the IBM System/360. Here is a simple example of index register use in assembly language pseudo-code that sums a 100 entry array of 4-byte words: Clear_accumulator Load_index 400,index2 //load 4*array size into index register 2 loop_start: Add_word_to_accumulator array_start,index2 //Add to AC the word at the address Branch_and_decrement_if_index_not_zero loop_start,4,index2 //loop decrementing by 4 until index register is zero For loop
Notifier or Notifier by Honeywell is a manufacturer of engineered fire alarm systems with over 500 distributors worldwide, regional support operations on every continent. Notifier is headquartered in Northford, Connecticut and is a division of the Honeywell Life Safety Group. Notifier was founded in 1949 in Waverly, Nebraska by Oliver T. Joy, along with his wife Dr. Margaret Joy, who acted as executive Vice President; the company moved to Lincoln, Nebraska in 1956, in 1962 was selected to provide the fire detection system for the Seattle World's Fair. The company was sold to Emhart Corporation in 1968 and was acquired by the Pittway Corporation in 1987. Notifier moved to Northford, Connecticut in 1988, in 1999 Honeywell International, Inc. purchased Pittway Corp. and Notifier became part of the Honeywell Life Safety Group. Notifier has been manufacturing fire alarm systems for over 50 years, including conventional and intelligent fire alarm control panels, fire alarm networks and security integration systems, mass notification systems, fire alarm accessories.
Along with fire alarm control panels, Notifier has PC-based touchscreen workstations that monitor and control the fire alarm system from a central location. Notifier has a complete integrated emergency communication systems solution for a wide variety of facility types including military bases, university campuses, manufacturing and nursing homes. Notifier offers a complete line of fire alarm peripheral devices, such as smoke detectors, heat detectors, manual pull stations, gas detectors, notification appliances; these products connect to and interface with the Notifier fire alarm control panel to form fire alarm systems. Notifier is one of fire alarm system manufacturers in the world; some devices made by Notifier are the NBG-12 and BNG-1. Fire alarm System Sensor Fire alarm control panel Notifier Alarm Systems
Judd Alan Gregg served as the 76th Governor of New Hampshire and was a United States Senator from New Hampshire, who served as chairman of the Senate Budget Committee. He is a member of the Republican Party and was a businessman and attorney in Nashua before entering politics, he serves as the Chair of the Public Advisory Board at the New Hampshire Institute of Politics at Saint Anselm College. Gregg was nominated for Secretary of Commerce in the Cabinet by President Barack Obama, but withdrew his name on February 12, 2009, he chose not to run. In the November 2010 elections, former State Attorney General Kelly Ayotte a Republican, was elected to succeed Gregg in the Senate. On May 27, 2011, Goldman Sachs announced that Gregg had been named an international advisor to the firm. In May 2013, Gregg was named the CEO of the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association, a Wall Street lobbying group, he stepped down as CEO in December 2013 and became a senior adviser. For the United States presidential election in 2016 Gregg endorsed former Florida Governor Jeb Bush, upon Bush's suspension of his campaign Gregg endorsed Ohio Governor John Kasich.
Born in Nashua, New Hampshire, he is the son of Catherine Gregg and Hugh Gregg, Governor from 1953 to 1955. Gregg graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy in 1965. Gregg received his baccalaureate from Columbia University in 1969 and, from Boston University School of Law, a Juris Doctor in 1972 and a Master of Laws in 1975; the first elective office held by Gregg was a seat on the Executive Council of New Hampshire, a post which he held from 1979 to 1981. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1980, was reelected in 1982, 1984 and 1986, he declined to run for re-election in 1988, ran for Governor of New Hampshire instead. He won that election and was re-elected in 1990, New Hampshire being one of two states that continues to elect its governors to two-year, rather than four-year, terms; as Governor, he balanced the budget. However, his political opponents in the 1990s attacked Judd for the state's weak economy and his Vietnam War deferments. In 1992, Gregg decided to run for the U.
S. Senate seat being vacated by two-term Republican Warren Rudman, he defeated Democrat John Rauh, took his seat as a United States Senator in 1993. He was re-elected to a second term in 1998 after defeating George Condodemetraky, ran for a third term; that year, 2004, he defeated campaign finance activist Doris "Granny D" Haddock, the 94-year-old Democratic nominee, by 66% to 34%. After withdrawing from his nomination to become United States Secretary of Commerce in the presidential administration of Democrat Barack Obama on February 12, 2009, Gregg said he would "probably not" seek reelection in 2010, when his term of office was set to expire. In January 2005, Gregg was elected to chair the U. S. Senate Committee on Budget by the Senate Republican Conference. While chairman of this committee Gregg has been a steadfast supporter of lower spending. Throughout his Senate career he has been supportive of lower taxes as well. On November 14, 2008 Gregg was appointed by United States Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell to serve on the five-member Congressional Oversight Panel created to oversee the implementation of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act.
Gregg "stepped aside" on December 1, citing his Senate workload: I regret that due to the impending Senate schedule involving the potential of dealing with an large stimulus package, coupled with the ongoing issues of developing fiscal policy relative to the budget and the continuing economic downturn and my responsibility for foreign operations appropriations, it has become difficult to continue service on the TARP oversight board. I have advised Senator McConnell. Judd Gregg is a center-right Republican, he is fiscally conservative and moderate. The non-partisan National Journal gave then-Senator Gregg a composite ideology rating of 65% conservative and 35% liberal. Republicans for Environmental Protection issued Gregg an "environmental harm demerit" for sponsoring the 2006 S. C. Resolution 83, which according to REP "included only one revenue-raising instruction to Senate appropriations committees, an abuse of the congressional budget process in order to force oil drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge", "would perpetuate America's dangerous oil dependence and damage the most scenic, wildlife-rich reserve in the circumpolar north."
Nonetheless, the same organization praised Gregg, together with John E. Sununu, for their work to pass the New England Wilderness act, which classified nearly 100,000 acres of New Hampshire and Vermont as wilderness. In 2006, Gregg received a score of 43% from the nonpartisan League of Conservation Voters; the University of New Hampshire renamed its Environmental Technology Building Gregg Hall, because Gregg used earmarks to secure $266 million of federal funds for research and development projects for the university. The Judd Gregg Meteorology Institute, established in 2003, is the center of meteorological and atmospheric research at Plymouth State University in Plymouth, NH, which offers the only meteorology degree program in the state; the Senator was instrumental in the establishing of the New Hampshire Institute of Politics at Saint Anselm College in 1999. In 2007, Gregg voted for the Clean Energy Act of 2007 and the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007. In October 2009, Gregg said, "You talk about systemic risk.
The systemic risk today is the Congress of the United States... we're creating these massive debts which
Sperry Corporation was a major American equipment and electronics company whose existence spanned more than seven decades of the 20th century. Through a series of mergers it exists today as a part of Unisys, while some other of its former divisions became part of Honeywell, Lockheed Martin, United Technologies, Northrop Grumman; the company is best known as the developer of the artificial horizon and a wide variety of other gyroscope-based aviation instruments like autopilots, analog ballistics computers and gyro gunsights. In the post-WWII era they branched out into electronics, both aviation related, computers; the company was founded in 1910, as the Sperry Gyroscope Company by Elmer Ambrose Sperry to manufacture navigation equipment, chiefly his own inventions—the marine gyrostabilizer and the gyrocompass at 40 Flatbush Avenue Extension in Downtown Brooklyn. During World War I the company diversified into aircraft components including bomb sights and fire control systems. In their early decades, Sperry Gyroscope and related companies were concentrated on Long Island, New York in Nassau County.
Over the years, it diversified to other locations. In 1918, Lawrence Sperry split from his father to compete over aero-instruments with the Lawrence Sperry Aircraft Company, including the new automatic pilot. In 1924, following the death of Lawrence on December 13, 1923, the two firms were brought together; the company became Sperry Corporation in 1933. The new corporation was a holding company for a number of smaller entities such as the original Sperry Gyroscope, Ford Instrument Company, Intercontinental Aviation, Inc. and others. The company made advanced aircraft navigation equipment for the market, including the Sperry Gyroscope and the Sperry Radio Direction Finder. Sperry supported the work of a group of Stanford University inventors, led by Russell and Sigurd Varian, who had invented the klystron, incorporated this technology and related inventions into their products; the company prospered during World War II as military demand skyrocketed, ranking 19th among US corporations in the value of wartime production contracts.
It specialized in high technology devices such as analog computer–controlled bomb sights, airborne radar systems, automated take-off and landing systems. Sperry was the creator of the Ball Turret Gun mounted under the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and the Consolidated B-24 Liberator, as commemorated by the film Memphis Belle and the poem The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner. Postwar, the company expanded its interests in electronics and computing, producing the company's first digital computer, SPEEDAC, in 1953. During the 1950s, a large part of Sperry Gyroscope moved to Phoenix and soon became the Sperry Flight Systems Company; this was to preserve parts of this defense company in the event of a nuclear war. The Gyroscope division remained headquartered in New York—in its massive Lake Success, Long Island, plant —into the 1980s. In 1955, Sperry renamed itself Sperry Rand. Acquiring Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation and Engineering Research Associates along with Remington Rand, the company developed the successful UNIVAC computer series and signed a valuable cross-licensing deal with IBM.
The company remained a major military contractor. From 1967 to 1973 the corporation was involved in an acrimonious antitrust lawsuit with Honeywell, Inc.. In 1961, Sperry Rand was ranked 34th on the Fortune 500 list of largest companies in the United States. In 1978, Sperry Rand decided to concentrate on its computing interests, sold a number of divisions including Remington Rand Systems, Remington Rand Machines, Ford Instrument Company and Sperry Vickers; the company reverted to Sperry Corporation. At about the same time as the Rand acquisition, Sperry Gyroscope decided to open a facility that would exclusively produce its marine instruments. After considerable searching and evaluation, a plant was built in Charlottesville, in 1956, Sperry Piedmont Division began producing marine navigation products, it was renamed Sperry Marine. In the 1970s, Sperry Corporation was a traditional conglomerate headquartered in the Sperry Rand Building at 1290 Avenue of Americas in Manhattan, selling typewriters, office equipment, electronic digital computers for business and the military and farm equipment and consumer products In addition, Sperry Systems Management did a fair amount of government defense contracting.
Sperry managed the operation from 1961 to 1975, of the large Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant near Minden. Sperry bought out and continued the RCA line of electronic digital computers: architectural cousins to the IBM System/360. In 1983, Sperry sold Vickers to Libbey Owens Ford. In 1986, after the success of a second hostile takeover bid engineered by Burroughs' CEO and former U. S. Secretary of the Treasury, Michael Blumenthal, Sperry Corporation merged with Burroughs Corporation to become Unisys; the takeover came about after Sperry used a "poison pill" in the form of a major share price hike to dissuade the hostile bid, as a result of which Burroughs had to borrow much more from the banks than was anticipated in order to complete the bid. Certain internal divisions of Sperry were sold off after the merger, such as Sperry New Holl
Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film. It was developed in Germany based on magnetic wire recording. Devices that record and play back audio and video using magnetic tape are tape recorders and video tape recorders respectively. A device that stores computer data on magnetic tape is known as a tape drive. Magnetic tape revolutionized reproduction and broadcasting, it allowed radio, which had always been broadcast live, to be recorded for or repeated airing. It allowed gramophone records to be recorded in multiple parts, which were mixed and edited with tolerable loss in quality, it was a key technology in early computer development, allowing unparalleled amounts of data to be mechanically created, stored for long periods, accessed. In recent decades, other technologies have been developed that can perform the functions of magnetic tape. In many cases, these technologies have replaced tape. Despite this, innovation in the technology continues, Sony and IBM continue to produce new magnetic tape drives.
Over time, magnetic tape made in the 1970s and 1980s can suffer from a type of deterioration called sticky-shed syndrome. It can render the tape unusable; the oxide side of a tape is the surface. This is the side that stores the information, the opposite side is a substrate to give the tape strength and flexibility; the name originates from the fact that the magnetic side of most tapes is made of iron oxide, though chromium is used for some tapes. An adhesive binder between the oxide and the substrate holds the two sides together. In all tape formats, a tape drive uses motors to wind the tape from one reel to another, passing over tape heads to read, write or erase as it moves. Magnetic tape was invented for recording sound by Fritz Pfleumer in 1928 in Germany, based on the invention of magnetic wire recording by Oberlin Smith in 1888 and Valdemar Poulsen in 1898. Pfleumer's invention used a ferric oxide powder coating on a long strip of paper; this invention was further developed by the German electronics company AEG, which manufactured the recording machines and BASF, which manufactured the tape.
In 1933, working for AEG, Eduard Schuller developed the ring-shaped tape head. Previous head designs were tended to shred the tape. Another important discovery made in this period was the technique of AC biasing, which improved the fidelity of the recorded audio signal by increasing the effective linearity of the recording medium. Due to the escalating political tensions, the outbreak of World War II, these developments in Germany were kept secret. Although the Allies knew from their monitoring of Nazi radio broadcasts that the Germans had some new form of recording technology, its nature was not discovered until the Allies acquired captured German recording equipment as they invaded Europe at the end of the war, it was only after the war that Americans Jack Mullin, John Herbert Orr, Richard H. Ranger, were able to bring this technology out of Germany and develop it into commercially viable formats. A wide variety of recorders and formats have been developed since, most reel-to-reel and Compact Cassette.
The practice of recording and editing audio using magnetic tape established itself as an obvious improvement over previous methods. Many saw the potential of making the same improvements in recording the video signals used by television. Video signals use more bandwidth than audio signals. Existing audio tape recorders could not capture a video signal. Many set to work on resolving this problem. Jack Mullin and the BBC both created crude working systems that involved moving the tape across a fixed tape head at high speeds. Neither system saw much use, it was the team at Ampex, led by Charles Ginsburg, that made the breakthrough of using a spinning recording head and normal tape speeds to achieve a high head-to-tape speed that could record and reproduce the high bandwidth signals of video. The Ampex system was called Quadruplex and used 2-inch-wide tape, mounted on reels like audio tape, which wrote the signal in what is now called transverse scan. Improvements by other companies Sony, led to the development of helical scan and the enclosure of the tape reels in an easy-to-handle videocassette cartridge.
Nearly all modern videotape systems use helical cartridges. Videocassette recorders used to be common in homes and television production facilities, but many functions of the VCR have been replaced with more modern technology. Since the advent of digital video and computerized video processing, optical disc media and digital video recorders can now perform the same role as videotape; these devices offer improvements like random access to any scene in the recording and the ability to pause a live program and have replaced videotape in many situations. Magnetic tape was first used to record computer data in 1951 on the Eckert-Mauchly UNIVAC I; the system's UNISERVO I tape drive used a thin strip of one half inch wide metal, consisting of nickel-plated bronze. Recording density was 100 characters per inch on eight tracks. Early IBM 7 track tape drives were floor-standing and used vacuum columns to mechanically buffer long U-shaped loops of tape; the two tape reels visibly fed tape through the columns, intermittently spinning the reels in rapid, unsynchronized bursts, resulting in visually striking action.
Stock shots of such vacuum-column tape drives in motion were used to represent "the computer" in movies and televis