Yale romanization of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese circulated in looseleaf form in 1952 but published in 1958. Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still used in books and dictionaries for foreign learners of Cantonese, it shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, is represented as p. Students attending The Chinese University of Hong Kong's New-Asia Yale-in-China Chinese Language Center are taught using Yale romanization. Only the finals m and ng can be used as standalone nasal syllables. Modern Cantonese has up to seven phonemic tones. Cantonese Yale represents these tones using a combination of diacritics and the letter h. Traditional Chinese linguistics treats the tones in syllables ending with a stop consonant as separate "entering tones".
Cantonese Yale follows modern linguistic conventions in treating these the same as the high-flat, mid-flat and low-flat tones, respectively. Sample transcription of one of the 300 Tang Poems by Meng Haoran: Cantonese phonology Jyutping Guangdong Romanization Cantonese Pinyin Sidney Lau romanisation S. L. Wong Barnett–Chao Romanisation Yale romanization of Mandarin Yale romanization of Korean Gwaan, Choi-wa 關彩華. English-Cantonese Dictionary - 英粤字典: Cantonese in Yale Romanization. Chinese University Press. ISBN 962-201-970-6. Matthews, Stephen & Yip, Virginia. Cantonese. A Comprehensive Grammar. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08945-X. Ng Lam, Sim-yuk & Chik, Hon-man. Chinese-English Dictionary 漢英小字典: Cantonese in Yale Romanization, Mandarin in Pinyin. Chinese University Press. ISBN 962-201-922-6. Comparison chart of Romanization for Cantonese with Yale, S. Lau, Toho and LSHK MDBG free online Chinese-English dictionary Online Chinese Character to Yale Romanization of Cantonese lookup Conversion tool
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
HKU is a station on the Hong Kong MTR Island Line located in the Lung Fu Shan and Shek Tong Tsui neighbourhood of the Western District, Hong Kong. It is named after The University of Hong Kong, served by the station. Part of the West Island Line, a westward extension to the existing Island Line, HKU Station opened on 28 December 2014 along with Kennedy Town Station; as of its opening, HKU Station is the largest and deepest station in the MTR network, at 70 metres below ground. Before the 1980s, the HKU station was planned to be built underground at Des Voeux Road West, near Ka on Street, Whitty Street and Hill Road. Lots at Chong Yip Centre and Pacific Plaza were reserved for concourse; the MTR Corporation let out a tender for the construction of the Sai Ying Pun and HKU stations and 2.2 km of tunnel. In 2009, the design and architecture was awarded to Aedas in joint venture with AECOM; the construction work was awarded for 4.7 billion HK dollars. Construction commenced in 2010 and was completed in 2014.
There were disputes among locals and district councillors over the station's name. Some suggested to restore the previous official name "Belcher" after The Belcher's, a housing development in the area, as well as Belcher Street and Belcher Bay; some believed that the MTR Corporation's decision to change the name to "University" was not well consulted within the community, while others worried that it might cause confusion with another existing University Station on the East Rail Line. Some suggested "Shek Tong Tsui", after the area the station would serve. In August 2009, MTR named the station "Hong Kong University"; the latest revision changed the English name to "HKU", the abbreviation of The University of Hong Kong nearby. The station is located under Pok Fu Lam Road, it has one center island platform. In addition, the MTR has built elevators to link HKU Station to the University of Hong Kong; the HKU station is located at a depth of 70 metres, making it the deepest station in the MTR system upon its opening.
HKU Station features designated refuge areas, to which passengers can be evacuated in case of emergency. Refuge areas are pressurised and equipped with fire systems including sprinklers and fire curtains, independent power supply units; the HKU station is the first station in the MTR network to apply such shelter design and the use of lifts to reach safety. HKU Station has a total of six exits; as exits A1, A2 and C1 are situated deep underneath the Mid-Levels, only express elevators are used to transport passengers. This makes HKU Station. Exits A1 and A2 are served by a total of eight lifts with a maximum load of 1,800 kg per lift. Exit C1 is served by four lifts with a capacity of 2,100 kg each. A1: Pok Fu Lam Road Pok Fu Lam Road, The University of Hong Kong West Gate, Loke Yew Hall, St. Anthony's School, St. Paul's College, St. Stephen's Church College, King's College A2: The University of Hong Kong HKU University Street B1: Whitty Street Whitty Street, Courtyard by Marriott Hong Kong, Kwan Yick Building Phase 2, Ramada Hong Kong, Shek Tong Tsui Municipal Services Building, St. Louis School, St. Stephen's Church College, Western Court, Western Harbour Centre B2: Hill Road Hill Road, Hong Kong Plaza, Hotel Jen, Kwan Yick Building Phase 1, SKH St. Peter's Primary School, Yip Cheong Building C1: Pok Fu Lam Road Pok Fu Lam Road, Chiu Sheung School Hong Kong, Jockey Club Student Village I, Ricci Hall, SKH St. Peter's Primary School, The Belcher's, HKU Yam Pak Building, HKU Centennial Campus C2: Belcher's Street Belcher's Street, Belcher Bay Park, Harbour One, Kennedy Town Swimming Pool, The Westwood HKU Station is proposed to be an interchange station for the Island Line and the South Island line.
The platforms of the South Island Line will be built under those of the Island Line
Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine
The Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong is a medical faculty which comprises several schools and departments that provide an array of tertiary programmes in medicine, nursing and chinese medicine. English is the medium of instruction in all of the classes while Chinese is retained for the teaching of chinese medicine, it is located several kilometres away from the main campus of the university and is near the Queen Mary Hospital, its main teaching facility and research base. Founded in 1887, it is one of the oldest western medical schools in the Far East. HKU Medical Faculty is the older of the two medical faculties in Hong Kong, the other one being the Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Together they are the sole two tertiary institutions offering medical and pharmacy education and research in the city. HKU Medical Faculty has a long history, its origins can be traced back to the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese, founded in 1887 and renamed the Hong Kong College of Medicine in 1907.
Student and faculty numbers were low in the early years. Its first graduates, of which there were two, graduated in 1892, one of whom was Sun Yat Sen, the prominent Chinese revolutionary; the college was merged to become the medical school of HKU in 1911, one of the university's first faculties. The establishment of the Queen Mary Hospital in 1937 brought the faculty a major clinical teaching and research base. However, the Japanese occupation in the city during the Second World War disrupted teaching and many staff and students were imprisoned. Following the end of the war, it reopened and soon became an important training centre of clinicians in the city with many departments and schools in healthcare and medical sciences opened. Important milestones include being the world's first team that identified and announced the corona virus, the causative agent of the pandemic SARS on 21 March 2003; this was followed by the visit of Wen Jiabao to the faculty acknowledging the institute's contribution, the first time a Premier of China had visited a university in Hong Kong.
Moreover, a State Key laboratory for emerging infectious diseases was established, the first of its kind located outside mainland China. The faculty launched a Bachelor of Pharmacy programme in 2008, being the second and of two institutions in the city offering pharmacy education; the Faculty offers five undergraduate degree programmes: Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Bachelor of Nursing, Bachelor of Chinese Medicine, Bachelor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Biomedical Sciences. Medical graduates are awarded the M. B. B. S. the equivalent degree offered by the CUHK Faculty of Medicine being the M. B. Ch. B. Both degrees are based on the United Kingdom's model for medical degrees. Moreover, the Faculty provides various postgraduate programmes, including postgraduate diplomas, master's and doctoral degrees. Department of Anaesthesiology Department of Clinical Oncology Department of Diagnostic Radiology Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care Department of Medicine Department of Microbiology Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Ophthalmology Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine Department of Pathology Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy Department of Psychiatry Department of Surgery School of Biomedical Science School of Chinese Medicine School of Public Health School of Nursing In early 2007, the Council of the University of Hong Kong formally accepted the resignation of Professor Lam Shiu-kum, Dean of the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, with immediate effect.
During the 2003 SARS outbreak Lam had been publicly critical of the Prince of Wales Hospital, the principal teaching hospital of the other medical school in Hong Kong, the Faculty of Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, blamed some of the difficulties which ensued on the PWH. News of a possible problem relating to irregularities in the billing of patients being the underlying reason for Lam's sudden and unheralded departure may serve to weaken the moral force of some of Lam's criticisms, it was acknowledged by the University of Hong Kong that Lam's resignation was a "highly unusual" event. In September 2009, Lam Shiu-kum was sentenced to 25 months in jail after pleading guilty to misconduct in public office; the misconduct involved inducing 12 patients who were treated at Queen Mary Hospital, to pay what appeared to be medical bills issued by the university and the hospital between 2003 and 2007 but were payable to Gastrointestinal Research, a company wholly owned by Professor Lam.
He admitted pocketing $4 million in donations. In passing sentence, Judge Li said although the patients' well-being was not compromised and they suffered no financial losses, Lam had breached the trust of both the faculty and his patients. Setting a starting point of five years jail, the judge deducted 35 months for Professor Lam's guilty plea, his good character and the fact that he had repaid all the money. Professor Lam earlier pleaded guilty to one count of misconduct in public office, but denied more than 30 charges of theft and fraud; the prosecution had agreed not to proceed with those charges. As one of the founding faculties of the University of Hong Kong, the Faculty of Medicine changed to its present name after securing a pledge of a HK$1 billion donation from businessman and philanthropist Li Ka-shing under the funding of Li Ka Shing Foundation; the renaming was objected to by prominent alumni of the faculty. Despite this, the university renamed the faculty on January 1, 2006. Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong The D
University Museum and Art Gallery, Hong Kong
University Museum and Art Gallery is located at 90 Bonham Road, next to the University of Hong Kong's east gate entrance. Fung Ping Shan Building houses the Museum while the lower three storeys of the T T Tsui Building houses the Art Gallery; the two buildings are joined by a bridge. The Fung Ping Shan Building was graded as a Grade II Historic Building in 1981 and is now a Grade I Historic Building. University Museum and Art Gallery was established in 1953, it is the oldest museum in Hong Kong. The three-storey Fung Ping Shan Museum was built for a Chinese book library in 1932. Named after its donor, the building consists of masonry on the ground level surmounted by a two-storey red-brick structure with applied ornamental pilasters topped by a prominent pediment over its entrance, it was a dormitory used by the First-aid Station of Air Defence at Mid-levels Section E in 1941Since 1963, the Fung Ping Shan library building was converted into the Fung Ping Shan Museum of Chinese art and archaeology.
In 1996, the lowest three floors of the new T. T. Tsui Building were extended to the old building to form the nowadays "University Museum and Art Gallery"; the University Museum and Art Gallery houses Chinese antiquities, notably bronzes, ceramics and wood carving that have been built over the past sixty years through acquisition and donation. Among the highlights of the collection are an early blue-and-white water pot and the world's largest collection of Nestorian plaques; the comprehensive collection has examples dating from the Neolithic period to the Qing dynasty. The bronze collection includes works from the Shang to the Tang_dynasty and the largest collection of Yuan dynasty Nestorian crosses in the world; the Museum has a number of carvings in jade and stone and a collection of Chinese oil paintings. In recent years, the Museum has been collecting historical photographs of Hong Kong and items of popular culture; the University of Hong Kong Museum Society was established in 1988 to support UMAG's exhibitions as well as art and educational programmes for the community.
The University of Hong Kong Tsui Museum of Art Official Homepage
University of Hong Kong pro-vice-chancellor selection controversy
The University of Hong Kong pro-vice-chancellor selection controversy surrounds alleged political interference behind the University of Hong Kong governing council's rejection of Johannes Chan's recommended appointment to the post of pro-vice-chancellor in charge of staffing and resources. Chan, dean of the Faculty of Law from 2002 until 2014, had been unanimously recommended for the post by a selection committee headed by university president Peter Mathieson; the governing council's decision, the first time that a candidate selected by the committee has been rejected, is viewed as political retaliation for Chan's involvement with pro-democratic figures including his former subordinate Benny Tai. A majority of HKU Council members are not students or staff of the university, many are directly appointed by incumbent HKSAR Chief executive Leung Chun-ying; the decision has received international condemnation, is being viewed as part of a Beijing-backed curtailing of academic freedoms that will damage Hong Kong's academic reputation.
All pro-vice-chancellors of the University of Hong Kong are recommended by a search committee comprising the university president and vice-chancellor and other members selected by the HKU Council. The selection committee unanimously recommended the council appoint Johannes Chan to the pro-vice-chancellor post responsible for staffing and resources, a position, left vacant for five years. Chan, who served as dean of the Faculty of Law from 2002 until 2014, is a distinguished scholar in constitutional law and human rights and "a vocal critic on Hong Kong's political reform issues". Chan is the only honorary senior counsel of the Hong Kong Bar, a title bestowed in 2003 light of his "pivotal role in the education of Hong Kong's future lawyers" and his commitment to upholding human rights. Owing to his liberal political stance, criticism of Chan by media controlled by the Communist Party of China was stepped up as soon as his candidacy for the post became known, he was derided in Ta Kung Pao and Wen Wei Po, which together published more than 350 articles attacking him and accusing him of "meddling in politics" for his involvement with pro-democratic figures including his former subordinate Benny Tai.
Communist Party-controlled newspaper Global Times bashed Chan, calling him a "ringleader" of the 2014 pro-democratic protests. Chan's treatment in Beijing-controlled media has been described as a smear campaign and character assassination; the HKU Council comprises 24 members, although in mid-2015 two seats were vacant and Margaret Leung served in two roles. Two further members, Yuen Kwok-yung and Aloysius Arokiaraj, resigned in July but continued to serve on the council until their replacements were elected; the council's Guide and Code of Practice includes a confidentiality clause. It was updated in August 2015 to state that "it is necessary to keep confidential the council agenda, supporting papers and minutes", while the previous version had stated less "it is necessary"; the decision not to appoint Chan is seen as a pro-government act of retaliation against "pro-democracy leaders and participants" and a blow to academic freedom. This is because six members of the council are directly appointed by the Chief executive of Hong Kong, who acts as chancellor of all publicly funded tertiary institutions in the territory.
Five members are delegates to the National People's Congress in Beijing, as such are obliged to toe the Communist Party line or otherwise risk expulsion. In overall council makeup, university students and staff are outnumbered by members from outside the university; the composition of the council at the time of Chan's rejection was as follows: Customarily the HKU Council accepts the recommendations of search committees for senior posts, with no prior recommendation having been rejected by the council in the university's history. The university initiated a worldwide search for five pro-vice-chancellors in mid-2014. Two of them, Ian Holliday and Douglas So, were appointed in November 2014. Another two, Andy Hor and John Kao, were appointed in March 2015 to commence employment in September 2015; the sole candidate for position of pro-vice-chancellor, recommended by unanimity, was Johannes Chan. The news of the selection committee's recommendation was broken by Wen Wei Po in a feature report "in the best interest of the public" before the HKU council had been informed of the selection.
Chan became the target of a concerted attack by Wen Wei Po and Ta Kung Po for his academic record. Wen Wei Po, citing from a leaked University Grants Commission report, stated that Chan's academic record on research was not up to international standards while he was dean of the law school; the journal accused Chan of being so busy with politics. According to an article by Kevin Lau in Ming Pao, parties close to the government applied pressure on committee members behind the scenes to block Chan's appointment. Chief executive Leung Chun-ying was reported to have telephoned members of the committee to persuade them to vote against Chan's appointment, whilst Sophia Kao, member of the Central Policy Unit, admitted that she may have mentioned Chan's candidature to someone "casually" but said she did not recall with whom and in what context. CY Leung's lieutenant Fanny Law, found to have interfered with institutional autonomy in 2007 whilst serving as education secretary, categorically denied having intervened.
Leung denied allegations he intervened in the selection. However, i-Cable and South China Morning Post subsequently revealed that CY Leung had convened at least three meetings with Peter Mathieson within four months during the period the decision was being deferred. On one occasion, Leung met Mat
Cantonese is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou and its surrounding area in Southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety and standard form of Yue Chinese, one of the major subgroups of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi, it is the official language of Hong Kong and Macau. Cantonese is widely spoken amongst Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia and throughout the Western world. While the term Cantonese refers to the prestige variety, it is used in a broader sense for the entire Yue subgroup of Chinese, including related but mutually unintelligible languages and dialects such as Taishanese; when Cantonese and the related Yuehai dialects are classified together, there are about 80 million total speakers. Cantonese is viewed as a vital and inseparable part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swaths of Southeastern China, Hong Kong and Macau, as well as in overseas communities.
Although Cantonese shares a lot of vocabulary with Mandarin, the two varieties are mutually unintelligible because of differences in pronunciation and lexicon. Sentence structure, in particular the placement of verbs, sometimes differs between the two varieties. A notable difference between Cantonese and Mandarin is; this results in the situation in which a Cantonese and a Mandarin text may look similar but are pronounced differently. In English, the term "Cantonese" can be ambiguous. Cantonese proper is the variety native to the city of Canton, the traditional English name of Guangzhou; this narrow sense may be specified as "Canton language" or "Guangzhou language". However, "Cantonese" may refer to the primary branch of Chinese that contains Cantonese proper as well as Taishanese and Gaoyang. In this article, "Cantonese" is used for Cantonese proper. Speakers called this variety "Canton speech" or "Guangzhou speech", although this term is now used outside Guangzhou. In Guangdong and Guangxi, people call it "provincial capital speech" or "plain speech".
Academically called "Canton prefecture speech". In Hong Kong and Macau, as well as among overseas Chinese communities, the language is referred to as "Guangdong speech" or "Canton Province speech", or as "Chinese". In mainland China, the term "Guangdong speech" is increasingly being used amongst both native and non-native speakers. Given the history of the development of the Yue languages and dialects during the Tang dynasty migrations to the region, in overseas Chinese communities, it is referred to as "Tang speech", given that the Cantonese people refer to themselves as "people of Tang". Due to its status as a prestige dialect among all the dialects of the Yue branch of Chinese varieties, it is called "Standard Cantonese"; the official languages of Hong Kong are English, as defined in the Hong Kong Basic Law. The Chinese language has many different varieties. Given the traditional predominance of Cantonese within Hong Kong, it is the de facto official spoken form of the Chinese language used in the Hong Kong Government and all courts and tribunals.
It is used as the medium of instruction in schools, alongside English. A similar situation exists in neighboring Macau, where Chinese is an official language alongside Portuguese; as in Hong Kong, Cantonese is the predominant spoken variety of Chinese used in everyday life and is thus the official form of Chinese used in the government. The Cantonese spoken in Hong Kong and Macau is mutually intelligible with the Cantonese spoken in the mainland city of Guangzhou, although there exist some minor differences in accent and vocabulary. Cantonese first developed around the port city of Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China. Due to the city's long standing as an important cultural center, Cantonese emerged as the prestige dialect of the Yue varieties of Chinese in the Southern Song dynasty and its usage spread around most of what is now the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. Despite the cession of Macau to Portugal in 1557 and Hong Kong to Britain in 1842, the ethnic Chinese population of the two territories originated from the 19th and 20th century immigration from Guangzhou and surrounding areas, making Cantonese the predominant Chinese language in the territories.
On the mainland, Cantonese continued to serve as the lingua franca of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces after Mandarin was made the official language of the government by the Qing dynasty in the early 1900s. Cantonese remained a dominant and influential language in southeastern China until the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and its promotion of Standard Chinese as the sole official language of the nation throughout the last half of the 20th century, although its influence still remains strong within the region. While the Chinese government vehemently discourages the official use of all forms of Chinese except Standard Chinese, Cantonese enjoys a higher standing than other Chinese langua