Hip hop production
Hip hop production is the creation of hip hop music in a recording studio. While the term encompasses all aspects of hip hop music creation, including recording the rapping of an MC, a turntablist or DJ providing a beat, playing samples and "scratching" using record players and the creation of a rhythmic backing track, using a drum machine or sequencer, it is most used to refer to recording the instrumental, non-lyrical and non-vocal aspects of hip hop. Hip Hop Producers credited as the record producer and songwriter, are composers of a musical composition and creative directors involved in guiding and supervision of recording sessions; this can range from a single song to a full-length album or EP. A hip hop instrumental is colloquially referred to as a beat or musical composition and its composer is referred to as a programmer, songwriter or beat maker. In the studio, a hip hop producer functions as a traditional record producer, being the person, responsible for the final sound of a recording, for guiding the artists and performers and giving advice to the audio engineer on the selection of microphones and effects processors and on how to mix the levels of the vocals and instrumentals.
Since Hip hop producers co-write the original music such as the beat, they are known as Record Producer / Songwriters, that's wearing two hats. They receive production and songwriting credits for both acting roles esp Pharrell Williams, J. R. Rotem, Tricky Stewart, Teddy Riley, Bryan-Michael Cox, Rodney Jerkins, Dr. Dre, Scott Storch, Timbaland etc. Modern producers use producer tags known as audio tags, musical tags or tags, they function as a watermark for beatmakers to make sure that they are given credit. These can range from producers reciting the producer's name or stage name to a phrase unique to them. An example of the former is when Drake starts his song "In My Feelings" with the lyric "Trap, TrapMoneyBenny", shouting out one of the song's co-producers. An example of the latter is Metro Boomin's " Metro Boomin want some more, nigga!" which comes from a sample of Young Thug on his track "Some More" in which he shouts out Boomin, who co-produced the song along with Sonny Digital and TM88.
Producers and beatmakers times utilize a number of tags in order to personalize the track. A prime example is producer CAB's variation between "CAB you're crazy for this", "CAB!", "Yo, it's Charlot". These originate from hip-hop record producers shouting their name over a track before it started, vocal processing became involved, resulting in tags that sound like part of the song, in artists shouting the producer's name rather than producers doing so themselves; the Roland TR-808 drum machine was introduced in 1980, consisted on an analog machine with step programming method. The 808 was used by Afrika Bambaataa, who released "Planet Rock" in 1982, in addition to the electro hip hip groundbreaking classic "Nunk" by Warp 9, produced by Lotti Golden and Richard Scher, giving rise to the fledgling Electro genre. An notable artist is the genre's own pioneer Juan Atkins who released what is accepted as the first American techno record, "Clear" in 1984; these early electro records laid down the foundations that Detroit techno artists such as Derrick May built upon.
In 1983, Run-DMC recorded "It's Like That" and "Sucker MC's," two songs which relied on synthetic sounds, in this case via an Oberheim DMX drum machine, ignoring samples entirely. This approach was much like early songs by the Furious Five. Kurtis Blow was the first hip hop artist to use a digital sampler, when he used the Fairlight CMI for their 1984 album "Ego Trip", specially on the track "AJ Scratch"; the E-mu SP-12 came out in 1985. The E-mu SP-1200 promptly followed with an expanded recording time of 10 seconds, divided on 4 banks. One of the earliest songs to contain a drum loop or break was "Rhymin and Stealin" by the Beastie Boys, produced by Rick Rubin. Marley Marl popularized a style of restructuring drum loops by sampling individual drums, in the mid 1980s, a technique, popularized by the MC Shan's 1986 single "The Bridge" which used chops of "Impeach the President" on two Korg Delay/sampling triggered by a Roland TR-808; the Akai MPC60 came out in 1988. The Beastie Boys released Paul's Boutique in 1989, an entire album created from an eclectic mix of samples, produced by the Dust Brothers using an Emax sampler.
De La Soul released 3 Feet High and Rising that year. Public Enemy's Bomb Squad revolutionized the sound of hip-hop with dense production styles, combining tens of samples per song combining percussion breaks with a drum machine, their beats were much more structured than repetitive beats. The MPC3000 was released in 1994, the AKAI MPC2000 in 1997, followed by the MPC2000XL in 1999 and the MPC2500 in 2006; these machines combined a sampling drum machine with an onboard MIDI sequencer and became the centerpiece of many hip hop producers' studios. The Wu Tang Clan's producer RZA is credited for getting hip hop attention away from Dr. Dre's more polished sound in 1993. RZA's more gritty sound with low rumbling bass, sharp snare drum sounds and unique sampling style based on Ensoniq sampler. With the 1994 release of The Notorious B. I. G.'s Ready to Die, Sean Combs and his assistant producers ushered in a new style where entire sections of records were sampled, instead of short snippets. Records like "Warning", "One More Chance" epitomized this aesthetic.
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Cantopop or HK-pop is a genre of popular music written in standard modern Chinese but sung in Cantonese. Cantopop is used to refer to the cultural context of its production and consumption; the genre began in the 1970s and became associated with Hong Kong popular music from the middle of the decade. Cantopop reached its height of popularity in the 1980s and 1990s before declining in the 2000s and slight revival in the 2010s; the term "Cantopop" itself was coined in 1978 after "Cantorock", a term first used in 1974. Cantopop reached its highest glory with a fanbase and concert reaching Mainland China, Singapore, South Korea, Japan with the influx of songs from Hong Kong movies. Besides Western pop music, Cantopop is influenced by other international genres, including jazz and roll, R&B, disco and others. Cantopop songs are invariably performed in Cantonese. Boasting a multinational fanbase in Southeast Asian nations such as Vietnam, Singapore and Indonesia, as well as in South Korea, Japan and the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi in southeastern mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, remain the most significant hubs of the genre.
Examples of some of the most significant figures in the Cantopop industry include Paula Tsui, Samuel Hui, Roman Tam, Jenny Tseng, George Lam, Alan Tam, Leslie Cheung, Danny Chan, Anita Mui, Jacky Cheung, Andy Lau, Sandy Lam, Faye Wong, Leon Lai, Aaron Kwok, Sammi Cheng, Kelly Chen, Eason Chan, Joey Yung, etc. Western-influenced music first came to China in the 1920s through Shanghai. Artists like Zhou Xuan recorded popular songs. Zhou was the first Chinese pop star. In 1949 when the People's Republic of China was established by the Communist Party of China, one of the first actions taken by the government was to denounce pop music as decadent music. Beginning in the 1950s, massive waves of immigrants fled Shanghai to destinations like North Point in Hong Kong; as a result, many first generation Cantopop artists and composers hail from Shanghai. By the 1960s, Cantonese music in Hong Kong was still limited to traditional Cantonese opera and comic renditions of western music. Tang Kee-chan, Cheng Kuan-min, Tam Ping-man were among the earliest artists releasing Cantonese records.
The generation at the time preferred American exports. Western culture was at the time equated with education and sophistication, Elvis, Johnny Mathis and The Beatles were popular. Conversely, those who preferred Cantonese music were considered uneducated. Cheng Kum-cheung and Chan Chai-chung were two popular Cantonese singers who targeted the younger generation. Connie Chan Po-chu is considered to be Hong Kong's first teen idol due to her career longevity. Josephine Siao is another artist of the era. Local bands mimicked American bands. Two types of local Cantonese music appeared in the market nearly concurrently in 1973: one type cashed in on the popularity of TVB's drama series based on the more traditional lyrical styles; the other was more western style music from Polydor Hong Kong. Notable singers from the era include Paula Tsui. At the same time, television was fast becoming a household must have that offering free entertainment to the public. For example, The Fatal Irony 《啼笑因緣》and Games Gamblers Play《鬼馬雙星》 took the local music scene by storm as soon as they were broadcast on the radio and television.
Soap operas were needed to fill TV air time, popular Cantonese songs became TV theme songs. Around 1971, Sandra Lang, a minor singer who had never sung Cantopop before, was invited to sing the first Cantonese TV theme song "A marriage of Laughter and Tears"; this song was a collaboration between the legendary Joseph Koo. It topped local charts. Other groups that profited from TV promotion included the Four Golden Flowers. Samuel Hui is regarded by some to be the earliest singing star of Cantopop, he was the lead singer of the band Lotus formed in the late 1960s, signed to Polydor in 1972. The song that made him famous was the theme song to Games Gamblers Play starring Hui; the star of TV theme tunes was Roman Tam. Three of the most famous TV soap opera singers were Liza Wang and Adam Cheng; the Wynners and George Lam amassed a big fan base with their new style. Samuel Hui continued to dominate the charts and won the Centennial Best Sales Award in the first and second IFPI Gold Disc Presentations twice in a row in 1977 and 1978.
Polydor became PolyGram in 1978. It was at this time; the Billboard correspondent Hans Ebert, who had earlier coined the term Cantorock in 1974, noted a change in its style to something similar to British-American soft rock, therefore started to use the term Cantopop instead in 1978. In the media aspect, in 1974, as the theme song of The Fatal Irony《啼笑因緣》was suceed, so TVB sold to the Mainland and other countries, Cantopop reached overseas audiences through drama series. During the 1980s, Cantopop soared to great heights with artists and record companies working in harmony. Cantopop stars such as Anita Mui, Leslie Cheung, George Lam, Alan Tam, Sally Yeh, Priscilla Chan, Sandy Lam, Danny Chan became household names; the industry used Cantopop songs in TV dramas and movies, with some of the biggest soundtracks coming from films such as A Better Tomorrow. Sponsors and record companies became comfortable with the idea of lucrative contracts and million-dollar signings
Breaking called breakdancing or b-boying/b-girling, is an athletic style of street dance. While diverse in the amount of variation available in the dance, breakdancing consists of four kinds of movement: toprock, power moves and freezes. Breakdancing is set to songs containing drum breaks in hip-hop, soul music and breakbeat music, although modern trends allow for much wider varieties of music along certain ranges of tempo and beat patterns. Breaking was created by African American youth during early 1970s; the earliest breakdancing groups included the "Zulu Kings" and "Clark Kent". By the late seventies, the dance had begun to spread to other communities and was gaining wider popularity. A practitioner of this dance is called b-girl, or breaker. Although the term "breakdance" is used to refer to the dance in popular culture and in the mainstream entertainment industry, "b-boying" and "breaking" are the original terms and are preferred by the majority of the pioneers and most notable practitioners.
Instead of the original term b-boying, the mainstream media promoted the art-form as breakdancing, by which it came to be known. Some enthusiasts consider "breakdancing" an ignorant and derogatory term due to the media’s exploitation of the artform; the media displayed a simplified version of the dance, making it seem like the so-called "tricks" were everything trading the culture for money and promotion. The term "breakdancing" is problematic because it has become a diluted umbrella term that includes popping and electric boogaloo, which are not styles of "breakdance", but are funk styles that were developed separately from breaking in California; the dance itself is properly called "breaking" by rappers such as KRS-One, Talib Kweli, Mos Def, Darryl McDaniels of Run-D. M. C; the terms "b-boy", "b-girl", "breaker" were the original terms used to describe the dancers who performed to DJ Kool Herc's breakbeats. DJ Kool Herc is a Jamaican-American DJ, responsible for developing the foundational aspects of hip-hop music.
The obvious connection of the term "breaking" is to the word "breakbeat". DJ Kool Herc has commented that the term "breaking" was 1970s slang for "getting excited", "acting energetically" or "causing a disturbance". Most breaking pioneers and practitioners prefer the terms "b-boy", "b-girl", and/or "breaker" when referring to these dancers. For those immersed in hip-hop culture, the term "breakdancer" may be used to disparage those who learn the dance for personal gain rather than for commitment to the culture. B-boy London of the New York City Breakers and filmmaker Michael Holman refer to these dancers as "breakers". Frosty Freeze of the Rock Steady Crew says, "we were known as b-boys", hip-hop pioneer Afrika Bambaataa says, "b-boys, what you call break boys... or b-girls, what you call break girls." In addition, co-founder of Rock Steady Crew Santiago "Jo Jo" Torres, Rock Steady Crew member Marc "Mr. Freeze" Lemberger, hip-hop historian Fab 5 Freddy, rappers Big Daddy Kane and Tech N9ne use the term "b-boy".
Many elements of breakdancing can be seen in other antecedent cultures prior to the 1970s. B-boy pioneers Richard "Crazy Legs" Colon and Kenneth "Ken Swift" Gabbert, both of Rock Steady Crew, cite James Brown and Kung Fu films as influences. Many of the acrobatic moves, such as the flare, show clear connections to gymnastics. In the 1877 book'Rob Roy on the Baltic' John MacGregor describes seeing near Norrköping a'...young man quite alone, practicing over and over the most inexplicable leap in the air...he swung himself up, round on his hand for a point, when his upper leg described a great circle...'. The engraving shows a young man breakdancing; the dance was called the Giesse Harad Polska or'salmon district dance'. In 1894 Thomas Edison filmed Walter Wilkins, Denny Toliver and Joe Rastus dancing and performing a "breakdown". In 1898 he filmed a young street dancer performing acrobatic headspins. However, it was not until the 1970s that b-boying developed as a defined dance style in the United States.
There is evidence of this style of dancing in Kaduna, Nigeria in 1959. Beginning with DJ Kool Herc, Bronx-based DJs would take the rhythmic breakdown sections of dance records and prolong them by looping them successively; the breakbeat provided a rhythmic base that allowed dancers to display their improvisational skills during the duration of the break. This led to the first battles—turn-based dance competitions between two individuals or dance crews judged with respect to creativity and musicality; these battles occurred in cyphers—circles of people gathered around the breakers. Though at its inception the earliest b-boys were "close to 90 percent African-American", dance crews such as "SalSoul" and "Rockwell Association" were populated entirely by Puerto Rican-Americans. A separate but related dance form which influenced breakdancing is uprock called rocking or Brooklyn rock. Uprock is an aggressive dance that involves two dancers mimicking ways of fighting each other using mimed weaponry in rhythm with the music.
Uprock as a dance style of its own never gained the same widespread popularity as breakdancing, except for some specific moves adopted by breakers who use it as a variation for their toprock. When used in a breakdancing battle, opponents respond by performing similar uprock moves creating a short uprock battle; some breakers argue that because uprock was a separate dance style it should never be mixed with breakdancing and that the uprock moves performed by breakers toda
Beatboxing is a form of vocal percussion involving the art of mimicking drum machines, using one's mouth, lips and voice. It may involve vocal imitation of turntablism, other musical instruments. Beatboxing today is connected with hip-hop culture referred to as "the fifth element" of hip-hop, although it is not limited to hip-hop music; the term "beatboxing" is sometimes used to refer to vocal percussion in general. Techniques similar to beatboxing have been present in many American musical genres since the 19th century, such as early rural music, both black and white, religious songs, ragtime and hokum. Examples include the Appalachian technique of eefing and the blues song Bye bye bird by Sonny Boy Williamson II. Additional influences may include forms of African traditional music, in which performers utilize their bodies as percussion instruments and produce sounds with their mouths by breathing loudly in and out, a technique used in beatboxing today. Vocal percussion, "the imitation or approximation of percussion instruments," and beatboxing is a form of vocal percussion but can be described as, "music with your mouth... beatboxing is making and being the music, not just rhythm."...
Beatboxing is both the rhythm — predominantely through the bass and snare drums as well as hi-hat — while incorporating various sound effects such as DJ scratching and bass lines. Using the mouth, lips and voice to make music is thus the beatboxer's equivalent to a pianist's fingers and arms. Many well-known performers used vocal percussion even though this was not directly connected to the cultural tradition that came to be known as beatboxing. Paul McCartney's. Pink Floyd's "Pow R. Toc H." includes vocal percussion performed by the group's lead vocalist, Syd Barrett. Jazz singers Bobby McFerrin and Al Jarreau were well known for their vocal styles and techniques, which have had great impact on techniques beatboxers use today. Michael Jackson was known to record himself beatboxing on a dictation tape recorder as a demo and scratch recording to compose several of his songs, including "Billie Jean", "The Girl Is Mine", others. Gert Fröbe, a German actor most known for playing Auric Goldfinger in the James Bond film Goldfinger, "beatboxes" as Colonel Manfred von Holstein in Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines, a 1965 British comedy film.
The term "beatboxing" is derived from the mimicry of early drum machines known as beatboxes the Roland TR-808. The term "beatbox" was used to refer to earlier Roland drum machines such as the TR-55 and CR-78 in the 1970s, they were followed by the TR-808, released in 1980, which became central to hip hop music and electronic dance music. It is the TR-808 that human beatboxing is modeled after."Human beatboxing" in hip-hop originated in the 1980s. Its early pioneers include Doug E. Fresh, the self-proclaimed first "human beatbox". Wise inspired an entire new fan base of human beatboxers with his human turntable technique. Other pioneers of beatboxing include Rahzel well known for his realistic robotic sounds and for his ability to sing and beatbox Scratch a beatboxer and musician well known for further revolutionizing the use of vocal scratching in beatboxing, Kenny Muhammad The Human Orchestra, a beatboxer known for his technicality and outstanding rhythmic precision, who pioneered the inward k snare, a beatbox technique that imitates a snare drum by breathing inward.
The Internet has played a large part in the popularity of modern beatboxing. Alex Tew started the first online community of beatboxers in 2000 under the banner of HUMANBEATBOX. COM. An early example of modern beatboxing was seen in the 2001 South Korean romantic comedy film My Sassy Girl. In 2001, Gavin Tyte, a member of this community created the world's first tutorials and video tutorials on beatboxing. In 2003, the community held the world's first Human Beatbox Convention in London featuring beatbox artists from all over the world. Beatboxing's current popularity is due in part to releases from artists such as Rahzel, RoxorLoops, Reeps One, Alem. Sometimes, modern beatboxers will use their hand or another part of their body to extend the spectrum of sound effects and rhythm; some have developed a technique that involves blowing and sucking air around their fingers to produce a realistic record scratching noise, known as the "crab scratch." Another hand technique includes the "throat tap," which involves beatboxers tapping their fingers against their throats as they throat sing or hum.
Beat boxers these days can produce upto 8 different sounds at the same time. Today there is an increase in the variety. People have gone as far as adding beatboxing in with different instruments to create a different sound unlike any other. Artist Greg Patillo goes as far as adding in beatboxing while playing the flute to iconic songs. Beatbox has become modernized and has been seen in popular movies such as Pitch Perfect and Pitch Perfect 2. Both of these movies showcase classical songs performed with a cappella covers in which all of the beats to the songs are done using the idea and technique of beatboxing to complete the sound capable to imitate the original song; as with other musical disciplines, some form of musical not
New school hip hop
The new school of hip hop was a movement in hip hop music starting 1983–84 with the early records of Run–D. M. C. and LL Cool J. Like the hip hop preceding it, it came predominantly from New York City; the new school was characterized in form by drum machine led minimalism tinged with elements of rock. It was notable for taunts and boasts about rapping, socio-political commentary, both delivered in an aggressive, self-assertive style. In image as in song its artists projected a tough, street b-boy attitude; these elements contrasted with the funk and disco influenced outfits, novelty hits, live bands and party rhymes of artists prevalent in 1984, rendered them old school. New school artists made shorter songs that could more gain radio play, more cohesive LPs than their old school counterparts. By 1986 their releases began to establish the hip hop album as a fixture of the mainstream. More inclusively, golden age hip hop is a phrase framing the late 1980s in mainstream hip hop, said to be characterized by its diversity, quality and influence, associated with Public Enemy, KRS-One and his Boogie Down Productions, Eric B.
& Rakim, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, the Jungle Brothers due to their themes of Afrocentricity and political militancy, their experimental music, their eclectic sampling. This same period is sometimes referred to as "mid-school" or a "middle school" in hip hop, the phrase covering acts such as Gang Starr, The UMC's, Main Source, Lord Finesse, EPMD, Just Ice, True Mathematics, Mantronix; the innovations of Run-D. M. C. MC Shan and LL Cool J, new school producers such as Larry Smith, Rick Rubin of Def Jam, were advanced on by the Beastie Boys, Marley Marl and his Juice Crew MCs, Boogie Down Productions, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim. Hip-hop production became denser and beats faster, as the drum machine was augmented with the sampler technology. Rakim took lyrics about the art of rapping to new heights, while KRS-One and Chuck D pushed "message rap" towards black activism. Native Tongues artists' inclusive, sample-crowded music accompanied their positivity and playful energy.
With the eventual commercial dominance of West Coast gangsta rap the emergence of the relaxed sounds of G-funk by the early nineties, the East Coast new school/golden age can be said to have ended, with hardcore rappers such as the Wu-Tang Clan and gangsta rappers such as Nas and The Notorious B. I. G. Coming to dominate the East Coast scene; the terms "old school" and "new school" have fallen more and more into the common vernacular as synonyms for "old" and "new" and are applied in this conversational way to hip hop, to the confusion and occasional exasperation of writers who use the terms historically. The phrase "leader of the new school", coined in hip hop by Chuck D in 1988, given further currency by the group with the exact name Leaders of the New School, remains popular, it has been applied to artists ranging from Jay-Z to Lupe Fiasco. Elements of new school had existed in some form in the popular culture since hip-hop's birth; the first MC's rapped over DJs swapping back and forth between two copies of the same record playing the same drum break, or playing instrumental portions or versions of a broad range of records.
This part of the culture was initiated by Kool DJ Herc in 1972 using breaks from James Brown, The Incredible Bongo Band and English rock group Babe Ruth in his block parties. Brown's music—"extensive vamps" in which his voice was "a percussive instrument with frequent rhythmic grunts", "with rhythm-section patterns... West African polyrhythms"—was a keynote of hip hop's early days. By 1975, Grandmaster Flash and Afrika Bambaataa had taken up Kool Herc's breakbeat style of DJing, each with their own accompanying rappers. Flash was associated with an important break known as "The Bells"—a cut-up of the intro to Bob James's jazz cover of Paul Simon's "Take Me To The Mardi Gras"—while Bambaataa delighted in springing occasional rock music breaks from records like "Mary, Mary", "Honky Tonk Women", "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" and Grand Funk Railroad's "Inside Looking Out" on unsuspecting b-boys; the earliest hip-hop records replaced the DJ with a live band playing funk and disco influenced tunes, or "interpolating" the tunes themselves, as in "Rapper's Delight" and "King Tim III".
It was the soft, futuristic funk tied to disco that ruled hip hop's early days on record, to the exclusion of the hard James Brown beats so beloved of the first b-boys. Figures such as Flash and Bambaataa were involved in some early instances of moving the sound away from that of a live band, as in Flash's DJ track "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel", innovating popular new sounds and subgenres, as in the synthesizer-laden electro of Bambaataa's "Planet Rock". Though the rawer elements present in live shows did not make it past the recording studio. Bambaataa's first records, for instance, two versions of "Zulu Nation Throwdown", were recorded with just drums and rhymes; when Bambaataa heard the released records, a complete live band had been added. Something closer to his intentions can be heard on a portion of Death Mix, a low-quality bootleg of a Zulu Nation night at James Monroe High School in the Bronx, released without his permission on Winley Records in 1983.
On the bootleg Live Convention'82, Grand Wizard Theodore c
Shirley Kwan, Kwan Suk'E, or Kwan Suk Yee is an influential Cantopop singer from Hong Kong. Kwan first shot to fame in 1989 with the hit, "Happy Are Those In Love" and was popular throughout the early to mid-90s, she is noted for her distinct, whispery vocal style and known for singing mainstream ballads and more alternative songs. Kwan was moved to Los Angeles at the age of twelve, she studied fashion before venturing into the entertainment industry in 1986, at the age of 20. Kwan had her first taste of the limelight in 1986 when she became one of twelve finalists in TVB's New Talent Singing Awards, along with Andy Hui and Leon Lai, but lost to both. Two years with the encouragement of a friend, she recorded a demo tape for the prestigious "Marine Blue" singing competition in Japan and won, she caught the eyes of record executives at Apollon and signed a contract, releasing two Japanese pop albums in two years. Kwan sang in both Japanese and English for these releases, notably made her first and only rap vocals in the song "Borderless".
Kwan's Marine Blue success in Japan led to her discovery by PolyGram. In 1 March 1989, Kwan released her debut Cantonese album "Winter Love", with its R&B-influenced first single, "The Rebel", her sophomore album, "Happy Are those in Love", would produce her first major hit with its title track, which propelled Kwan into Hong Kong stardom. The song "Happy are Those in Love" was the theme song to a popular day-time drama series on TVB, it reached no. 1 on the TVB charts and was requested in karaoke bars at the time. The album, which sold platinum, enjoyed huge chart success and spawned a further hit single, the up-tempo "Lovers Underneath the Stars", with Kwan sweeping newcomer awards at all of the major year-end music award shows; the following two years saw the release of four albums, in which Kwan started to develop a more individualistic style. After scoring another major pop hit in 1990 with 愛恨纏綿, Kwan began incorporating elements from a wider variety of musical genres, her 1991 album Love is Forever saw her exploring New Age music, with cover versions of songs by Gregorian and Michael Cretu.
As a marketing strategy, PolyGram presented its title track, a cover version of "Once In A Life Time," back to back with the Gregorian original on the promotional disc, sent out to radio DJs at the time. Kwan covered Amina's 1991 winning Eurovision entry, "Le dernier qui a parle", rewritten by veteran lyricist Andrew Lam as "Buddhist Chant", which became a surprising top 10 radio single. In 18 November 1993, Kwan released the platinum-selling album, "The Story of Shirley", which spawned the minor hit "Fake Love"; the album signalled a change in vocal style, with a whispery delivery that featured more prominently than before, which would become her trademark style. Kwan further established her place as a cantopop diva with the album, "My Way", released in 8 July 1994; this would be the last album containing all original Cantonese material until Shirley's Era in 2009. Singles included the acid-jazz influenced "Death of a Legend" which sampled a riff from the Digable Planets' 1993 single "Rebirth of Slick," and the immensely popular ballad "Cuddling Underneath the Stars", another of Kwan's major career hits, which won numerous song awards at the ceremonies that year.
The album featured two of Andrew Lam's techno and house inflected compositions "Anxiety" and "Out of This World", as well as another popular ballad "Farewell Love Song". My Way, the cover of which featured Kwan in a new crew-cut look that has since become iconic, was one of the most celebrated in 1994, enjoying a high-degree of both commercial and critical success. With increasing confidence in her musical style, Kwan asked producer Joseph Ip and eight different sound engineers to rearrange ten of her favourite cantopop songs which she handpicked for a covers album; the result was "'EX' All Time Favourites," released in February 1995, which featured covers of classics by Anita Mui, Leslie Cheung and Alan Tam and reinterpreted with Kwan's alternative musical influences and trademark, ethereal singing style. The lead single, a cover version of Teresa Teng's "Forget Him" rearranged by Donald Ashley, was featured in Wong Kar-wai's 1995 arthouse film Fallen Angels; the album sold three times platinum, was selected in 2000 as one of the Top 20 Defining Chinese Albums of All Time for the book by a jury of musicians which included Anthony Wong, Sandee Chan, Carl Wong and Lin Wei-Che.
In the summer of 1995, Kwan released her third compilation album, "Journey of Life", containing two new singles, "He Needs You, She Needs You", a dreampop track which incorporated the traditional Chinese instrument erhu, the minor hit, "Are There Real Friends in Life", a pop ballad which has since became a fan favourite. Riding on the success of a string of platinum-selling albums, Kwan held her first large-scale solo concert series, "The One and Only Shirley Kwan In Concert", in June 1995 at the Hong Kong Coliseum. After seven years at PolyGram, Kwan's contract came to an end in June 1996. A final PolyGram studio album was scheduled for release in the summer, containing three American collaborations and seven other tracks. However, due to Kwan's departure, PolyGram released the material separately in 1997's compilation "Connection" and 1998's EP "eZone". Kwan spent the second half of the 90s away from the public eye
Hip hop music
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi