Ulanhu or Ulanfu known by his Chinese name Yun Ze, was the founding Chairman of China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, serving from 1947 to 1966. Ulanhu had the nickname of "Mongolian King" during his political career, he served as Vice-Premier between 1956 and 1966. He was purged during the Cultural Revolution but reinstated. Between 1983 and 1988 he held the office of Vice President of the People's Republic of China. Ulanhu holds the distinction of being the highest-ranking minority official in PRC history, became an icon of loyalty both to the Mongolian people and to the PRC. Except for the period of the Cultural Revolution, his family dominated the politics of Inner Mongolia, his son Buhe served as Chairman of Inner Mongolia for a decade, his granddaughter Bu Xiaolin was appointed to the same position in 2016. Born in Tumed Left Banner, just outside the city of Hohhot, Ulanhu was the child of herders, he went to elementary school in his hometown, went on to study at the Mongolian-Tibetan College of Beiping.
He joined the Socialist Youth League of China in 1924. In 1925, he joined the Communist Party of China and was sent to Moscow Sun Yat-sen University in the Soviet Union to study Marxism. In Moscow, Ulanhu shared a desk with the son of Chiang Kai-shek. In 1929, when he returned from his studies, Ulanhu began organizing communist rallies in Mongolia, was appointed a Committee Member of the CPC's West-Mongolia Working Committee. In 1931, Ulanhu was chosen to run the military and intelligence offices in Mongolia, serving in Ikh Juu League. During the Second World War, Ulanhu led his forces to stop the Japanese from advancing towards Hohhot and led his officers to march to northern Shaanxi where he continued battling against the Japanese forces. In August 1941, he arrived at the revolutionary base of Yan ` an. During the Chinese Civil War, Ulanhu was one of the commanders of the Pingjin Campaign and the Liaoshen Campaign, he led his Communist forces to destroy the local bandits and anti-communist forces in Mongolia.
Ulanhu was instrumental in bringing Inner Mongolia under the control of the Communist Party of China and was elected the Acting Governor and founding Chairman of the Autonomous Government of Inner Mongolia in 1947. Inner Mongolia was the first of five recognized autonomous regions in China. In September 1954, Ulanhu was named ranking eighth. In 1955 he was awarded the rank of General, becoming one of only 57 generals bestowed the honour of being a "founding general" of the People's Republic, he served as Communist Party Secretary and chairman of Inner Mongolia from the region's founding to 1966. At the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, zealous red guard organizations attempted to storm the Inner Mongolia government headquarters. Ulanhu used troops at his disposal to repel them, only to be undone by military forces sent in by leftist leaders in Beijing, which ousted him from office, he was accused of "ruling Inner Mongolia like an independent kingdom", persecuted as a suspected member of the independence-leaning Inner Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, a charge proven to be false.
However, while he was a target for struggle, Ulanhu survived the Cultural Revolution without enduring some of the more severe physical hardships inflicted upon some of his colleagues owing to the support of Premier Zhou Enlai. Ulanhu was politically rehabilitated in 1973, prior to the 10th Party Congress, with the personal blessing of Mao Zedong. In 1977, Ulanhu became head of the United Front Department of the central organization of the CPC. Among various other posts, he served one term as Vice President of the People's Republic of China under President Li Xiannian from 1983 to 1988. Upon completion of the term as Vice-President, he was elected Vice-Chairman of the National People's Congress, he died shortly thereafter in 1988 after an illness. He was eulogized with high honours by the ruling Communist Party. In 1992, the Ulanhu Memorial Hall was opened to the public in Hohhot, his Selected Works were published in 1999 at a dedication ceremony attended by Jiang Zemin, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.
In December 2007, the Communist Party held a high-profile conference to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Ulanhu's birth. In 2009, the historic epic Spring Comes Early to the Grasslands aired on China Central Television, depicted some of Ulanhu's activities during the revolution. Ulanhu had four sons and four daughters, his son, served as the Chairman of Inner Mongolia from 1982 to 1993. His granddaughter Bu Xiaolin was appointed Chairwoman of Inner Mongolia in March 2016, making her the third generation of the Ulanhu family to hold that position. Another son of Ulanhu, served as mayor of Baotou. List of officers of the People's Liberation Army Inner Mongolian People's Republic
Chiang Kai-shek known as Generalissimo Chiang or Chiang Chungcheng and romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese politician and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and in Taiwan until his death. He was recognized by much of the world as the head of the legitimate government of China until 1971, during which the United Nations passed Resolution 2758. Chiang was an influential member of the Kuomintang, the Chinese Nationalist Party, as well as a close ally of Sun Yat-sen. Chiang became the commandant of the Kuomintang's Whampoa Military Academy and took Sun's place as leader of the KMT following the Canton Coup in early 1926. Having neutralized the party's left wing, Chiang led Sun's long-postponed Northern Expedition, conquering or reaching accommodations with China's many warlords. From 1928 to 1948, Chiang served as the chairman and generalissimo of the National Government of the Republic of China.
Chiang was a nationalist. Unable to maintain Sun's good relations with the Chinese Communist Party, Chiang tried to purge them in the 1927 Shanghai Massacre and repressed uprisings at Kwangtung and elsewhere. At the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War, which became the Chinese theater of World War II, Marshal Zhang Xueliang kidnapped Chiang and obliged him to establish a Second United Front with the CCP. After the defeat of the Japanese, the American-sponsored Marshall Mission, an attempt to negotiate a coalition government, failed in 1946; the Chinese Civil War resumed, with the CCP led by Mao Zedong defeating the KMT and declaring the People's Republic of China in 1949. Chiang's government and army retreated to Taiwan, where Chiang imposed martial law and persecuted critics in a period known as the "White Terror". After evacuating to Taiwan, Chiang's government continued to declare its intention to retake mainland China. Chiang ruled Taiwan securely as President of the Republic of China and Director-General of the Kuomintang until his death in 1975, just one year before Mao's death.
Like Mao, Chiang is regarded as a controversial figure. Supporters credit him with playing a major part in the Allied victory of World War II and unifying the nation and a national figure of the Chinese resistance against Japan as well as his staunch anti-Soviet and anti-communist stance. Detractors and critics denounce him as a dictator at the front of an authoritarian autocracy who suppressed and purged opponents and critics and arbitrarily incarcerated those he deemed as opposing to the Kuomintang among others. Like many other Chinese historical figures, Chiang used several names throughout his life; that inscribed in the genealogical records of his family is Jiang Zhoutai. This so-called "register name" is the one under which his extended relatives knew him, the one he used in formal occasions, such as when he got married. In deference to tradition, family members did not use the register name in conversation with people outside of the family; the concept of a "real" or original name is not as clear-cut in China.
In honor of tradition, Chinese families waited a number of years before naming their children. In the meantime, they used a "milk name", given to the infant shortly after his birth and known only to the close family, thus the actual name that Chiang received at birth was Jiang Ruiyuan. In 1903, the 16-year-old Chiang went to Ningbo to be a student, he chose a "school name"; this was the formal name of a person, used by older people to address him, the one he would use the most in the first decades of his life. Colloquially, the school name is called "big name", whereas the "milk name" is known as the "small name"; the school name. For the next fifteen years or so, Chiang was known as Jiang Zhiqing; this is the name under which Sun Yat-sen knew him when Chiang joined the republicans in Kwangtung in the 1910s. In 1912, when Jiang Zhiqing was in Japan, he started to use the name Chiang Kai-shek as a pen name for the articles that he published in a Chinese magazine he founded: Voice of the Army. Jieshi is the Pinyin romanization of this name, based on Mandarin, but the most recognized romanized rendering is Kai-shek, in Cantonese romanization.
As the republicans were based in Canton, Chiang became known by Westerners under the Cantonese romanization of his courtesy name, while the family name as known in English seems to be the Mandarin pronunciation of his Chinese family name, transliterated in Wade-Giles. "Kai-shek"/"Jieshi" soon became Chiang's courtesy name. Some think. Others note that the first character of his courtesy name is the first character of the courtesy name of his brother and other male relatives on the same generation line, while the second character of his courtesy name shi suggests the second character of his "register name" tai. Courtesy names in China bore a connection with the personal name of the person; as the
Li Kenong was a major figure in the early history of Chinese Communist intelligence, was rewarded the rank of General in 1955. Born in Chaohu County, Anhui Province, Li was known as Li Zetian and Li Leizhong, he became the deputy editor of the Anqing Guomin Shibao in 1926, entering the Chinese Communist Party in 1927. In this same period Li became a local propaganda leader for the Chinese Nationalist Party in the same locality, performed local coordination for the Northern Expedition. After the CCP's break with the KMT in April 1927, Li travelled to Shanghai in 1928 to do newspaper work for the communists on the Tieshenche Bao and the Laobaixing Bao newspapers. Li was an early agent of Zhou Enlai, via the Communist intelligence agency, "Teke". Along with fellow agents Qian Zhuangfei and Hu Di, Zhou referred to Li as one of "the three most distinguished intelligence workers of the Party". Under Zhou's direction Li joined the KMT secret police as a mole by the end of 1929. Li was soon placed in charge of investigation Communist activities, was provided with selected information about the activities of parties hostile to the KMT.
The information provided to Li was controlled by Zhou Enlai. Li reported to Zhou on the plans of Chiang Kai-shek. Beginning in 1929, under the direct order of Zhou Enlai, Li Kenong used a fake name, Li Zetian, when working with inside the KMT in Shanghai. Li's work inside the KMT specialized in radio cryptography. Li was promoted to the section head at Shanghai. Throughout his career as a Communist mole Li took pains to pass all information of interest to the Communists. In late April 1931, Gu Shunzhang, Zhou's chief aide in security affairs, was arrested in Wuhan. After his capture, Gu was subjected to heavy torture. Gu had shallow communist convictions. In order to save himself, Gu informed the KMT about covert CCP organizations in Wuhan, leading police to arrest and execute over ten leading Communists in the city. Gu informed his captors that he would only inform the KMT about CCP activities in Shanghai if he could give the information directly to Chiang Kai-shek; the two-day transfer of Gu to Shanghai gave CCP intelligence two days to avoid being destroyed.
On April 25, 1931, Qian Zhuangfei, another one of Zhou's agents planted in the Nationalist intelligence agency headquartered at Nanjing, directly under Li's control, saw the message from Wuhan announcing Gu's capture. Qian held the message from distribution while he sent his son-in-law from Nanjing to notify Li in Shanghai. Li attempted to inform CCP leaders of Gu's capture, but was not able to contact the officer in charge of CCP intelligence, Chen Geng. Li decided to break protocol instructing agents not to contact their liaisons outside of established times. Li went to look for Chen in numerous places and found him, reporting the capture of Gu. Li and Chen informed Zhou Enlai, who arranged an emergency evacuation of as many CCP members as possible from their hiding places in Shanghai. Hundreds of Zhou's agents were saved, though not all, the resulting summary executions were the largest since the Shanghai massacre of 1927. Li's open attempts to contact Gu and Zhou destroyed his "cover", marked the end of Li Kenong's ability to serve as a clandestine member of the KMT secret police.
Following his work in Shanghai, Li fled to Mao Zedong's base in Jiangxi. Li was appointed the head of the CCP's Jiangxi Protection Branch, Executive Director of Political Protection for the Chinese Soviet, Chief of the Red Army Political Protection Bureau. Upon arrival in Shanxi at the end of the Long March, Li became the chief of the CCP International Liaison Department. In 1936, after the Xi'an Incident, he was appointed as Secretary in charge of the CCP delegation based there. During the Xi'an Incident, Li served for the first time as a principal negotiator, roles that he would repeat on in Panmunjom and Geneva. Upon the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, Li was appointed head of the Eighth Route Army offices in Shanghai and Guilin, he became the CCP Central Committee Yangtze Bureau Secretary, an assistant to Zhou Enlai. After the relationship between the CCP and KMT worsened following the 1941 New Fourth Army Incident, Communist delegations in Nationalist controlled regions were ordered to return to Yan'an.
Li Kenong faced the difficult task of taking all of the important documents and intelligence gathered back to a Communist bases without being confiscated by the Nationalist secret police. Li accomplished this by letting his team ride with a Nationalist military convoy along the way. Li rode in the same car used by the Nationalist army commander, completed the journey without any losses. After his successful return to Yan'an, Li became the deputy director of the CCP Central Department of Social Affairs, under Kang Sheng. In 1942 he became the deputy of the CCP Central Intelligence Department, the staff and leadership of which overlapped with those of the CDSA. One of the primary tasks of him and his fellow intelligence officers was to do business with the Japanese, so that the supplies needed in Communist rear areas medicine, could be obtained. Although such actions were sanctioned by Mao Zedong himself, the Communist agents and cadres involved were nonetheless persecuted decades during the Cultural Revolution.
Li may only have escaped such a fate because he died in 1962. In 1945, Li was placed in charge of the CCP delegation office in Beiping, a
Red Guards were a mass student-led paramilitary social movement mobilized and guided by Mao Zedong in 1966 and 1967, during the first phase of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, which he had instituted. According to a Red Guard leader, the movement's aims were as follows: Chairman Mao has defined our future as an armed revolutionary youth organization... So if Chairman Mao is our Red-Commander-in-Chief and we are his Red Guards, who can stop us? First we will make China Maoist from inside out and we will help the working people of other countries make the world red... And the whole universe. Despite being met with resistance early on, the Red Guards received personal support from Mao, the movement grew. Mao made use of the group as propaganda and to accomplish goals such as destroying symbols of China's pre-communist past, including ancient artifacts and gravesites of notable Chinese figures. Moreover, the government was permissive of the Red Guards, allowed the Red Guards to inflict bodily harm on people viewed as dissidents.
The movement grew out of control coming into conflict with authority and threatening public security until the government made efforts to rein the youths in. The Red Guard groups suffered from in-fighting as factions developed among them. By the end of 1968, the group as a formal movement had dissolved; the first students to call themselves "Red Guards" in China were a group of students at the Tsinghua University Middle School who were given the name Red Guards to sign two big-character posters issued on 25 May – 2 June 1966. The students believed that the criticism of the play Hai Rui Dismissed from Office was a political issue and needed greater attention; the group of students, led by Zhang Chengzhi at Tsinghua University Middle School and Nie Yuanzi at Peking University wrote the posters as a constructive criticism of Tsinghua University and Peking University's administration, who were accused of harboring intellectual elitism and bourgeois tendencies. The Red Guards were denounced as counter-revolutionaries and radicals by the school administration and fellow students, were forced to secretly meet amongst the ruins of the Old Summer Palace.
Chairman Mao Zedong ordered that the manifesto of the Red Guards be broadcast on national radio and published in the People's Daily newspaper. This action gave the Red Guards political legitimacy, student groups began to appear across China. Due to the factionalism beginning to emerge in the Red Guard movement, Liu Shaoqi made the decision in early June 1966 to send in Communist Party of China work teams; these work groups were led by Zhang Chunqiao, head of China's Propaganda Department, were the attempt by the Party to keep the movement under its control. Rival Red Guard groups led by the sons and daughters of cadres were formed by these work teams to deflect attacks from those in positions of power towards bourgeois elements in society intellectuals. In addition, these Party-backed rebel groups attacked students with'bad' class backgrounds; these actions were all attempts by the CPC to preserve apparatus. Mao, concerned that these work teams were hindering the course of the Cultural Revolution, dispatched Chen Boda, Jiang Qing, Kang Sheng, others to join the Red Guards and combat the work teams.
In July 1966, Mao ordered the removal of the remaining work teams and condemned their'fifty days of White Terror'. The Red Guards were now free to organise without the restrictions of the Party and, within a few weeks, on the encouragement of Mao's supporters, Red Guard groups had appeared in every school in China. Mao expressed personal approval and support for the Red Guards in a letter to Tsinghua University Red Guards on 1 August 1966, he gave the movement a more public boost at a massive rally on 18 August at Tiananmen Square. Mao appeared atop Tiananmen wearing an olive green military uniform, the type favored by Red Guards, but which he had not worn in many years, he greeted 1,500 Red Guards and waved to 800,000 Red Guards and onlookers below. The rally was led by Chen Boda, Lin Biao gave a keynote speech. Red Guard leaders led by Nie Yuanzi gave speeches. A high school Red Guard put a red arm band inscribed with the characters for "Red Guard" on the Chairman, who stood for six hours; the 8-18 rally, as it was known, was the first of eight receptions the Chairman gave to Red Guards in Tienanmen in the fall of 1966.
It was this rally that signified the beginning of the Red Guards' involvement in implementing the aims of the Cultural Revolution. A second rally, held on 31 August, was led by Kang Sheng and Lin Biao donned a red arm band; the last rally was held on 26 November 1966. In all, the Chairman greeted eleven to twelve million Red Guards, most of whom traveled from afar to attend the rallies including one held on National Day 1966, which included the usual civil-military parade; the 11th Plenum of the CPC Central Committee had ratified the'Sixteen Articles' in August 1966, a document that stated the aims of the Cultural Revolution. It highlighted the role students would be asked to play in the movement. After the 18 August rally, the Cultural Revolution Group directed the Red Guards to attack the'Four Olds' of Chinese society. For the rest of the year, Red Guards marched across China in a campaign to eradicate the'Four Olds'. Old books and art were destroyed, museums were ransacked, streets were renamed with new revolutionary names and adorned with pictures and the sayi
Fu Zhong was a general in the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China from Sichuan. Fu Zhong joined the Chinese Communist party in 1921, graduated from the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University in 1930, he was appointed as the head of the political department in the Counter-Japanese Military and Political University and served in various positions in the Eighth Route Army as the political commissar. During the Chinese Civil War, he was the deputy head of the political department in the Central Military Commission, he was one of the earliest military leaders. Fu went to Shanghai in 1921 to study French. During this period, he was affected by the May Fourth Movement and by the winter of 1921, he joined the newly founded Communist Party of China. After returning from Russia in 1930, he assisted Zhou Enlai in Shanghai's personnel and military transport work and at the same time participated in the translation of the "Soviet Infantry Fighting Order" and "Soviet Political Work Regulations".
During the Long March in 1935, Fu was responsible for communal distribution and conducting preparatory work for combat. In August, he was elected as an alternate member of the 6th Central Committee. Upon Zhang Guotao's attempt to set up an alternate communist base, Fu classified him as an "alternate member of the Politburo" but refused to work for his branch of the central committee. Following the rendezvous between the 4th Red and 2nd Red Armies in July 1937 he became the director for Central Committee Northwest Organization Department, based in Shaanbei, he was appointed as the head of the political department in the Counter-Japanese Military and Political University. Fu attended the Luochuan Conference in August 1938 and was appointed as the director of civil affairs within the Eighth Route Army's political department, he put forward the "Political Army Reform Program", published alongside "Political Military Order" that involved key leaders such as Zhu De, Peng Dehuai and Zuo Quan. In the spring of 1940, he issued orders for the Eighth Army to be involved in the communes and when he returned to Yan'an during winter, he was holding key positions such as being the deputy director of the CMC's and the Joint Defense Forces' Political Department.
In 1945, he participated in the 7th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, receiving praise from Mao Zedong for a speech regarding the unity of the party at the meeting. In the beginning of 1946, Fu was transferred to Chongqing to take charge as the President of Xinhua Daily and the Propaganda minister for Sichuan, he contributed to key doctrines of the CPC's military and politics, such as being involved in the publishing of "The Chinese People's Liberation Army Party Committee Ordinance", "Revolutionary Military Commission Regulations", "New Red Army Initial Summary" and other documents. In the 1st National Artists Congress during July 1949, he published a report on the "Contributions of the Army to Art". After the founding of the PRC, Fu was appointed as the deputy director of the People's Liberation Army General Political Department, he was a longtime contributor to the army's cultural framework. He was awarded first class medals in the Order of Bayi, Order of Independence and Freedom and Order of Liberation.
He was proactive in publishing reports that moulded the political framework of the post war CPC. However, he was criticized and checked during the Cultural Revolution, he was elected as the deputy director of the Political Work Department of the Central Military Commission, was elected as a member of the Standing Committee of the Central Advisory Committee during the 12th CPC National Congress. Fu was a member of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd Central Military Commission, the 3rd, 5th National People's Congress Standing Committee and was the 3rd and 4th vice chairman of the Chinese Federation for Arts. In 1988 he was awarded with the Honor Merit Medal of first class. Fu died in Beijing on 28 July 1989, he was praised by the CPC as "an outstanding member of the Communist Party of China, an experienced and loyal proletarian revolutionary and our military's outstanding political work leader"
Chen Bojun ，was a general of the People's Liberation Army from the Sichuan Province, Dachuan District. Chen Bojun was trained in Whampoa Military Academy in 1926, joined the Chinese Communist Party in 1927, participating in the Autumn Harvest Uprising, he rose through the ranks, holding many divisional level commands and participated in the Long March. During the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War, he held top positions in the Fourth Field Army and the Eighth Route Army. After the establishment of the PRC, Chen held the roles of commander of Hunan's garrison, PLA Military Academy's Vice Head Training and acting Head of the Academy. In 1955, Chen was awarded the rank of a General. Chen's participation in the May Fourth Movement and nationalistic inclination led to him being expelled from the Wanxian Shen Provincial School in 1916. In 1926 he enrolled in the Republic of China Military Academy in Wuhan. In May 1927, Chen joined the Chinese Communist Party at Xianning during the Autumn Harvest Uprising On October 1934, Chen took part in the Long March and was appointed Commander of the Red Ninth Army.
In July 21, 1935, Chen was demoted to chief commissioner of the Red Army University as he refuted the orders of Zhang Guotao to go against Mao Zedong route of the march. Chen served as one of the divisional commanders of the Eighth Route Army during the Sino-Japanese War; as the head of the Counter-Japanese Military and Political University in 1938, he opposed Mao's marriage to Jiang Qing. During his return to Yan'an in 1940, Chen authored a book on "A Brief History of the Eighth Route Army". In May 1948, he served as deputy commander of the Northeast Field Army's First Corps, participating in the Liaoshen Campaign, the Siege of Changchun and the Pingjin Campaign. In January 1949, he served as deputy commander of the Tianjin garrison. In December 1952, Chen served as Deputy Minister of the Department of the PLA Military Training Academy. In 1953, Chen was the deputy Minister of Education and Vice President of the Military Academic Research Department in 1955. In the same year Chen was awarded the rank of general, Order of Bayi, Order of Liberation and Order of Independence and Freedom.
During the Cultural Revolution, Chen was persecuted by the Red Guards, framed by Lin Biao. On February 6, 1974, Chen died of illness in Beijing
Chen Xilian was a general of People's Liberation Army of China and a member of the Central Committee Politburo. Chen was born in Hong'an County, Hubei Province of China in 1915, he joined his local Chinese Red Army guerrilla unit in 1929, the Communist Youth League a year later. He was an army general from 1955 and a year an Alternate Member of the 8th Central Committee. Chen was a member of the CPC Politburo through three party congresses, but fell afoul of Deng Xiaoping’s reforms and was demoted with three colleagues dubbed the “Small Gang of Four” to mere CC status in February 1980. Chen was assigned to the Standing Committee of the party Central Advisory Committee in September 1982. In the early 1930s, Chen Xilian served in the 4th Front Army as a political instructor and communications man, moving up the ranks to Regiment political commissar in 1934, his unit, led by Zhang Guotao, Xu Xiangqian and Li Xiannian, included such future leaders as Qin Jiwei. They fought Sichuan warlords on the western leg of the Long March.
At the close of the Long March, Chen – like his colleagues Xu Shiyou and Yu Qiuli – would find himself on the wrong side of the Mao Zedong-Zhang Guotao dispute, badly battered by Muslim cavalry and warlord armies. After the fighting, Chen emerged as a division commander and reached Yan'an in late 1935, he was assigned to the 129th Division of Eighth Route Army, which became the core of the 2nd Field Army of Liu Bocheng and Deng Xiaoping. On October 19, 1937 he led the 769th Regiment, First Column, against Japanese units defending Yangmingbao airport, destroying 24 planes, killing more than 100 Japanese soldiers, which alleviated the air threat on the Xikou Front. Chen at this time served under Xu Xiangqian with future generals Xu Shiyou, Xu Haidong and Han Xianchu. In the Summer of 1940, Chen’s unit participated in the Hundred Regiments Campaign near Taiyuan, by September had succeeded the reassigned Xu Shiyou as 385th Brigade Commander. After a brief stint at the Central Party School in Yan'an, Chen in September 1945 was commander of the Second Military Subdistrict in Southern Hebei.
His 385th Brigade combined with local unites to create the 7th Brigade, which became the 3rd Column of the Central Plains Field Army. His Deputy Commander, Zeng Shaoshan, other key officers remained with Chen through the Huai-Hai and Crossing the Yangtze campaigns, for many years thereafter. In the Spring of 1949, after the fall of Nanjing, Chen’s 3rd Army moved into Zhejiang, saw action at Hangzhou and Shanghai, his unit remained in place while his co-commanders, Chen Geng and Yang Yong, embarked on the South-west Campaign. As the Civil War wound down, Chen was left in command of a key region of Eastern China. Among his 2nd Field Army subordinates to rise in power were future politburo members Xie Fuzhi, Li Desheng and Liu Huaqing. In 1950, he was appointed Party First Mayor of Chongqing, Sichuan, he was the commander of PLA's at East Sichuan region and a member of the Southwest Military Administrative Committee, under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, He Long and Liu Bocheng. He was assigned as commander of the entire PLA Artillery Corps and president of the Artillery Academy.
In 1955, Chen was assigned the rank of general, the following year made an Alternate Member of the CPC Central Committee. In 1958, the PLA opened up a massive and sustained artillery barrage against the Nationalist-held island of Quemoy. General Chen was in direct command of the failed 400-piece cannonade; the purge of Peng Dehuai in 1959 brought down two of his key allies as well: Chief-of-Staff Huang Kecheng and Shenyang MR Commander Deng Hua. Chen Xilian was sent to Manchuria to take over from General Deng in one of the most sensitive regions of the Sino-Soviet border, he served in the post until 1973. Chen inherited a region in the grip of starvation, due to the policy mismanagement of the Great Leap Forward. In mid-1963, Chen was promoted to CCP Secretary for the CC Northeast Central Party Bureau, where he worked with Song Renqiong. In 1965, Chen was made a member of the National Defense Council, remained in that post until the organization was abolished in 1975. Chen was attacked by Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution as one.
Throughout 1967, he sought to survive by minimally acquiescing to Red Guard demands, placing PLA officers in sensitive positions such as provincial Revolutionary Committees and promoting inexperienced radicals to high positions. It appears that Chen directed radical hostility toward the regional party apparatus, it is less clear. A powerful figure in regional military affairs, Chen’s career reached its pinnacle during the Cultural Revolution, he was elevated to the Politburo at the 1969 9th National Party Congress and, as the PLA took over regional administration, became CCP 1st Secretary of Liaoning Province. In 1971, Chen was the first MR commander to denounce Lin Biao following his alleged coup d'état attempt and subsequent death; the Writing Group of Liaoning Provincial Party Committee, an origin under General Chen's direct and complete control, launched an attack on Lin in the November 1971 issue of Red Flag. After being reelected to the politburo in 1973, Chen traded his Northeast power base for the leadership of the Beijing Military Region command in January 1974 and remained in that post until January 1980, when he was re