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Hongdae, Seoul

Hongdae is a region in Seoul, South Korea near Hongik University, after which it is named. It is known for its urban arts and indie music culture and entertainments; the area is located in Mapo-gu in the western end of Seoul, stretching from Seogyo-dong to Hapjeong-dong. Hongdae is an abbreviation of Hongik University; the term'hongdae' is used in regards to Hongik University which has one of the nation's top fine arts colleges in South Korea. Under the influence of Hongik University, well known for its prestigious art college, the neighborhood was built on a foundation of artistic souls since the 1990s. In the early days, thanks to then-cheap rent, budget musicians and street artists started moving into the ateliers of the Hongdae area. In the true sense of the word, the Korean Indie scene started from the two bands, Sister's Barbershop and Crying Nut at Hongdae in the mid-1990s. Before that many cover bands were playing near Idae. Other bands like Jaurim and Idiotape started to play at venues in Hongdae, the area begins to have a reputation as the mecca of urban arts and underground club culture.

Now the area provides street art festivals and performances, as well as music concerts by independent artists and mainstream entertainers. Like other multi-cultural metropolitan areas, this street is undergoing gentrification. However, despite the recent explosion of upmarket brand shops that pushes artists to move toward the southern area near Hapjeong Station, the street still enjoys a reputation as the city's prime spot for indie musicians. Many live music venues and festivals draw revelers from a wide range of visitors. YG Entertainment, the major K-pop agency is located near the street. Apart from indie art culture, Hongdae is home to independent clothing stalls and vintage shops; as well, there are eclectic theme cafes for characters and pets. In 2016, Hongdae was ranked one of the coolest neighborhoods in the world. Zandari Festa is named after'Zandari', an old name for the Hongdae area.'Zandari' implies small bridge, the festival's ambition is to be a bridge between the artists and audiences around the local indie music scene.

Every Fall, it is held over 3 days in the pre-scheduled hosting live clubs. The festival encourages bands to invite themselves, artists are encouraged to take part in planning and promoting the shows they play in. Since March 2001,'Club Day' started as a wristband-powered event which allows entry to more than a dozen clubs for the price of one. After 2007,'Sound Day' launched together with the indie music concert venues. During 2008 through early 2009 they were suspend due to high levels of violence and disturbances by US army soldiers and underage individuals, they reopened again but came to close soon in January 2011 due to the dispute over the distribution of profits between popular live/dance clubs and other budget ones. After a four-year break, in January 2015, six live clubs established the'Live Club Cooperative' and with other clubs, they resumed the'Live Club Day' on February 27. The'Live Club Day' is held on the last Friday of every month; the ticket system is the same as before, one can get access to multiple clubs for a variety of genres including rock, hip hop and electronic with one ticket.

During early 1990s, students from the College of Fine Arts at Hongik University began to decorate the streets and roads around the college. Their efforts were soon joined by many artists from across the country and the first'Street Art Festival' was held in 1993; every year, students of Hongik University and neighbor artists join to produce diversity of visual arts on Hongdae streets like graffiti wall painting, installation arts and performances.'Hongdaeap Artmarket Freemarket' is held on'Hongdae Playground', in front of the main gate of Hongik University. It holds on weekends, from March to November at 13:00 to 18:00 by the host of the nonprofit organization'Living and Art Creative Center' since 2002; the flea markets are called "Hope Market" on Sundays. They are fledgling craft markets of things made by students and street artists. Other culture markets have been influenced by this original playground Freemarket and open randomly around the Hongdae area; the area is served by subway via Hongik University Station, Hapjeong Station, Sangsu Station.

Various Seoul bus lines reach the street. Hongdae area is used for filming location of domestic television dramas and movies, which include: 2007, MBC's Coffee Prince' 2010, KBS's Mary Stayed Out All Night 2011, tvN's Flower Boy Ramyun Shop. 2012, SBS's A Gentleman's Dignity. 2015, Belgian singer-songwriter Sioen made. 2017, Mnet's reality show Fromis's Room 2018, JTBC's reality show Blackpink House Zandari Festa Official Homepage Live Club Day Hongdaeap Freemarket Official Homepage Street Art Exhibition

1979 National Society of Film Critics Awards

The 14th National Society of Film Critics Awards, given on 3 January 1980, honored the best filmmaking of 1979. 1. Breaking Away 2. Kramer vs. Kramer 3. Manhattan 4. 10 1. Woody Allen – Manhattan 1. Robert Benton – Kramer vs. Kramer 3. Peter Yates – Breaking Away 4. Blake Edwards – 10 1. Dustin Hoffman – Kramer vs. Kramer and Agatha 2. Peter Sellers – Being There 3. Nick NolteNorth Dallas Forty 4. Jack LemmonThe China Syndrome 5. Klaus KinskiNosferatu the Vampyre and Woyzeck 5. Richard PryorRichard Pryor: Live in Concert 5. Roy ScheiderAll That Jazz 1. Sally FieldNorma Rae 2. Hanna SchygullaThe Marriage of Maria Braun 3. Bette Midler – The Rose 4. Diane Keaton – Manhattan 1. Frederic ForrestApocalypse Now and The Rose 2. Melvyn Douglas – Being There and The Seduction of Joe Tynan 3. Paul Dooley – Breaking Away 4. James MasonMurder by Decree 4. James WoodsThe Onion Field 1. Meryl Streep – Kramer vs. Kramer and The Seduction of Joe Tynan 2. Barbara Harris – The Seduction of Joe Tynan 3.

Jane Alexander – Kramer vs. Kramer 3. Barbara Barrie – Breaking Away 1. Steve Tesich – Breaking Away 2. Woody Allen and Marshall Brickman – Manhattan 3. Robert Benton – Kramer vs. Kramer 4. Jerzy Kosinski and Robert C. Jones – Being There 5. Blake Edwards – 10 1. Caleb DeschanelThe Black Stallion and Being There 2. Vittorio Storaro – Apocalypse Now and Agatha 3. Néstor Almendros – Kramer vs. Kramer 4. Gordon Willis – Manhattan Past Awards

8th millennium BC

The 8th millennium BC spanned the years 8000 BC to 7001 BC. It is impossible to date events that happened around the time of this millennium and all dates mentioned here are estimates based on geological and anthropological analysis. Neolithic culture and technology had become widespread in the Near East by 8000 BC, it was spreading westward but is not believed to have reached Europe, still Palaeolithic, until about the end of this millennium. Planting and harvesting techniques were transferred through Asia Minor and across the Aegean Sea to Greece and the Balkans; the techniques were, in the main, cultivation of barleys. Though the Neolithic was now established throughout much of the Fertile Crescent, most people around the world still lived in scattered hunter-gatherer communities which remained in the Palaeolithic; the world population was stable and increasing. It has been estimated that there were some five million people c. 10,000 BC growing to forty million by 5000 BC and 100 million by 1600 BC.

That is an average growth rate of 0.027% p.a. from the beginning of the Neolithic to the Middle Bronze Age. By c. 7500 BC, important sites in or near the Fertile Crescent included Jericho,'Ain Ghazal, Tell Aswad, Tell Abu Hureyra, Tell Qaramel, Tell Mureibit, Jerf el Ahmar, Göbekli Tepe, Nevalı Çori, Hacilar, Çatalhöyük, Hallan Çemi Tepesi, Çayönü Tepesi, Jarmo, Ganj Dareh and Ali Kosh. Jericho in the Jordan Valley continued to be the world's most significant site through this millennium.Çatalhöyük was a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia which flourished from c. 7500 BC until it was abandoned c. 5700 BC. See image above right. Pottery found in the Near East at this time is classified as Pre-Pottery Neolithic B until c. 6500 BC. The Natufian culture co-existed with PPNB; the potter's wheel had not yet been invented and pottery was still hand-built by means of coiling, pit fired. It was from c. 8000 BC that agriculture developed throughout the Americas in modern Mexico.

There were numerous New World crops, as they are now termed, domestication began with the potato and the cucurbita about this time. Other crops began to be harvested over the next 7,500 years including chili peppers, peanut, beans, sunflower and tomato; the date of c. 7640 BC has been theorised for the impact of Tollmann's hypothetical bolide with Earth and the resultant global cataclysm. The date for construction of a round-house near Howick, Northumberland is calculated c. 7600 BC by radiocarbon dating. The site is believed to have been occupied for about 100 years; the homo sapiens fossil from Combe-Capelle in southern France, discovered in 1909, is estimated to be 9,500 years old. Bronowski, Jacob; the Ascent of Man. London: BBC. ISBN 978-1-849-90115-4. Roberts, J. M.. Shorter Illustrated History of the World. Abingdon: Helicon Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-1951-1504-X

Little Pudding River

The Little Pudding River is a tributary of the Pudding River in Marion County in the U. S. state of Oregon. It begins in the Waldo Hills near Macleay, east of Salem, flows north to meet the larger river west of Mt. Angel; the confluence is about 37 miles from the Pudding River's mouth on the Molalla River. The river flows northwest from near Macleay under State Street, Conifer Street Northeast, Sunnyview Road before turning north northwest again and flowing under Oregon Route 213. Shortly thereafter, it receives West Fork from the left. Downstream of this, as it flows by Hazel Green, Howell Prairie is on its right, Lake Labish is on its left. Turning northeast, the river receives Woods Creek from the right as well as Lake Labish Ditch and Carnes Creek from the left before passing under Howell Creek Road near Parkerville Dam and entering the Pudding River. Lake Labish Ditch was created in the late 19th century to drain historic Lake Labish in order to use the lakebed for farming. Before 1950, floods on the Pudding River sometimes flowed backwards up the Little Pudding River and into the valley around the ditch.

In the 1950s, the Natural Resources Conservation Service built Parkerville Dam and pump station on the lower Little Pudding to prevent backflow flooding. So, water accumulating behind the dam flooded 15 homes in Keizer in 1996. List of rivers of Oregon Pudding River Watershed Council

William Grimston

William Grimston was an English politician. From 1797 he was known as William Bucknall, he was the second son of James Grimston, 2nd Viscount Grimston and his wife Mary Bucknall, the younger brother of James Grimston, 3rd Viscount Grimston. He was born at Gorhambury in Hertfordshire, was educated at Eton College and Christ's College, matriculating in 1768 and graduating M. A. in 1770. Grimston was admitted to Lincoln's Inn in 1767, he became Member of Parliament for St Albans in 1784. He supported the ministry. In the 1790 general election he stepped aside, in favour of John Calvert. In 1791 he was elected again, for Appleby, remaining in parliament to 1795. On 21 January 1797 Grimston changed his surname to Bucknall, fulfilling a condition in the will of his uncle John Askell Bucknall, he died on 25 April 1814. Grimston married in 1783 Sophia Hoare, daughter of Richard Hoare of Boreham, Essex, a banker and grandson of Richard Hoare, of Susanna Cecilia Dingley, they had a daughter, Sophia Askell, who had a court position as woman of the bedchamber to Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen.

She married in 1804 Berkeley Paget. The other child of the marriage, died an infant

Juan Manuel Blanes

Juan Manuel Blanes was a noted Uruguayan painter of the Realist school. Blanes was born in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1830, he was raised by his mother. Blanes took an interest in drawing at this point, shortly afterwards, was hired as an illustrator for a Montevideo newsdaily, El Defensor de la Independencia Americana. Earning extra income with watercolors, he returned to his mother and, in 1854, established his first atelier, he married María Linari, in 1855, the couple settled in Salto, where he worked as a portrait painter. They relocated to Concepción del Uruguay in 1857, Blanes was commissioned by Argentine President Justo José de Urquiza to complete a number of portraits and landscapes to grace his nearby estancia, the Palacio San José. Returning to Montevideo in 1861, the talented painter obtained a scholarship from the Uruguayan government, with it, traveled with his family to Florence, where he studied under Antonio Ciseri until 1864; the experience became a valuable calling card for Blanes, who became one of Uruguay's most sought-after portraiteurs.

The 1871 outbreak of a yellow fever epidemic in Buenos Aires inspired his first renowned work, which he exhibited to acclaim in the recovering city. His 1872 portrait of the Argentine War of Independence hero, General José de San Martín, was a success in Buenos Aires, Blanes was invited to Chile to display the historic depiction. Returning to Uruguay, Blanes undertook a portrait of the "Thirty-three Easterners," members of a revolutionary vanguard whose insurrection against Brazilian authorities resulted in Uruguayan Independence, in 1828; the portrait's 1877 display was followed by Blanes' second stay in Florence, where he completed The Battle of Sarandí, a depiction of another milestone in Uruguay's nationhood. These works, his bucolic portraits of life in his homeland did not garner the interest he expected in Italy and the Blaneses returned to Montevideo in the early 1880s. Blanes resumed his portrait work. Among the most notable was a portrait of President Máximo Santos, commissioned by friends of the ruler as a gift.

The most well-known from this period, was Artigas en la Ciudadela, an homage to one of Uruguay's most respected early patriots, José Gervasio Artigas. This success was followed by the 1889 death of Blanes' wife, he and his younger son, spent the next two years in Rome, where his elder son, Juan Luis, had settled, he returned to Uruguay alone, continued to create historic and landscape art. A few years Juan Luis lost his life in an accident and in 1899, Nicanor disappeared in Pisa. Blanes hurried to the Tuscan city in hopes of locating his son, a friend from a previous visit made him a guest in her house. Searching for nearly two years, the 70-year-old Blanes died in Ms. Manetti's Vía di Mezzo residence; the city of Montevideo established the Municipal Museum of Fine Arts, named it in his honor, in 1930. Washington D. C.'s General José Gervasio Artigas statue, based on Blanes' portrait, was cast in bronze in Uruguay during World War II as a gift to the United States. Juan Manuel Blanes Municipal Museum of Fine Arts National Museum of Visual Arts, Montevideo: Blanes