A booby trap is a device or setup, intended to kill, harm, or surprise a person or animal, unknowingly triggered by the presence or actions of the victim. As the word trap implies, they sometimes have some form of bait designed to lure the victim towards it. At other times, the trap is set to act upon trespassers that violate restricted areas; the device can be triggered when the victim performs some type of everyday action, e.g. opening a door, picking something up, or switching something on. They can be triggered by vehicles driving along a road, as in the case of victim-operated improvised explosive devices. Booby traps should not be confused with mantraps. Lethal booby traps are used in warfare guerrilla warfare, traps designed to cause injury or pain are sometimes used by criminals wanting to protect drugs or other illicit property, by some owners of legal property who wish to protect it from theft. Booby traps which cause discomfort or embarrassment are a popular form of practical joke.
The Spanish word bobo translates to "stupid, daft, naïve, fool, clown, funny man, one, cheated" and similar pejorative terms. The slang of bobo, translates to "dunce". Variations of this word exist in other languages, with their meaning being "to stammer". Thus, the term "booby trap" gives rise to the idea that an individual with the misfortune to be caught in the trap does so because the individual is a "booby", or that an individual, caught in the trap thereby becomes a "booby"; the word has been applied to the sea bird genus Sula, with their common name being boobies. These birds, adapted for sea flight and swimming, have large flat feet and wide wingspans, making it difficult for them to run or take flight quickly; as a result, they are considered easy to catch when onshore. They are known for landing aboard seagoing vessels, whereupon they have been eaten by the crew. In 1590, the word began appearing in the English language as booby, meaning "stupid person, slow bird"; the phrase booby trap applied to schoolboy pranks, but took on its more sinister connotation during World War I.
A military booby trap may be designed to kill or injure a person who activates its trigger, or employed to reveal the location of an enemy by setting off a signalling device. Most, but not all, military booby traps involve explosives. There is no clear division between a booby trap and buried conventional land mines triggered by a tripwire or directional mine. Other, similar devices include spring-guns and mechanisms such as the SM-70 directional antipersonnel mine. What distinguishes a booby trap is that its activation is intended to be unexpected to its victim, thus booby trap design is varied, with traps or their trigger mechanisms hidden. At least part of the device is improvised from standard ordnance, such as an artillery shell, grenade, or high explosive. However, some mines have features designed for incorporation into booby traps and armies have been equipped with a variety of mass-produced triggering mechanisms intended to be employed in booby traps deployment. Part of the skill in placing booby traps lies in exploiting natural human behaviors such as habit, self-preservation, curiosity or acquisitiveness.
A common trick is to provide victims with a simple solution to a problem, for example, leaving only one door open in an otherwise secure building, thereby luring them straight toward the firing mechanism. An example that exploits an instinct for self-preservation was used in the Vietnam War. Spikes known as Punji sticks were hidden in grassy areas; when fired upon soldiers instinctively sought to take cover by throwing themselves down on the ground, impaling themselves on the spikes. Attractive or interesting objects are used as bait. For example, troops could leave behind empty beer bottles and a sealed wooden packing case with "Scotch Whisky" marked on it before leaving an area; the rubble-filled packing case might be resting on top of an M5 or M142 firing device, connected to some blocks of TNT or to some C4 explosive stuffed into the empty fuze pocket of a mortar shell. Alternatively, the weight of the packing case might be holding down the arming lever of an RGD-5 grenade with a zero-delay fuze fitted and the pin removed.
Either way, when the case is moved. Many different types of bait object can be used e.g. soldiers will be tempted to kick an empty beer can lying on the ground as they walk past it. However, the can may be resting on top of an M5 pressure-release firing device screwed into a buried M26 grenade. Many purpose-built booby-trap firing devices exist such as the versatile M142 universal firing device, or Yugoslavian UMNOP-1 which allow a variety of different ways of triggering explosives e.g. via trip wire, direct pressure on an object, or pressure release etc. Any item can be booby-trapped in some way. For example, booby trapping a flashlight is a classic tactic: a flashlight contains most of the required components. First of all, tempting the victim to pick it up. More it is easy to conceal a detonator, some explosives, batteries inside the flashlight casing. A simple electrical circuit is connected to the on/off switch; when the victim attempts to turn the flashlight on to see if it works, the resulting explosion blows their hand or arm off and blinds them.
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The Cabinet of Light
The Cabinet of Light was the ninth novella published by Telos Publishing Ltd. as part of their Doctor Who novellas series. It was written by Daniel O'Mahony, was released as a standard edition hardback, a deluxe edition featuring a frontispiece by John Higgins. Both editions had a foreword by Chaz Brenchley; the novella featured an unspecified future incarnation of the Doctor who appears to be travelling without a companion, although it is hinted that Emily Blandish may have been travelling with him. The story focuses on Honoré Lechasseur, an ex-GI turned spiv, searching for the Doctor. Although the novella is now out of print, the characters of Emily and Honoré continued their adventures in the Telos Time Hunter series of novellas; the book was not written with a spinoff series in mind, but was created by Telos after their licence to publish Doctor Who came to an end. Honoré Lechasseur, a "fixer" with time-sensitive abilities, is hired by Emily Blandish to find someone known only as the Doctor.
He soon discovers that the Doctor is a legendary figure that has drifted in and out of Earth's history. As he follows the trail of the Doctor, questions arise: what is the Doctor's connection with 1949 London and with the mysterious "cabinet of light" that another group is seeking? Set in 1949, the novella tells the story of Honoré Lechasseur, an ex-GI, living and working in London as a spiv, he is hired by a woman claiming to be Emily Blandish to track down her husband, the Doctor, soon becomes embroiled in the machinations of a Nazi named Walken and a mysterious woman named Mestizer. Both are looking for the Doctor and something called "The Cabinet of Light", connected to him somehow. Honoré is mistaken for the Doctor on more than one occasion because, as a time sensitive, his aura bears a passing similarity to the Time Lord's; this leads to him being kidnapped by Mestizer's servant, a hulking cyborg named Abraxas, learn about the Doctor's apparent connection to "the girl in the pink pyjamas", a mysterious amnesiac who appeared in the East End of London after what was assumed to be the detonation of an unexploded bomb.
In speaking to her, Honoré helps her regain a small part of her lost memory: her name - Emily Blandish. Honoré confronts his employer, the faux Emily, but doesn't manage to get much information before she is killed by Abraxas, his investigation lead him back to Walken's club, but he is caught in the crossfire as Mestizer attacks. Honoré only manages to escape thanks to the aid of a mysterious stranger who identifies himself only as "The Doctor". Honoré follows the Doctor to his confrontation with Mestizer, but fails to understand much of what he sees; the Cabinet of Light turns out to be the Doctor's TARDIS, it is used to vanquish the enemy and allow the Doctor to escape. Mestizer disappears, leaving Abraxas to complete his mission: killing the real Emily Blandish. Honoré manages to defeat the cyborg, he and Emily head off into London. In September 2008, Telos announced that a fan production company, Fantom Films, had been licensed to produce audiobook readings of the Time Hunter novellas for release on CD and as online downloads.
The series begins with The Cabinet of Light, read by former Doctor Who actor Terry Molloy and released in November 2008. Changes have been made to the text of this version of The Cabinet of Light to allow it to stand as a Time Hunter novella independent of its Doctor Who connections; the Cabinet of Light won Best Book in the 2003 Jade Pagoda Awards. Telos Publishing - The Cabinet of Light The Cloister Library - The Cabinet of Light The Cabinet of Light foreword by Chaz Brenchley The Cabinet of Light audiobook The Cabinet of Light reviews at Infinity Plus
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or series of transactions that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules. If the rule defines the set of goods and services whose production and distribution is prohibited by law, non-compliance with the rule constitutes a black market trade since the transaction itself is illegal. Parties engaging in the production or distribution of prohibited goods and services are members of the illegal economy. Examples include the drug trade, illegal currency transactions and human trafficking. Violations of the tax code involving income tax evasion constitute membership in the unreported economy; because tax evasion or participation in a black market activity is illegal, participants will attempt to hide their behavior from the government or regulatory authority. Cash usage is the preferred medium of exchange in illegal transactions since cash usage does not leave a footprint.
Common motives for operating in black markets are to trade contraband, avoid taxes and regulations, or skirt price controls or rationing. The totality of such activity is referred to with the definite article as a complement to the official economies, by market for such goods and services, e.g. "the black market in bush meat". The black market is distinct from the grey market, in which commodities are distributed through channels that, while legal, are unofficial, unauthorized, or unintended by the original manufacturer, the white market, in which trade is legal and official. Black money is the proceeds of an illegal transaction, on which income and other taxes have not been paid, which can only be legitimised by some form of money laundering; because of the clandestine nature of the black economy it is not possible to determine its size and scope. The literature on the black market has not established a common terminology and has instead offered many synonyms including: subterranean. There is no single underground economy.
These underground economies are omnipresent, existing in market oriented as well as in centrally planned nations, be they developed or developing. Those engaged in underground activities circumvent, escape or are excluded from the institutional system of rules, rights and enforcement penalties that govern formal agents engaged in production and exchange. Different types of underground activities are distinguished according to the particular institutional rules that they violate. Four major underground economies can be identified: the illegal economy the unreported economy the unrecorded economy the informal economyThe "illegal economy" consists of the income produced by those economic activities pursued in violation of legal statutes defining the scope of legitimate forms of commerce. Illegal economy participants engage in the production and distribution of prohibited goods and services, such as drug trafficking, arms trafficking, prostitution; the "unreported economy" consists of those economic activities that circumvent or evade the institutionally established fiscal rules as codified in the tax code.
A summary measure of the unreported economy is the amount of income that should be reported to the tax authority but is not so reported. A complementary measure of the unreported economy is the "tax gap", namely the difference between the amount of tax revenues due the fiscal authority and the amount of tax revenue collected. In the U. S. unreported income is estimated to be $2 trillion resulting in a "tax gap" of $450–$600 billion. The "unrecorded economy" consists of those economic activities that circumvent the institutional rules that define the reporting requirements of government statistical agencies. A summary measure of the unrecorded economy is the amount of unrecorded income, namely the amount of income that should be recorded in national accounting systems but is not. Unrecorded income is a particular problem in transition countries that switched from a socialist accounting system to UN standard national accounting. New methods have been proposed for estimating the size of the unrecorded economy.
But there is still little consensus concerning the size of the unreported economies of transition countries. The "informal economy" comprises those economic activities that circumvent the costs and are excluded from the benefits and rights incorporated in the laws and administrative rules covering property relationships, commercial licensing, labor contracts, financial credit and social security systems. A summary measure of the informal economy is the income generated by economic agents that operate informally; the informal sector is defined as the part of an economy, not taxed, monitored by any form of government, or included in any gross national product, unlike the formal economy. In developed countries the informal sector is characterized by unreported employment; this is hidden from the state for tax, social security or labour law purposes but is legal in all other aspects. On the other hand, the term black market can be used in reference to a specific part of the economy in which contraband is traded.
Goods and services acquired illegally and/or transacted for in an illegal manner may exchange above or below the price of legal market transactions: They may be cheaper than legal market prices. The supplier taxes; this is the case in the underground economy. Criminals steal goods and sell them below the legal market price, but there is no receipt, so for
The Seventh Doctor is an incarnation of the Doctor, the protagonist of the BBC science fiction television series Doctor Who. He is portrayed by Scottish actor Sylvester McCoy. Within the series' narrative, the Doctor is a centuries-old Time Lord alien from the planet Gallifrey who travels in time and space in his TARDIS with companions. At the end of life, the Doctor can regenerate his body. McCoy portrays the seventh such incarnation, a whimsical, thoughtful character who becomes more layered and manipulative, his first companion was Melanie Bush, a computer programmer who travelled with his previous incarnation, and, soon succeeded by troubled teenager and explosives expert Ace, who becomes his protégée. The Seventh Doctor first appeared on TV in 1987. After the programme was cancelled at the end of 1989, the Seventh Doctor's adventures continued in novels until the late 1990s; the Seventh Doctor made an appearance at the start of the 1996 movie before the character was replaced by the Eighth Doctor.
In his first season, the Seventh Doctor started out as a comical character, engaging in dundrearyisms, playing the spoons, making pratfalls, but started to develop a darker nature. The Seventh Doctor era is noted for the cancellation of Doctor, it is noted for the Virgin New Adventures, a range of original novels published from 1992 to 1997, taking the series beyond the television serials. The Seventh Doctor's final appearance on television was in the 1996 Doctor Who television movie, where he regenerated into the Eighth Doctor, played by Paul McGann. A sketch of him is seen in John Smith's A Journal of Impossible Things in the new series 2007 episode "Human Nature". Brief holographic clips of the Seventh Doctor appear in "The Next Doctor" and "The Eleventh Hour", as flashbacks in "The Name of the Doctor" and as a holographic representation in "Twice Upon a Time"; the Seventh Doctor appeared in the 50th anniversary special, "The Day of the Doctor" and can be seen standing beside all incarnations of the Doctor, at the time.
When the TARDIS was attacked by the Rani, the Sixth Doctor was forced to regenerate. After a brief period of post-regenerative confusion and amnesia, the Seventh Doctor thwarted the Rani's plans, rejoined his companion Mel for whimsical adventures in an odd tower block and a Welsh holiday camp in the 1950s. On the planet Svartos, Mel decided to leave the Doctor's company for that of intergalactic rogue Sabalom Glitz. At this time, the Doctor was joined by time-stranded teenager Ace. Although he did not mention it at the time, the Doctor soon recognised that an old enemy from a past adventure, the ancient entity known as Fenric, was responsible for the Time Storm which transported Ace from 1980s Perivale to Svartos in the distant future. Growing more secretive and driven from this point on, the Doctor took Ace under his wing and began teaching her about the universe, all the while keeping an eye out for Fenric's plot; the Doctor began taking a more scheming and proactive approach to defeating evil, using the Gallifreyan stellar manipulator named the Hand of Omega as part of an elaborate trap for the Daleks which resulted in the destruction of their home planet, Skaro.
Soon afterwards, the Doctor used a similar tactic and another Time Lord relic to destroy a Cyberman fleet. He engineered the fall of the oppressive government of a future human colony in a single night and encountered the Gods of Ragnarok at a circus on the planet Segonax, whom he had fought throughout time, he was reunited with his old friend, Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart while battling the forces of an alternate dimension on Earth. The Seventh Doctor's manipulations were not reserved for his rivals. With the goal of helping Ace confront her past, he took her to a Victorian house in her home town of Perivale in 1883 which she had burned down in 1983; the Doctor confronted and defeated Fenric at a British naval base during World War II, revealing Fenric's part in Ace's history. The Doctor continued returning her to Perivale; the circumstances of her parting from the Doctor were not shown on television. Near the end of his incarnation, the Seventh Doctor was given the responsibility of transporting the remains of his former enemy the Master from Skaro to Gallifrey.
This proved to be a huge mistake. He was taken to a hospital, where surgeons removed the bullets but mistook the Doctor's double heartbeat for fibrillation, he is thus the only Doctor to have died at the hand of one of his own companions. Due to the anaesthesia, the Doctor did not regenerate after death, unlike all previous occasions. In Time and the Rani, the Seventh Doctor gives his age soon after his regeneration as "exactly" 953 years, indicating that some two centuries of subjective time has passed since his fourth incarnation was revealed to be 756 in The Ribos Operation, half a century since Revelation of the Daleks in which the Sixth Doctor stated he was 900 years old; the revival of the ser
Nineteen Eighty-Four published as 1984, is a dystopian novel by English writer George Orwell published in June 1949. The novel is set in the year 1984 when most of the world population have become victims of perpetual war, omnipresent government surveillance and propaganda. In the novel, Great Britain has become a province of a superstate named Oceania. Oceania is ruled by the "Party", who employ the "Thought Police" to persecute individualism and independent thinking; the Party's leader is Big Brother, who enjoys an intense cult of personality but may not exist. The protagonist of the novel, Winston Smith, is a rank-and-file Party member. Smith is an outwardly diligent and skillful worker, but he secretly hates the Party and dreams of rebellion against Big Brother. Smith rebels by entering a forbidden relationship with fellow employee Julia; as literary political fiction and dystopian science fiction, Nineteen Eighty-Four is a classic novel in content and style. Many of its terms and concepts, such as Big Brother, thoughtcrime, Room 101, telescreen, 2 + 2 = 5, memory hole, have entered into common usage since its publication in 1949.
Nineteen Eighty-Four popularised the adjective Orwellian, which connotes official deception, secret surveillance, brazenly misleading terminology and manipulation of recorded history by a totalitarian or authoritarian state. In 2005, the novel was chosen by Time magazine as one of the 100 best English-language novels from 1923 to 2005, it was awarded a place on both lists of Modern Library 100 Best Novels, reaching number 13 on the editors' list, 6 on the readers' list. In 2003, the novel was listed at number 8 on the BBC's survey The Big Read. Orwell "encapsulate the thesis at the heart of his unforgiving novel" in 1944, the implications of dividing the world up into zones of influence, conjured by the Tehran Conference. Three years he wrote most of it on the Scottish island of Jura from 1947 to 1948 despite being ill with tuberculosis. On 4 December 1948, he sent the final manuscript to the publisher Secker and Warburg, Nineteen Eighty-Four was published on 8 June 1949. By 1989, it had been translated into more than any other novel in English until then.
The title of the novel, its themes, the Newspeak language and the author's surname are invoked against control and intrusion by the state, the adjective Orwellian describes a totalitarian dystopia, characterised by government control and subjugation of the people. Orwell's invented language, satirises hypocrisy and evasion by the state: the Ministry of Love oversees torture and brainwashing, the Ministry of Plenty oversees shortage and rationing, the Ministry of Peace oversees war and atrocity and the Ministry of Truth oversees propaganda and historical revisionism; the Last Man in Europe was an early title for the novel, but in a letter dated 22 October 1948 to his publisher Fredric Warburg, eight months before publication, Orwell wrote about hesitating between that title and Nineteen Eighty-Four. Warburg suggested choosing the main title to be a more commercial one. In his 1978 novel 1985, English author Anthony Burgess suggests that Orwell, disillusioned by the onset of the Cold War, intended to call the book 1948.
The introduction to the Penguin Books Modern Classics edition of Nineteen Eighty-Four reports that Orwell set the novel in 1980 but that he shifted the date to 1982 and to 1984. The introduction to the Houghton Mifflin Harcourt edition of Animal Farm and 1984 reports that the title 1984 was chosen as an inversion of the year 1948, the year in which it was being completed, that the date was meant to give an immediacy and urgency to the menace of totalitarian rule. Throughout its publication history, Nineteen Eighty-Four has been either banned or challenged, as subversive or ideologically corrupting, like the dystopian novels We by Yevgeny Zamyatin, Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, Darkness at Noon by Arthur Koestler, Kallocain by Karin Boye and Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury; some writers consider the Russian dystopian novel We by Zamyatin to have influenced Nineteen Eighty-Four, that the novel bears significant similarities in its plot and characters to Darkness at Noon, written years before by Koestler, a personal friend of Orwell.
The novel is in the public domain in Canada, South Africa, Argentina and Oman. It will be in the public domain in the United Kingdom, the EU, Brazil in 2020, in the United States in 2044. Nineteen Eighty-Four is set in Oceania, one of three inter-continental superstates that divided the world after a global war. Smith's memories and his reading of the proscribed book, The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism by Emmanuel Goldstein, reveal that after the Second World War, the United Kingdom became involved in a war during the early 1950s in which nuclear weapons destroyed hundreds of cities in Europe, western Russia and North America. Colchester was destroyed and London suffered widespread aerial raids, leading Winston's family to take refuge in a London Underground station. Britain fell into civil war, with street fighting in London, before the English Socialist Party, abbreviated as Ingsoc, emerged victorious and formed a totalitarian government in Britain; the British Commonwealth and Latin America were absorbed by the United States, resulting in the superstate of Oceania.
Ingsoc became the sole government party in this new nation. The Soviet Union conquered continental Europe and established the second superstate of Eurasia, under a Ne
In the United Kingdom, the word spiv is slang for a type of petty criminal who deals in illicit black market, goods. The word was used during the Second World War and in the post-war period when many goods were rationed due to shortages. According to Peter Wollen, "The crucial difference between the spiv and the classic Hollywood gangster was the degree of sympathy the spiv gained as an intermediary in the transfer of black market goods to... a grateful mass of consumers."There are various suggestions about the origin of the word. The spiv had a characteristic look, described as "A duck's arse haircut, Clark Gable moustache, rakish trilby, drape-shape jacket, loud garish tie... all represented a deliberate snook cocked at wartime austerity."The comedian Arthur English had a successful career after the Second World War appearing as a spiv with a pencil moustache, wide-brimmed hat, light-coloured suit and a large bright patterned tie. The origin of the word is obscure. According to Eric Partridge the word was racecourse slang, but had become accepted by 1950.
It appeared in a paperback crime novel in 1934. The Oxford English Dictionary states that it may come from: spiffy, meaning smartly dressed; the seller might offer a discount, by splitting his commission with the customer. A seller of stolen goods could give this explanation for a bargain price. "Spiv" was the nick-name of Henry'Spiv' Bagster, a London small-time crook in the 1900s, arrested for illegal street trading and confidence tricks. National newspapers reported his court appearances in 1903-06. Other suggestions have been made, most noting that spiv is a Romani word for a sparrow, implying the person is a petty criminal rather than a serious "villain" or that it is an American police acronym for Suspicious Person Itinerant Vagrant, though this is an unlikely formation but rather a backronym. A series of British crime films produced between 1945 and 1950, during the time that rationing was still in effect, dealt with the black market and related underworld, have been termed spiv movies or the spiv cycle by critics.
Examples are the City in which the spiv is a main character. Other crime films which have been quoted as part of the spiv cycle – though not always featuring a spiv character, just criminal dealings – are They Made Me a Fugitive, It Always Rains on Sunday, Odd Man Out, No Way Back, The Third Man and Waterloo Road; the image of the spiv was used for the character Flash Harry played by George Cole in the film The Belles of St Trinian's and subsequent St Trinian's films. The British Minder featured George Cole 1979-1994 in the role of Arthur Daley, an aging spiv with an unseen wife, a used-car business, a bodyguard acted by Dennis Waterman; the character Private Joe Walker in the TV series Dad's Army is a spiv. The character Swinburne in the film Bedknobs and Broomsticks – set in London during the Second World War – has a similar appearance, offers to sell from a selection of watches which are pinned inside his coat. Another example of a spiv in children's fiction is Johnny Sharp in the novel The Otterbury Incident by Cecil Day-Lewis.
In Agatha Christie's play, The Mousetrap, the mysterious character of Mr. Paravicini is referred to as a spiv, he arrives unexpectedly at Monkswell Manor, a guesthouse, the setting for the play, with only one small suitcase. In a song from The Kinks' album Muswell Hillbillies, called "Holloway Jail", the narrator is visiting his beloved in that famous London lock-up, he says "she was young and so pretty", but "a spiv named Frankie Shine" led her into a life of crime. In The Kinks' rock opera Preservation: Acts 1 & 2, Ray Davies states that his character "Flash", at that point leader of the Government, had started out as a "Second Hand Car Spiv" in the song "Scum of the Earth". English singer-songwriter Joe Jackson based elements of his early public persona around that of the spiv, labelled his own music as "spiv rock", his use of spiv imagery is evident on the cover of his second album, I'm the Man. Box for One is a television play about a spiv. In the music video for The Kinks' song "Come Dancing", Ray Davies stars as a spiv.
The character of Mike The Cool Person from the TV comedy The Young Ones is a portrayal of a spiv. In the PlayStation game MediEvil 2, the player can buy items from The Spiv. Fartsovka Gombeen man Wide boy The dictionary definition of spiv at Wiktionary
Shoreditch is a district in Central and North East London and located in the East End, is divided between the London boroughs of Hackney and Tower Hamlets. A historic entertainment quarter since the 16th century, today it hosts a number of nightclubs and bars to the west, while the northern area of Hoxton is residential. In Tower Hamlets, a small part of Shoreditch is a small exclave separated by Bethnal Green from the rest of the district in East London, it is considered part of the district due to the now-closed Shoreditch tube station location; the district itself lies to the north and north east of the City of London while the exclave lies north and east of Spitalfields and south and west of Bethnal Green. Toponymists believe that the name comes from Old English "scoradīc", i.e. shore-ditch, the shore being a riverbank or prominent slope. One legend holds that the place was named "Shore's Ditch", after Jane Shore, the mistress of Edward IV, supposed to have died or been buried in a ditch in the area.
This legend is commemorated today by a large painting, at Haggerston Branch Library, of the body of Shore being retrieved from the ditch, by a design on glazed tiles in a shop in Shoreditch High Street showing her meeting Edward IV. But the area was known as "Soersditch". London County Council Survey of London attests to at least thirty deeds between 1150 and 1250 CE which refer to Shoreditch. Another suggested origin for the name is "sewer ditch", in reference to a drain or watercourse in what was once a boggy area, it may have referred to the headwaters of the Walbrook. In another theory, antiquarian John Weever claimed that the name was derived from Sir John de Soerdich, lord of the manor during the reign of Edward III. Though now part of Inner London, Shoreditch was an extramural suburb of the City of London, centred on Shoreditch Church at the old crossroads where Shoreditch High Street and Kingsland Road are crossed by Old Street and Hackney Road. Shoreditch High Street and Kingsland Road are a small sector of the Roman Ermine Street and modern A10.
Known as the Old North Road, it was a major coaching route to the north, exiting the City at Bishopsgate. The east–west course of Old Street–Hackney Road was probably a Roman Road, connecting Silchester with Colchester, bypassing the City of London to the south. Shoreditch Church is of ancient origin, it is featured in the famous line "when I grow rich say the bells of Shoreditch", from the English nursery rhyme "Oranges and Lemons". Shoreditch was the site of a house of canonesses, the Augustinian Holywell Priory, from the 12th century until its dissolution in 1539; this priory was located between Shoreditch High Street and Curtain Road to east and west, Batemans Row and Holywell Lane to north and south. Nothing remains of it today. In 1576, James Burbage built the first playhouse in England, known as "The Theatre", on the site of the Priory; some of Shakespeare's plays were performed here and at the nearby Curtain Theatre, built the following year and 200 yards to the south. It was here that Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet gained "Curtain plaudits", where Henry V was performed within "this wooden O".
Shakespeare's Company moved the timbers of "The Theatre" to Southwark at the expiration of the lease in 1599, in order to construct The Globe. The Curtain continued performing plays in Shoreditch until at least 1627; the suburb of Shoreditch was attractive as a location for these early theatres because it was outside the jurisdiction of the somewhat puritanical City fathers. So, they drew the wrath of contemporary moralists, as did the local "base tenements and houses of unlawful and disorderly resort" and the "great number of dissolute and insolent people harboured in such and the like noisome and disorderly houses, as namely poor cottages, habitations of beggars and people without trade, inns, taverns, garden-houses converted to dwellings, dicing houses, bowling alleys, brothel houses". During the 17th century, wealthy traders and French Huguenot silkweavers moved to the area, establishing a textile industry centred to the south around Spitalfields. By the 19th century, Shoreditch was the locus of the furniture industry, now commemorated in the Geffrye Museum on Kingsland Road.
These industries declined in the late 19th century. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Shoreditch was a centre of entertainment to rival the West End and boasted many theatres and music halls: The National Standard Theatre, 2/3/4 Shoreditch High Street. In the late 19th century this was one of the largest theatres in London. In 1926, it was converted into a cinema called The New Olympia Picturedrome; the building was demolished in 1940. Sims Reeves, Mrs Marriott and James Anderson all appeared here. There was considerable rivalry with the West End theatres. John Douglass wrote a letter to The Era following a Drury Lane first night, in which he commented that "seeing that a hansom cab is used in the new drama at Drury Lane, I beg to state that a hansom cab, drawn by a live horse was used in my drama... produced at the Standard Theatre... with real rain, a real flood, a real balloon." The Shoreditch Empire known as The London Music Hall, 95–99 Shoreditch High Street. The theatre was rebuilt in 1894 by Frank Matcham.
The architect of the Hackn