Ka Leo O Hawaii
Ka Leo O Hawai'i is the student newspaper at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The newspaper is published by the University of Hawaii at Manoa Board of Publications, a Board of Regents Chartered Student Organization founded in 1966. Previous to the founding of the BOP, Ka Leo was published by a committee of the Associated Students of the University of Hawaii; the newspaper started in 1922. Beginning in the fall of 2010, Ka Leo began printing every Monday and Friday during the fall and spring semesters, only Wednesday during the summer semester. Ka Leo had printed on Mondays and Thursdays; as of 2016, the newspaper publishes biweekly, releasing every other Monday, in an effort to focus on web oriented content. Each issue is printed in a tabloid format. Circulation is 10,000, distributed in the community. An exhibition was held in Hamilton Library for the 90th anniversary of the newspaper, it covered the most controversial stories of the Ka Leo's history, such as professor Haunani-Kay Trask and student Joey Carter's fervent discussion of the word "haole" and its contested meaning.
Ka Leo O Hawai'i seeks to foster informed involvement throughout the University of Hawai'i community. As the official newspaper of the University of Hawai'i, Ka Leo endeavors to become a cornerstone of intellectual exchange on campus. Ka Leo continually strives to be inclusive and balanced in our reporting, while sustaining the values of journalistic integrity and reliability. Official website Digitally Archived Issues on ScholarSpace, UH Manoa's Digital Repository
A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
David Yutaka Ige is an American politician serving as the eighth governor of Hawaii since 2014. A Democrat, he served in the Hawaii State Senate. In the 2014 gubernatorial election, he won the Democratic primary by defeating incumbent Governor Neil Abercrombie, won the general election by defeating former Republican Lieutenant Governor Duke Aiona, he won re-election to a second term in 2018. Ige was born and raised in Pearl City, is the fifth of six sons of Tokio and Tsurue Ige, ethnic Japanese Americans of Okinawan descent. During World War II, Tokio served in the 100th Battalion/442nd Infantry Regimental Combat Team and was awarded the Purple Heart and Bronze Star. After the war, Tokio Ige worked as a steelworker on construction projects while Tsurue Ige worked as a nurse and dental hygienist. Tokio Ige died in 2005 at the age of 86. Tsurue, now retired, resides in Pearl City. David Ige attended public schools in Pearl City – Pearl City Elementary School, Highlands Intermediate School, Pearl City High School.
He participated in community sports, beginning with eight years of playing in the Pearl City Little League. At the newly built Pearl City High School, Ige excelled in many activities. In his junior year, he was elected student body vice president, he served as senior class president the following year, his campaign for student body president stressed an end to bullying. Ige led his varsity tennis team to a championship and was honored as the "Scholar-Athlete of the Year." He graduated fifth in his class of more than 500 students in 1975. Despite being accepted into the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ige attended the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering. While at UH, he served as student body secretary and an officer of several honor societies as well as treasurer and vice-president of his fraternity, Phi Delta Sigma; the University of Hawaii is where Ige met his wife, with whom he has three children: Lauren and Matthew. After college, while working for GTE Hawaiian Tel, Ige took graduate courses at UH and earned a Master of Business Administration degree in decisions sciences.
In 1986, Hawaii Business Magazine named him one of the university's Top 10 MBA students. Prior to being elected governor of Hawaii, Ige served as project manager with Robert A. Ige and Associates, Inc. Vice President of engineering at NetEnterprise, senior principal engineer at Pihana Pacific, which established the first world-class data center and carrier-neutral Internet exchange in Hawaii and the Pacific. Before that, he worked as an engineer for GTE Hawaiian Tel for more than 18 years. Ige was appointed to the Hawaii House of Representatives on December 2, 1985, by Governor George Ariyoshi, after Representative Arnold Morgado resigned to run for a seat on the Honolulu City Council, he served in the Hawaii State Senate from 1995 through 2015. During his legislative career, Ige has served as the chairman of nine different committees, he focused much of his career as a legislator on telecommunications policy. In the Legislature, he co-authored the Hawaii Telecommunications and Information Industries Act that established the state information network and created the Hawaii Information Network Corporation.
He has been at the center of Hawaii's efforts to diversify its economy. Ige was responsible for establishing seed capital and venture capital programs, software development initiatives, technology transfer programs. Ige won reelection to the Hawaii State Senate in 2012, after defeating Republican challenger and former U. S. Naval Air crewman, Army Captain, small business executive Mike Greco. Greco was the first challenger Ige faced in a general election in over a decade. Ige ran against incumbent Neil Abercrombie in the Democratic primary for the 2014 gubernatorial election. Though he was outspent in the race by the incumbent, Ige defeated Abercrombie by 66% to 31%. Ige's victory made him the first candidate to defeat an incumbent Governor of Hawaii in a primary election. Ige faced Independent Mufi Hannemann in the general election, he won the election by 12 percentage points. Ige was sworn in as the eighth Governor of Hawaii on December 1, 2014, with Lieutenant Governor Shan Tsutsui, in the Hawaii State Capitol Rotunda.
Ige is the second person of Japanese descent to be elected Governor of Hawaii, the first person of Okinawan descent to be elected governor of a U. S. state. Governor Ige's inauguration theme of "honoring the past and charting a new tomorrow" was on display throughout the ceremony, which paid tribute to his father who served in the 100th Battalion, 442nd Regimental Combat Team of the U. S. Army during World War II alongside the late U. S. Senator Daniel Inouye. In October 2015, Ige declared a state of emergency due to the escalating scale of the homelessness problem. In June 2017, following President Donald Trump's decision to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement on climate change, Ige signed two bills that committed the state to meeting regardless its greenhouse gas emission targets under the Paris Agreement and established a carbon reduction and soil health taskforce. After an incoming missile alert was erroneously sent to all smartphones in the state and broadcast over local television and radio on January 13, 2018, Ige apologized for the mishap, which he attributed to human error during a shift change at the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency.
Ige pledged to reevaluate the state's emergency procedures to prevent a recurrence of the false alert, which caused widespread panic and confusion in the state
Japanese Americans are Americans who are or of Japanese descent those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. Japanese Americans were among the three largest Asian American ethnic communities during the 20th century. According to the 2010 census, the largest Japanese American communities were found in California with 272,528, Hawaii with 185,502, New York with 37,780, Washington with 35,008, Illinois with 17,542, Ohio with 16,995. Southern California has the largest Japanese American population in North America and the city of Torrance holds the densest Japanese American population in the 48 contiguous states. People from Japan began migrating to the US in significant numbers following the political and social changes stemming from the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Large numbers went to Hawaii and the West Coast. In 1907, the "Gentlemen's Agreement" between the governments of Japan and the US ended immigration of Japanese unskilled workers, but permitted the immigration of businessmen and spouses of Japanese immigrants in the US.
The Immigration Act of 1924 banned the immigration of nearly all Japanese. The ban on immigration produced unusually well-defined generational groups within the Japanese American community. Original immigrants belonged to an immigrant generation, the Issei, their US-born children to the Nisei Japanese American generation; the Issei comprised those who had immigrated before 1924. Because no new immigrants were permitted, all Japanese Americans born after 1924 were—by definition—born in the US; this generation, the Nisei, became a distinct cohort from the Issei generation in terms of age and English-language ability, in addition to the usual generational differences. Institutional and interpersonal racism led many of the Nisei to marry other Nisei, resulting in a third distinct generation of Japanese Americans, the Sansei. Significant Japanese immigration did not occur again until the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 ended 40 years of bans against immigration from Japan and other countries.
The Naturalization Act of 1790 restricted naturalized United States citizenship to "free white persons", which excluded the Issei from citizenship. As a result, the Issei were unable to vote and faced additional restrictions such as the inability to own land under many state laws. Japanese Americans were parties in several important Supreme Court decisions, including Ozawa v. United States and Korematsu v. United States; the Korematsu case originated the "strict scrutiny" standard, applied, with great controversy, in government considerations of race since the 1989 Adarand Constructors v. Peña decision. In recent years, immigration from Japan has been more like that from Western Europe; the numbers involve on average 5 to 10 thousand per year, is similar to the amount of immigration to the US from Germany. This is in stark contrast to the rest of Asia, where family reunification is the primary impetus for immigration. During World War II, an estimated 120,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese nationals or citizens residing on the West Coast of the United States were forcibly interned in ten different camps across the western interior of the country.
The internments were based on the ancestry rather than activities of the interned. Families, including children, were interned together. Four decades the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 acknowledged the "fundamental violations of the basic civil liberties and constitutional rights" of the internment. Many Japanese-Americans consider the term internment camp a euphemism and prefer to refer to the forced relocation of Japanese-Americans as imprisonment in concentration camps. Webster's New World Fourth College Edition defines a concentration camp as, "A prison camp in which political dissidents, members of minority ethnic groups, etc. are confined." The nomenclature for each of their generations who are citizens or long-term residents of countries other than Japan, used by Japanese Americans and other nationals of Japanese descent are explained here. The Japanese American communities have themselves distinguished their members with terms like Issei and Sansei, which describe the first and third generations of immigrants.
The fourth generation is called Yonsei, the fifth is called Gosei. The term Nikkei encompasses Japanese immigrants of all generations; the kanreki, a pre-modern Japanese rite of passage to old age at 60, is now being celebrated by increasing numbers of Japanese American Nisei. Rituals are enactments of shared meanings and values. Issei and many nisei speak Japanese in addition to English as a second language. In general generations of Japanese Americans speak English as their first language, though some do learn Japanese as a second language. In Hawaii however, where Nikkei are about one-fifth of the whole population, Japanese is a major language and studied by many of the state's residents across ethnicities, it is taught in private Japanese language schools as early as the second grade. As a courtesy to the large number of Japanese tourists, Japanese characters are provided on place signs, public transportation, civic facilities; the Hawaii media market h
United States Immigration Office (Honolulu, Hawaii)
The U. S. Immigration Office in Honolulu, Hawaii was constructed in 1934 based on a design by C. W. Dickey and Herbert C. Cayton, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. Dickey was raised on Maui and became the acknowledged master of what became known as the "territorial style" of Hawaiian architecture, he had earlier designed the Alexander & Baldwin Building in downtown Honolulu, but felt that the somewhat similar design of the Immigration building "summed up his work." Similar renditions of the tiled, double-pitched, hipped "Dickey roof" with wide eaves can be found all over the islands after its revival on many new buildings during the 1980s and 1990s. Other elements of the Dickey style include balanced proportions, open areas designed to provide natural light and ventilation, decorative details such as the inlaid compass on the waiting room floor and floral patterns on the terra cotta ceiling tiles; the site was a reception center for aliens arriving by ships during the various waves of immigration of laborers to the islands.
The site is recognized for the central role it had as a processing and internment site during World War II. The Honouliuli Internment Camp, near Ewa and Waipahu, is the other site on the island of Oahu that has met the criteria for national significance; the site contained an office building and apartments for the employees of the U. S. Immigration and Naturalization Service and their families. Owned and managed by the General Services Administration, the complex must be returned to state control if declared surplus by the federal government; as of 2014, the building houses Homeland Security Investigations, a branch of U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement in the Department of Homeland Security and the State of Hawai‘i Department of Health. A special resource study and environmental assessment released by the National Park Service in August 2015 determined that the Honouliuli Internment Camp historic site is a feasible addition to the national park system conditional upon securing public access to the site.
However, the U. S. Immigration Station complex is not a feasible addition because the complex is used by the aforementioned governmental departments
Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign
The Gilbert and Marshall Islands Campaign were a series of battles fought from November 1943 through February 1944, in the Pacific Theater of World War II between the United States and the Empire of Japan. They were the first steps of the drive across the central Pacific by the United States Pacific Fleet and Marine Corps; the purpose was to establish airfields and naval bases that would allow air and naval support for upcoming operations across the Central Pacific. Operations Galvanic and Kourbash were the code names for the Gilberts campaign that included the seizures of Tarawa and Makin. Operations Flintlock and Catchpole were aimed at capturing Japanese Bases at Kwajalein and Majuro in the Marshall Islands; the Imperial Japanese Navy occupied the Gilbert Islands three days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. They built a seaplane base on Makin and dispersed troops along the coastlines of the atolls to monitor the Allied forces' movement in the South Pacific; the Marshall Islands are located 220 miles northwest of the Gilbert Islands, had been occupied by the Japanese since World War I as part of the South Pacific Mandate.
The Japanese regarded the islands as an important outpost for their navy. Allied commanders knew that an eventual surrender of Japan would require penetration of these islands. While commander of the U. S. Army General Douglas MacArthur wanted to push towards the Philippines via New Guinea, the U. S. Navy's Admiral Chester Nimitz favored a drive across the central Pacific, through the Gilberts, the Marshalls, the Carolines, the Marianas, which would put American B-29 bombers within range of Tokyo. In addition to forcing the Japanese to fight two fronts against the Allies, Nimitz's plan would neutralize the outer Japanese defenses, allowing American ground and air bases to be stationed there for future attacks against other occupied island groups; these outer islands included the atolls of Tarawa and Makin in the Gilberts, Majuro and Eniwetok in the Marshalls. Japanese forces occupied the Gilbert islands on 10 December 1941, landing troops of the South Seas Detachment on Tarawa and Makin islands, a few days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, in order to protect their south-eastern flank from allied counterattacks, isolate Australia.
The islands were to become a staging post for the planned invasion of the Tuvalu islands by the Japanese, under the codename Operation FS, but their setback at the Battle of the Coral Sea delayed the plans, their defeat at the Battle of Midway and in the Solomon Islands put a definitive end to it. Following Carlson's Raiders' diversionary Makin Island raid and the defeat at Guadalcanal, the Japanese command was growing aware of the vulnerability and strategic significance of the Gilbert Islands, started adopting a defensive stance. Although Imperial leaders wanted to fortify the Marianas and Palau before the Americans could get there, commanders in the outer islands were told to try and hold the island as long as possible. Fortifications were improved by the Japanese, starting in March 1943. Makin Atoll had a seaplane base built on the main island of Butaritari, while Tarawa housed enough room for an airfield on its largest island, Betio; when the Americans landed, nearly 5,000 soldiers, among them 3,000 Special Naval Landing Forces, 1,247 construction laborers were stationed on Tarawa.
A detachment of soldiers from Tarawa island occupied the island of Abemama in September 1942, though numbering about 300, by the time the Americans invaded the island on November 1943, most of them had been evacuated back to Tarawa, leaving only 25 Special Naval Landing Forces behind to defend the island. Lieutenant Junior Grade Seizo Ishikawa, the Japanese commander in charge of defending Makin, ordered his troops to build extensive fortifications on the island; these included 8 inches coastal defense guns, 1.5 in anti-tank gun positions, machine gun emplacements, rifle pits, 15 feet deep tank barriers with anti-tank guns, barbed wire. These were designed to hold the island. On Tarawa, Keiji Shibazaki had 4,836 troops, including around 2,600 Special Naval Landing Forces, 1,000 Japanese construction workers, 1,200 Korean laborers, he planned to use these units to defend Betio, the largest island in the atoll. Betio was the site of a crucial Japanese airfield. To protect it from capture, Keiji had 14 coastal defense guns, 50 pieces of field artillery, 100 machine gun nests, 500 pillboxes installed, as well as a large wall built across the northern lagoon.
After the Gilberts fell to the Americans in late November 1943, Admiral Mineichi Koga of the Japanese Combined Fleet was unsure of which islands the Americans would strike. Without any carrier aircraft to inform him, he ordered Admiral Masashi Kobayashi to disperse his 28,000 troops to the outer islands of Maloelap, Wotje and Mili. However, Allied intelligence intercepted Imperial code, informing the Americans of which islands were more defended; the Americans decided to invade the least protected but strategically important islands of Majuro and Eniwetok. As early as November, B-24s from the 7th Air Force stationed in the Ellice Islands had flown bombing missions over Mili and Maloelap. On 3 December 1943, Task Force 50, under Rear Admiral Charles Pownall, including fleet carriers Essex, Intrepid and Yorktown and light carriers Belleau Wood and Cowpens, launched carrier aircraft against Kwajalein. Four transports and fifty Japanese aircraft