A coachbuilder or body-maker manufactures bodies for passenger-carrying vehicles. Coachwork is the body of an automobile, horse-drawn carriage, or railroad passenger car; the word "coach" was derived from the Hungarian town of Kocs. Custom or bespoke coachbuilt bodies were made and fitted to another manufacturer's rolling chassis by the craftsmen who had built bodies for horse-drawn carriages and coaches. Separate coachbuilt bodies became obsolete when vehicle manufacturers found they could no longer meet their customers' demands by relying on a simple separate chassis mounted on leaf springs on beam axles. Unibody or monocoque combined chassis and body structures became standardised during the middle years of the 20th century to provide the rigidity required by improved suspension systems without incurring the heavy weight, consequent fuel, penalty of a rigid separate chassis; the improved more supple suspension systems gave vehicles better roadholding and much improved the ride experienced by passengers.
As well as true bespoke bodies the same coachbuilders made short runs of more-or-less identical bodies to the order of dealers or the manufacturer of a chassis. The same body design might be adjusted to suit different brands of chassis. Examples include Salmons & Sons' Tickford bodies with a patent device to raise or lower a convertible's roof, first used on their 19th century carriages, or Wingham convertible bodies by Martin Walter. Coachbuilt body is the British English name for the coachbuilder's product. Custom body is the standard term in North American English. Coachbuilders are: carrossiers in French, carrozzeria in Italian, Karosseriebauer in German and carroceros in Spanish. Coachbuilt body is the British English name for mass produced vehicles built on assembly lines using the same but simplified techniques until more durable all-steel bodies replaced them in the early 1950s. Unless they were for mass produced vehicles justifying the cost of tooling up dies and presses coachbuilt bodies were made of hand-shaped sheet metal alluminium alloy.
Pressed or hand-shaped the metal panels were fastened to a wooden frame of light but strong timber. Many of the more important structural features of the bespoke or custom body such as A, B and C pillars were cast alloy components; some bodies such as those alloy bodies fitted to many Pierce-Arrow cars contained little or no timber though they were mounted on a conventional steel chassis. The coachbuilder craftsmen who might once have built bespoke or custom bodies continue to build bodies for short runs of specialised commercial vehicles such as luxury motor coaches or recreational vehicles or motorhome bodied upon a rolling chassis provided by an independent manufacturer. A conversion is built inside an existing vehicle body. A British trade association the Worshipful Company of Coachmakers and Coach Harness Makers, was incorporated in 1630; some British coachmaking firms operating in the 20th century were established earlier. Rippon was active in the time of Queen Elizabeth I, Barker founded in 1710 by an officer in Queen Anne's Guards.
Brewster, the oldest in the U. S. was formed in 1810. The maker would provide the coachworks with a chassis frame, brakes, steering system, lighting system, spare wheel and rear mudguards and bumpers and dashboard; the easily damaged honeycomb radiator enclosed and protected by a shell became the main visual element identifying the chassis' brand. To maintain some level of control over the final product, chassis manufacturers' warranties would be voided by mating them with unapproved bodies; when popular automobile manufacturers brought body building in-house, larger dealers or distributors of ultra-luxury cars would pre-order stock chassis and the bodies they thought most to sell, inventory them in suitable quantities for sale off their showroom floor. In time, the practice of commissioning bespoke coachwork dwindled to a prerogative of wealth. All ultra-luxury vehicles of automobiling's Golden Era before World War II sold as chassis only. For instance, when Duesenberg introduced their Model J, it was offered as chassis only, for $8,500.
Other examples include the Bugatti Type 57, Cadillac V-16, Ferrari 250, Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8, all Rolls-Royces produced before World War II. Delahaye had no in-house coachworks, so all its chassis were bodied by independents, who created some of their most attractive designs on the Type 135. Most of the Delahayes were bodied by Chapron, Franay, Figoni et Falaschi and many more carrossiers; the practice remained in limited force after World War II, with both luxury chassis and high-performance sports cars and gran turismos, waning by the late 1960s. Rolls-Royce acquiesced, debuting its first unibody model, the Silver Shadow, in 1965, before taking all R-R and Bentley bodying in-house. Independent coachbuilders survived for a time after the mid-20th century, making bodies for the chassis produced by low-production companies such as Rolls-Royce and Bentley. Producing body dies is expensive, only considered practical when large numbers are involved—though, the path taken by Rolls-Royce and Bentley after 1945 for their own in-house production.
Because dies for pressing metal panels are so costly, from the mid 20th century, many vehicles, most notably the Chevrolet Corvette, were clothed with large panels of fiberglass reinforced resin, which only require inexpensive molds. Glass has since been re
A hood/bonnet ornament, radiator cap, motor mascot or car mascot is a specially crafted model which symbolizes a car company like a badge, located on the front center portion of the hood. It has been used as an adornment nearly since the inception of automobiles. According to the author of A History of Cars written for youth, the first "hood ornament" was a sun-crested falcon mounted on Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun's chariot. In the early years, automobiles had their radiator caps outside of the hood and on top of the grille which served as an indicator of the temperature of the engine's coolant fluid; the Boyce MotoMeter Company was issued a patent in 1912 for a radiator cap that incorporated a thermometer, visible to the driver with a sensor that measured the heat of the water vapor, rather than the water itself. This became a useful gauge for the driver because many early engines did not have water pumps, but a circulation system based on the "thermo-syphon" principle as in the Ford Model T.
The "exposed radiator cap became a focal point for automobile personalization."Hood ornaments were popular in the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s, 1950s, with many automakers fitting them to their vehicles. Moreover, a healthy business was created in the supply of accessory mascots available to anyone who wanted to add a hood ornament or car mascot to their automobile. Most companies like Desmo and Smith's are now out of business with only Louis Lejeune Ltd. in England surviving. Sculptors such as Bazin, Sykes and Lejeune all created finely detailed sculptures in miniature, like Statuettes. Restrictions to the fitting of ornaments on the front of vehicles have been introduced in some jurisdictions. Projecting decorative designs on the hood may increase the risk of injury to pedestrians in the case of an accident. Regulations introduced in the United States for the 1968 model year vehicles meant the disappearance of fixed stand-up hood ornaments, as well as spinner wheel protrusions. Versions featured flexibly mounted stand-up hood ornaments designed to fold without breaking on impact.
In the European Union, since 1974 all new cars have had to conform to a European directive on vehicle exterior projections. Rolls Royce's mascot is now mounted on a spring-loaded mechanism designed to retract into the radiator shell if struck with a force greater than 98 newtons; the Mercedes-Benz and many other ornaments were designed. For aftermarket ornaments, breakaway nylon fixings are available that comply with EC Directive 74/483. Many automakers wanted their own emblems displayed on their vehicles' hoods, Boyce Motormeter accommodated them with corporate logos or mascots, as well as numerous organizations that wanted custom cap emblems to identify their members; the company had over 300 such customers at one time during the mid-1920s, for car, tractor, boat and motorcycle manufacturers, in 1927, had 1,800 employees in six countries: U. S. England, Australia and Germany; the hundreds of motor vehicle manufacturers before 1929 meant many customers for their customized emblems. Along with the grille, the hood ornament is a distinctive styling element and many marques use it as their primary brand identifier.
Examples of hood ornaments include: Archer on Pierce-Arrow cars Ottawa leader Pontiac on Pontiac automobiles Crest and Wreath on Cadillac cars Letter "B" with wings on Bentley cars Ball with wings on Horch cars Leaping jaguar on Jaguar Cars Lion rampant on Peugeot cars Marlin on the American Motors fastback mounted within a round "sight" Rocket on Oldsmobile cars Rocky Mountain big horn ram's head on Dodge cars and trucks Spirit of Ecstasy on Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Three-pointed star surrounded by a circle on Mercedes-Benz sedans and wagons Trishields on Buick carsAdditionally, many models such as Buick's Regal, the Chevrolet Impala, or Chrysler's Cordoba had their own unique emblem and accompanying distinctive standup hood ornament. The radiator cap was transformed into an art form and became a way of individualizing the car, "representing a company's vision of the automobile", or "speaking volumes about the owner" of the vehicle. Hood ornaments are cast in brass, zinc, or bronze and finished in a chrome plated finish.
During the years when chrome plate was unavailable, they were plated in either nickel. Some incorporated other materials, such as plastic, bakelite, or colored glass, while others incorporated a light bulb for illumination at night; the best-known glass mascots were made by René Lalique in France. Other sellers or producers of glass mascots include Sabino in France, Red Ashay in England, Persons Majestic in the U. S; the latter two had their products made in Czechoslovakia. The Lalique company, like Louis Lejeune, is one of the few survivors from this era of motoring. There is a collectors market for hood ornaments and car mascots. "Flying Ladies": The Art of the Automobile Hood Ornaments and Car Mascots. Retrieved on April 18, 2008. Jill Reger Photography—Photographic art of car mascots and hood ornaments Weiner, Geoffrey George. Unique Lalique Mascots: The Automotive Radiator Hood Ornaments of Master Glass Artisan R. Lalique. Brighton, UK: The Book Guild Ltd. ISBN 978-1909-984219. OCLC 893632146
A roof rack is a set of bars secured to the roof of a motor car. It is used to carry bulky items such as luggage, canoes, skis, or various carriers and containers, they allow users of an automobile to transport objects on the roof of the vehicle without reducing interior space for occupants, or the cargo area volume limits such as in the typical car's trunk design. These include car top weatherproof containers, some designed for specific cargo such as skis or luggage. There is a long history of the use of their designs; until the late 1970s all regular passenger automobiles had rain gutters. These gutters are formed by the welded flange on the left and right sides of the car's metal roof panel; this made attaching an accessory or aftermarket roof rack a simple process. The first mass production cars without any visible rain gutters were the 1975 AMC Pacer and Chevrolet Monza. Other vehicles were introduced on the market with hidden rain gutters during the 1980s, by 1990, vehicles with external rain gutters were becoming rare.
Roof rack suppliers developed new products designed to securely attach to various types of automobile roofs. The most common components of a roof rack system are: towers, fitting pieces and gear mounts. Automobile roof racks are split into different types, depending on the vehicle roof: Rain Gutter - older roof racks were mounted directly to the gutter surrounding the roof line. Bare Roof - many modern vehicles, which do not have gutters, can have a roof rack installed by attaching hooks to the top of the door frames. Fixed Point - some automobiles have fittings for proprietary racks which mate with reinforced lugs in the roof, or have pre-threaded screwholes. Side Rails - vehicles with factory-installed rails, which may be flush against the roof or raised off of the roof, running front-to-back on the roof Factory Bars - other vehicles have a factory-installed permanent roof rack. There are many factors in the use of roof racks; some of these include: their weight and strength, the profile for loading and unloading, as well as any available accessories.
Roof racks increase air resistance and in the US, roof racks increased overall fuel consumption by 1%. Due increased wind resistance, roof racks may add sound on the highway; when installing roof racks, it is important to load the bars properly, in accordance with the owner's manual. When driving on road, one needs to load the allowed weight minus the weight of the roof rack kit. If one plans using the roof racks for off-road drive, the allowed weight should be divided by 2, this will be the amount, allowed to carry on the roof racks in such driving conditions. Truck bed rack is a derivation of a roof rack designed to be installed over the bed of a pickup truck; the construction of a bed rack features tall tubes that allow to the rack platform to be higher above the bed surface and leave space for cargo inside of the bed. Pickup truck racks form a long cargo platform, they are used in constructions and recreation as a base for various work and recreational gear such as ladders, surf boards, etc
Butterfly doors or vertical doors are a type of car door sometimes seen on high-performance cars. They are similar to scissor doors. While scissor doors move straight up via hinge points at the bottom of the A-pillar, butterfly doors move up and out via hinges along the A-pillar; this makes for easier entry/exit at the expense of requiring more opening space than needed for scissor doors. The McLaren F1, Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale, Saleen S7, Enzo Ferrari and its non road-going version, the FXX, Toyota Sera/EXY-10, the Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren, among others, use butterfly doors, it was a common feature for Group C and IMSA GTP/Camel Lights prototype racers as they incorporate teardrop tops which allows the driver to get in and out of the car more than conventional and gullwing doors in a cramped pitlane environment such as the pre-1991 Le Mans circuit. Since butterfly doors have been an adopted design of closed top sportscar racers, such as the Toyota GT-One, Bentley Speed 8 and more the Peugeot 908 HDi FAP.
The Toyota Sera, made between 1990 and 1995, was a limited-release car designed for the Japanese market, the first mass produced vehicle to use this design. The Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren Roadster was one of the few open top cars to use butterfly wing doors; this is made possible by having the doors hinged at the side of A-pillar instead of at top by the roof. The McLaren MP4-12C has a unique system where the butterfly doors do not use a top hinge meaning that the car can use frameless windows which allows for the car's convertible version to retain them. Canopy door Car door Gullwing doors List of cars with unusual door designs Scissor doors Sliding doors Suicide doors Swan doors Automotive door styles
In automotive engineering, a grille covers an opening in the body of a vehicle to allow air to enter. Most vehicles feature a grille at the front of the vehicle to protect the engine. Merriam-Webster describes grilles as "a grating forming a screen. Other common grille locations include below the front bumper, in front of the wheels, in the cowl for cabin ventilation, or on the rear deck lid; the front fascia of a motor vehicle has an important role in attracting buyers. The principal function of the grille is to admit cooling air to the car's radiator. However, the look of the vehicle "matters a great deal more than whether the design features serve any function." As one of the main visual components on the front of vehicles, "an inspired grille design makes a car attractive and shapes its identity by tying it to the carmaker's history and reputation."Currently, big grilles are cosmetic. The grille is a distinctive styling element, many marques use it as their primary brand identifier. For example, Jeep has trademarked its seven-bar grille style.
Rolls-Royce is known for arranging its grille bars by hand to ensure that they appear vertical. Other makers known for their grille styling include Bugatti's horse-collar, BMW's split kidney, Rover's chrome "teeth", Mitsubishi's forward swept, fighter aircraft-style grilles for their cars 2008 Lancer and Lancer Evo X, Dodge's cross bar, Alfa Romeo's six-bar shield, Volvo's slash bar, Nissan's trapezoid shaped chrome surround, Mazda's rotary engine shape, Audi's new, so-called single-frame grille, Pontiac's split horizontal grille and an egg-crate grille on late-generation Plymouths, Lexus's spindle-shaped grille; the unusual 1971 Plymouth Barracuda grille is known as a cheesegrater. Ford's three-bar grille, introduced on the 2006 Fusion, has become distinctive as well. Porsche, a long-time manufacturer of air-cooled cars, continues to minimize the prominence of a "grille" on the marque's modern water-cooled vehicles in keeping with that heritage; the contrary styling pattern occurs. Starting from the late 1930s, Cadillac would alternate its pattern from horizontal bars to various patterns of crosshatching as a simple way of making the car look new from year to year, for this make did not have a standard grille form.
Sometimes there is a sort of fashion trend in grille bars. For example, in the early years after World War II, many American car makers switched to fewer and thicker grille bars. A billet grille is an aftermarket part, used to enhance the style or function of the original OEM grille, they are made from billet, solid bar stock aircraft-grade aluminum, although some are CNC machined from one solid sheet of aluminum. Customizers would alter the grille as a matter of course in personalizing their car, taking the grille bar from another make, for example. Sheet metal with patterned holes for ventilation grating sold to homeowners for repair has been found filling the grille opening of custom cars. Per mounting location on the car body: Radiator grille. Bolt over styleIn this installation method, the billet grille bolts over the existing OEM plastic grille; this method does not require cutting of the OEM grille shell. Hidden bolts and clamps are used for this simple installation; the downside is it may not look as clean as the replacement style, because you can still see the OEM grille underneath.
Bolt overs should take no more than 30 minutes to install. Replacement styleThe OEM grille must first be removed and the replacement billet grille must be mounted in place of the OEM grille. Drilling and sometimes cutting is required for this method. Installation instructions are still a challenging job. Grilles on automobiles have taken on different designs through the years; this feature first appeared on automobiles in 1903. Several years the arch-shaped design became common and became the standard design on automobile grilles for many years; the "split" grille design first appeared in 1923 on the Alfa Romeo sports car. In the 1930s and 1940s, automobile manufacturers became creative with their grille designs; some of these designs were bell-shaped and folded, cross-shaped, while some including Packard, Rolls-Royce, MG-TC models still followed the older arch-shaped design. Grilles took on a new look after World War II. Following the introduction of the 1947 Buick and Kaiser, grilles became shorter and wider to accommodate for the change in design.
Diffuser Grating Bottom breather, vehicles without a grille The dictionary definition of grille at Wiktionary Car grille function to feature
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
A hinge is a mechanical bearing that connects two solid objects allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. Two objects connected by an ideal hinge rotate relative to each other about a fixed axis of rotation: all other translations or rotations being prevented, thus a hinge has one degree of freedom. Hinges may be made of moving components. In biology, many joints function as hinges like the elbow joint. There are many types of door hinges; the main types include: Spring hinge a spring-loaded hinge made to provide assistance in the closing or the opening of the hinge leaves. A spring is a component of a hinge, that applies force to secure a hinge closed or keep a hinge opened. Barrel hinge a sectional barrel secured by a pivot. A barrel is a component of a hinge, that has a hollow cylinder shaped section where the rotational bearing force is applied to the pivot, may have a screw shaped section for fastening and/or driving the pivot. Pivot hinges which pivot in the top of the door frame.
Referred to as a double-acting floor hinge. This type is found in ancient dry stone buildings and in old wooden buildings; these are called haar-hung doors. They are a low cost alternative for use with light weight doors. Butt/Mortise hinges in threes or fours, which are inset into the door and frame. Most residential hinges found in the U. S. are made of steel, although mortise hinges for exterior doors are made of brass or stainless steel to prevent corrosion. Case hinges Case hinges are similar to a butt hinge however more of a decorative nature most used in suitcases and the like. Continuous hinges, or piano hinges This type of hinge is known as a piano hinge, it runs the entire length of panel, or box. Continuous hinges are manufactured without holes; these hinges come in various thicknesses, pin diameters, knuckle lengths. Concealed hinges Used for furniture doors, they are made of two parts: One part is the hinge cup and the arm, the other part is the mounting plate. Called "cup hinge", or "Euro hinge", as they were developed in Europe and use metric installation standards.
Most such concealed hinges offer the advantage of full in situ adjustability for standoff distance from the cabinet face as well as pitch and roll by means of two screws on each hinge. Butterfly hinges, or Parliament Hinges These were known as dovetail hinges from the 17th century onwards and can be found on old desks and cabinets from about 1670 until the 18th century; the form of these hinges varied between manufacturers, their size ranged from the large for heavy doors to the tiniest decorative hinge for use on jewellery boxes. Many hinges of this type were exported to America to support the home trade's limited supply, they are still found to be both cheap and decorative on small items. Flag hinges A flag hinge can be taken apart with a fixed pin on one leaf. Flag hinges can swivel a full 360 degrees around the pin. Flag hinges are manufactured as a left hand configuration. Strap used on many kinds of interior and exterior doors and cabinets. H used on flush-mounted doors. Small H hinges tend to be used for cabinets hinges, while larger hinges are for passage doors or closet doors.
HL hinges Large HL hinges were common for passage doors, room doors and closet doors in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. On taller doors H hinges were used in the middle along with the HL hinges. Other types include: Counterflap hinge Flush hinge Coach hinge Rising Butt hinge Double action spring hinge Double action non-spring Tee hinge Friction hinge Security hinge Cranked hinge or stormproof hinge Lift-off hinge Self closing hinge Since at least medieval times there have been hinges to draw bridges for defensive purposes for fortified buildings. Hinges are used in contemporary architecture where building settlement can be expected over the life of the building. For example, the Dakin Building in Brisbane, was designed with its entrance ramp on a large hinge to allow settlement of the building built on piles over bay mud; this device was effective until October 2006, when it was replaced due to damage and excessive ramp slope. Hinges appear in large structures such as elevated railroad viaducts.
These are included to reduce or eliminate the transfer of bending stresses between structural components in an effort to reduce sensitivity to earthquakes. The primary reason for using a hinge, rather than a simpler device such as a slide, is to prevent the separation of adjacent components; when no bending stresses are transmitted across the hinge it is called a zero moment hinge. People have developed a variety of self-actuating, self-locking hinge designs for spacecraft deployable structures such as solar array panels, synthetic aperture radar antennas, radiators, etc. Pin The rod that holds the leaves together, inside the knuckle. Knuckle The hollow—typically circular—portion creating the joint of the hinge through which the pin is set; the knuckles of either leaf alternate and interlock with the pin passing through all of them. Leaf The portions that extend laterally from the knuckle and revolve around the pin. End play Axial movement between the leaves along the axis of the pin; this motion allows the leaves to rotate without binding and is determined by the typical distance between knuckles when both edges of the leaves are aligned.
Gauge Thickness of the leaves. Hinge width Len