Cape Dorset is an Inuit hamlet located on Dorset Island near Foxe Peninsula at the southern tip of Baffin Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada. Cape Dorset is where the remains of the Thule were discovered, who lived between 1000 BC and 1100 AD. Cape Dorset was named by Captain Luke Fox after Edward Sackville, 4th Earl of Dorset, on September 24, 1631; the Inuit called the inlet Sikusiilaq, after the area of sea ocean nearby that remains ice-free all winter. Hudson's Bay Company set up a trading post here in 1913, where they traded furs and skins for supplies such as tobacco, flour, gas and sugar. Since the 1950s, Cape Dorset, which calls itself the "Capital of Inuit Art", has been a centre for drawing and carving. In the 21st century and carving continue to be the community's main economic activities; each year, Kinngait Studios issues an annual print collection. Cape Dorset has been hailed as the most artistic community in Canada, with some 22% of the labour force employed in the arts.
In 1957, James Archibald Houston created a graphic arts workshop in Cape Dorset, in a program sponsored by the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources. It was considered a way for the community to generate income by adapting traditional art forms to contemporary techniques. Houston collected drawings from community artists and encouraged local Inuit stone carvers to apply their skills to stone-block printing, in order to create art that might be more sold and distributed; the print program was modeled after Japanese ukiyo-e workshops. Other cooperative print shops were established in nearby communities, but the Cape Dorset workshop has remained the most successful; the artists have experimented with etching, engraving and silkscreen. They produce annual catalogs advertising the limited edition prints. Between the years of 1959 and 1974, Cape Dorset artists produced more than 48,000 prints. Well-known artists of Cape Dorset include Pitseolak Ashoona, Nuna Parr, Pudlo Pudlat, Angotigolu Teevee, Alashua Aningmiuq, Kiugak Ashoona, Anirnik Oshuitoq and Kenojuak Ashevak.
Parr's carvings are internationally recognized and his work is exhibited in the National Gallery of Canada. Ashevak's drawings of owls have been chosen to appear on Canadian stamps as well as a Canadian quarter. Inuit carver, artist and author Peter Pitseolak spent several years living in Cape Dorset; the local junior-senior high school was named for him. As of the 2016 census, the population was an increase of 5.7 % from the 2006 census. A handful of unnamed dirt/gravel roads do not connect beyond Cape Dorset. Cars and trucks are the main means of transportation and supplemented by snowmobiles and ATVs during the winter; the people use boats and ships for seasonal travel to and from Cape Dorset when the Hudson Strait is ice-free. A taxi company, Tuniit Taxis, offer a range of vehicles; the area is serviced by the Cape Dorset Airport with connections only within Nunavut. Travel outside Nunavut can be made via connections through Iqaluit Airport; the only secondary school in town, Peter Pitseolak School, was destroyed by fire set by three youths in September 2015.
Sam Pudlat School is the community's only elementary school. Attendance is quite poor at the high school. Post-secondary education is available in a limited number of areas in Cape Dorset at the Community Learning Centre. Nunavut Arctic College, based in Iqaluit, periodically offers community-based programs in Cape Dorset at the Community Learning Centre; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police has a detachment staffed by four officers and sometimes number as many as six officers with one corporal. The Fire Department is staffed by a pumper at a single fire hall. There is a lack of fire hydrants in the town, so each run has to be filled up at the water station. Medical facilities are basic at the Community Health Centre with four beds. Advanced medical care requires an airlift to the Qikiqtani General Hospital in Iqaluit. There is no ambulance in the town. Qualified doctors visit only occasionally. There is a taxi service but it is not reliable; the community has been served by the Qiniq network since 2005.
Qiniq is a fixed wireless service to homes and businesses, connecting to the outside world via a satellite backbone. The Qiniq network is operated by SSI Micro. In 2017, the network was upgraded to 4G LTE technology, 2G-GSM for mobile voice. No new family dwellings have been built in more than 10 years, so houses are overcrowded with as many as 17 people living in small quarters. TB or tuberculosis is active in the town; this is made more acutely dangerous. The cost of basic food staples like milk, flour, butter is 65-75% higher than in Ottawa or Montreal. Spanning both Dorset Island and Mallik Island, Mallikjuaq Territorial Park is notable for archaeological sites revealing Thule culture, Dorset culture, Inuit history; the park is reachable by foot by boat. A cairn was raised in memory of the ship, RMS Nascopie, that hit rock and sank in 1947, it was a supply ship to the Arctic. Although the cargo was lost, the passengers and crew were saved. In September 2018, the Kenokuak Cultural Centre and Print Shop opened.
The centre is named after local artist and Inuit art pioneer Kenojuak Ashevak who passed away in 2013. The centre serves art studio and exhibition space for local artists. There are outfitters that provide numerous dog sledding and hiking to parks tours. Cape Dor
Cambridge Bay is a hamlet located on Victoria Island in the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut, Canada. It is named for Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, while the traditional Inuinnaqtun name for the area is Ikaluktuutiak or Iqaluktuttiaq meaning "good fishing place"; the traditional language of the area is Inuinnaqtun and is written using the Latin alphabet rather than the syllabics of the Inuktitut writing system. Like Kugluktuk, Bathurst Inlet and Umingmaktok, syllabics are seen and used by the Government of Nunavut. Cambridge Bay is the largest stop for passenger and research vessels traversing the Arctic Ocean's Northwest Passage, a disputed area which the Government of Canada claims are Canadian Internal Waters, while other nations state they are either territorial waters or international waters. Situated between Dease Strait and Queen Maud Gulf on the southeast coast of Victoria Island, part of the Arctic Archipelago, Cambridge Bay is a transportation and administrative centre for the Kitikmeot Region.
To the north of the community is Ferguson Lake which flows into Wellington Bay via the Ekalluk River. The Ekalluk River is both an important commercial fishing and archaeological area, of particular importance is the short section of the river known as Iqaluktuuq. About 37 km west of the community lie the Finlayson Islands which were surveyed by Sir Richard Collinson on board the Enterprise during his search for the lost expedition of Sir John Franklin; the area was a traditional hunting and fishing location and archaeological sites are found. Barren-ground caribou, Arctic char, lake trout and ringed seal were the primary, remain important food sources. Situated east of Cambridge Bay is Ovayok Territorial Park, which includes the large esker known as Ovayok; as of the 2016 census the population was an increase of 9.8 % from the 2011 census. The median age of the population in 2011 was 27.4 and 71.5% of the people were over 15. Both of these figures are higher than the numbers for Nunavut as a whole.
In 2006, 82.7 % of the population were listed as 17.7 % as non-Aboriginal. Of the total population 78.9 % were 1.4 % North American Indian. The first known people to occupy the area were the Pre-Dorset people, somewhere around 1800 BCE, about 4,000 years ago, were seal and caribou hunters; the next group to enter the area were a Paleo-Eskimo peoples known as the Dorset, who arrived 500 CE. They were the first known people to have fished for the Arctic char; the last of the Paleo-Eskimo people, who appeared here about 800 CE, were the Tuniit, evidence of their living quarters can be seen close to Cambridge Bay. The Tuniit, who were known to the Inuit as giants, were taller and stronger than the Inuit, but were scared off; the next group to arrive were the Thule people, ancestors of the modern Inuit, who arrived in the area around 1250 CE from present day Alaska. The Thule people built food cache and stone houses in the area and were noted for their sophisticated tools. Although there is no positive evidence it is suspected that the Thule may have interacted with the Tuniit.
About 500 years ago, around 1500 CE, the modern Inuit made an appearance. Like the Thule they made use of caches, fished for char, they hunted seal from the ice in winter and returned to the land in spring. They were known to make use of inukhuk and built igluit. Although they had no collective name, the various groups of Inuit that made use of native copper for tools have since become known as Copper Inuit and are the same people that Vilhjalmur Stefansson called the Blond Eskimos; the main groups that lived or interacted in the Cambridge Bay area were the Ekalluktogmiut, the Killinirmuit and the Umingmuktogmiut. The first Europeans to see it were Thomas Simpson in 1839 and John Rae in 1851. Richard Collinson wintered here in 1852/53, his ship came all the way from the Bering Strait. This was the furthest east of any large ship until Henry Larsen in 1941. Cambridge Bay was the site of Royal Canadian Mounted Police and Hudson's Bay Company outposts established during the 1920s. Although at this point most Inuit would have continued the traditional lifestyle and only visited the area rather than live there permanently.
The HBC opened a post here in 1921 than in most places, built at the site now called the "old town". In 1925 the HBC purchased the Maud, which they renamed the Baymaud, from the creditors of Arctic explorer, Roald Amundsen; the ship sailed to the Arctic in 1926 but it became stuck in the winter ice at Cambridge Bay. The ship was anchored near the shore and used for various purposes including the first radio weather reports from the Arctic coast. In 1930 the ship sank and, although some material was removed at the time, the ship is still visible. A Norwegian plan to salvage the ship and return it to Norway, though denied an export permit, was granted on appeal, was to be carried out in 2014 but was delayed to 2015 due to ice conditions preventing the arrival of salvage equipment until late in the open water season; the planned salvage of 2015 was delayed, however during the summer of 2016 the Maud was raised and prepared for return to Norway during the summer of 2017, where she will be displayed at a museum in Vollen, Asker.
In 1947 following World War II the Cambridge Bay LORAN Tower was built near the previous location of Cambridge Bay. The construction of the LORAN towe
Kugaaruk known as Pelly Bay until 3 December 1999, is located on the shore of Pelly Bay, just off the Gulf of Boothia, Simpson Peninsula, Kitikmeot, in Canada's Nunavut territory. Access is by air by annual supply sealift. Kugaaruk means the traditional name of the brook that flows through the hamlet; as of the 2016 census Kugaaruk has a population of a 21 % increase from the 2011 census. Near the hamlet is CAM-4, a North Warning System site, once part of the Distant Early Warning Line; the historical inhabitants were Arviligjuarmiut. Kugaaruk is a traditional "Central Inuit" community; until 1968, the people followed a nomadic lifestyle. The population is 97% Inuit and most people self-identify as Netsilik Inuit; the residents blend a land based lifestyle with modern technology and interests. Most families supplement their diet with ringed seal and Arctic char. Other game includes narwhal, polar bear and muskox. Despite the isolation of the community, the Inuktitut language is declining. Most people 30 and over speak Inuktitut as their first language, but the language is not being passed on to their children.
In most households, a mixture of English and Inuktitut is spoken. Children respond to them in English. One goal of the Nunavut educational system is to spread the use of Inuktitut. There are a few Inuit artists in Kugaaruk, including the world-renowned Emily Illuitok, who worked in walrus ivory and bone. Most women sew traditional parkas and kamik. Kugaardjuq School includes kindergarten to grade 12, it was modern and included a large south facing library, computer lab and science lab. There are two language specialists who teach the Nattilingmiut dialect, while the rest of the staff is southern teachers. In 2010 many of the NTEP graduates, who are locals, were to become teachers in levels from kindergarten to grade 7; as the only outsiders in the community are government workers, the student population is entirely Inuit. All high schools in Nunavut use the Alberta educational curriculum. However, one challenge faced by educators in this community is that most students read at about 3 or 4 grade levels lower than their Albertan counterparts.
As with most schools in Nunavut, the school is under the partial authority of the locally elected District Education Authority, who design policy as well as make decisions regarding discipline and cultural activities. Kugaaruk was involved in the Mississauga YMCA exchange in 2007. 15 children from Kugaaruk made their way to Mississauga with three teachers for seven days. 15 people from Mississauga traveled to Kugaaruk for 11 days to experience the land and culture. Sites visited in Ontario included the CN Tower, the Hockey Hall of Fame, Queen's Park, Square One Shopping Centre, MuchMusic, Niagara Falls, Great Wolf Lodge, the two exchange schools: Clarkson Secondary, Hillside Senior Public School. On 28 February 2017, the school caught on fire, described as "suspicious". Most of the school burned down, the gym, reception area and high school portion were all destroyed, the elementary portion was damaged; the replacement cost was provisionally estimated between $25 to $30 million. The community has been served by the Qiniq network since 2005.
This is a fixed wireless service to homes and businesses, connecting to the outside world via a satellite backbone. The Qiniq network is operated by SSI Micro. In 2017, the network was upgraded to 4G LTE technology, 2G-GSM for mobile voice. Kugaaruk is the location of the coldest wind chill recorded in Canada, of -79 °C or -92 °C on 13 January 1975, based on an air temperature of −51 °C and a wind speed of 56 km/h. On 16 February 2018, the Human Weather Observation System, a type of semi-automated weather observing system, reported an unreviewed new minimum temperature for the month of February at −51.9 °C at 06:00 MST. It beat the previous record of −51.5 °C, set 28 January 1989. List of municipalities in Nunavut John Ningark Kugaaruk Airport Bennett and Susan Diana Mary Rowley. Uqalurait An Oral History of Nunavut. McGill-Queen's native and northern series, 36. Montreal: MQUP, 2004. ISBN 0-7735-2340-5
Rapids are sections of a river where the river bed has a steep gradient, causing an increase in water velocity and turbulence. Rapids are hydrological features between a cascade. Rapids are characterised by the river becoming shallower with some rocks exposed above the flow surface; as flowing water splashes over and around the rocks, air bubbles become mixed in with it and portions of the surface acquire a white colour, forming what is called "whitewater". Rapids occur where the bed material is resistant to the erosive power of the stream in comparison with the bed downstream of the rapids. Young streams flowing across solid rock may be rapids for much of their length. Rapids cause water aeration of the river resulting in better water quality. Rapids are categorized in classes running from I to VI. A Class 5 rapid may be categorized as Class 5.1-5.9. While class I rapids are easy to navigate and require little maneuvering, class VI rapids pose threat to life with little or no chance for rescue.
River rafting sports are carried out. Fluid dynamics International Scale of River Difficulty - for classification of rapids Reach Rheophile - organisms that live in fast flowing water Riffle - A fast moving portion of a stream without the vigour of a rapid Mason, Bill. Path of the Paddle. Northword Press. ISBN 9781559710046. Rapids entry in National Geographic's encyclopedia
A waterfall is an area where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls occur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or ice shelf. Waterfalls are formed in the upper course of a river in steep mountains; because of their landscape position, many waterfalls occur over bedrock fed by little contributing area, so may be ephemeral and flow only during rainstorms or significant snowmelt. The further downstream, the more perennial a waterfall can be. Waterfalls can have a wide range of depths; when the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens and is dominated by impacts of water-borne sediment on the rock, while downstream the erosion occurs more rapidly. As the watercourse increases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it may pluck material from the riverbed, if the bed is fractured or otherwise more erodible. Hydraulic jets and hydraulic jumps at the toe of a falls can generate large forces to erode the bed when forces are amplified by water-borne sediment.
Horseshoe-shaped falls focus the erosion to a central point enhancing riverbed change below a waterfalls. A process known as "potholing" involves local erosion of a deep hole in bedrock due to turbulent whirlpools spinning stones around on the bed, drilling it out. Sand and stones carried by the watercourse therefore increase erosion capacity; this causes the waterfall to recede upstream. Over time, the waterfall will recede back to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream, it will carve deeper into the ridge above it; the rate of retreat for a waterfall can be as high as one-and-a-half metres per year. The rock stratum just below the more resistant shelf will be of a softer type, meaning that undercutting due to splashback will occur here to form a shallow cave-like formation known as a rock shelter under and behind the waterfall; the outcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressure to add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall. These blocks of rock are broken down into smaller boulders by attrition as they collide with each other, they erode the base of the waterfall by abrasion, creating a deep plunge pool in the gorge downstream.
Streams can become wider and shallower just above waterfalls due to flowing over the rock shelf, there is a deep area just below the waterfall because of the kinetic energy of the water hitting the bottom. However, a study of waterfalls systematics reported that waterfalls can be wider or narrower above or below a falls, so anything is possible given the right geological and hydrological setting. Waterfalls form in a rocky area due to erosion. After a long period of being formed, the water falling off the ledge will retreat, causing a horizontal pit parallel to the waterfall wall; as the pit grows deeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply sloping stretch of river bed. In addition to gradual processes such as erosion, earth movement caused by earthquakes or landslides or volcanoes can cause a differential in land heights which interfere with the natural course of a water flow, result in waterfalls. A river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks. Waterfalls can occur along the edge of a glacial trough, where a stream or river flowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded or melted.
The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples of this phenomenon, referred to as a hanging valley. Another reason hanging valleys may form is where two rivers join and one is flowing faster than the other. Waterfalls can be grouped into ten broad classes based on the average volume of water present on the fall using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfalls include Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls. Classes of other well-known waterfalls include Kaieteur Falls. Alexander von Humboldt "Father of Modern Geography" Humboldt was marking waterfalls on maps for river navigation purposes. Oscar von Engeln Published "Geomorphology: systematic and regional", this book had a whole chapter devoted to waterfalls, is one of the earliest examples of published works on waterfalls. R. W. Young Wrote "Waterfalls: form and process" this work made waterfalls a much more serious topic for research for modern Geoscientists. Ledge waterfall: Water descends vertically over a vertical cliff, maintaining partial contact with the bedrock.
Block/Sheet: Water descends from a wide stream or river. Classical: Ledge waterfalls where fall height is nearly equal to stream width, forming a vertical square shape. Curtain: Ledge waterfalls which descend over a height larger than the width of falling water stream. Plunge: Fast-moving water descends vertically, losing complete contact with the bedrock surface; the contact is lost due to horizontal velocity of the water before it falls. It always starts from a narrow stream. Punchbowl: Water descends in a constricted form and spreads out in a wider pool. Horsetail: Descending water maintains contact with bedrock most of the time. Slide: Water glides down maintaining continuous contact. Ribbon: Water descends over a long narrow strip. Chute: A large quantity of water forced through a narrow, vertical passage. Fan: Water spreads horizontally as
Kitikmeot Region is an administrative region of Nunavut, Canada. It consists of the southern and eastern parts of Victoria Island with the adjacent part of the mainland as far as the Boothia Peninsula, together with King William Island and the southern portion of Prince of Wales Island; the regional seat is Cambridge Bay. Before 1999, Kitikmeot Region existed under different boundaries as Kitikmeot Region, Northwest Territories. Access to the territorial capital of Iqaluit is difficult and expensive as there are no direct flights from any community in the region. For example, Iqaluit is 1,069 km from Kugaaruk, the closest Kitikmeot community. A one-way flight to the capital costs between $2,691 and $2,911 and involves flying to, along with an overnight stay in, Northwest Territories 1,310 km southwest of Kugaaruk—in total, a trip of about 3,627 km; as is the case for the rest of Nunavut, there is no road access to the region and all places are fly-in. All five hamlets have certified airports, Cambridge Bay Airport, Gjoa Haven Airport, Kugaaruk Airport, Kugluktuk Airport and Taloyoak Airport, with scheduled flights by Canadian North and First Air.
There are five registered aerodromes in the region. Cambridge Bay Water Aerodrome is a floatplane base open in the summer only. Doris Lake Aerodrome, a 7,894 ft ice runway, the longest in the region, which serves the Doris Lake mine. George Lake Aerodrome, an ice runway, like Doris Lake is only open from January to April, serves the Back River Gold Project. Goose Lake Aerodrome serves the Back River Gold Project and has both ice and gravel runways. Hope Bay Aerodrome is a gravel runway. None of the aerodromes are charter-only. Bathurst Inlet and Umingmaktok have no scheduled flights. Seaplanes may land there in the summer. In the late summer the region is resupplied by barges and container ships from four companies, Desgagnés Transarctik, Nunavut Eastern Arctic Sealink, Coastal Shipping from the east, the Northern Transportation Company from the west; the region forms part of the Northwest Passage and has hosted several cruise ships, the largest of, the Crystal Serenity in 2016. Although the waterways are open in the summer there are no scheduled general passenger ships and only private yachts, such as the Octopus owned by Paul Allen, cruise ships pass through.
The region is home to the only two communities in Nunavut that voted "no" in the 1982 division plebiscite: Cambridge Bay and Kugluktuk. The region has four electoral districts; the seat is held by Keith Peterson. Gjoa Haven, which covers the community of Gjoa Haven and is held by Tony Akoak. Kugluktuk, which covers Kugluktuk; the seat is held by Peter Taptuna the Premier of Nunavut. Netsilik, which covers Taloyoak and Kugaaruk; the seat is held by Emilino Qirngnuq. Former districts include Akulliq, which covered Naujaat in the Kivalliq Region, it was the ony electoral district in Nunavut to cross two regions. Nattilik, which covered Gjoa Haven and Taloyoak; the previous incumbent was the former federal Minister of Leona Aglukkaq. In 2007 at their AGM, Bob Lyall, a board member of the Kitikmeot Inuit Association, suggested the formation of a political party called the Bloc Kitikmeot to run in the next general election and to advocate for a separate Kitikmeot Territory. Bobby Lyall, along with his brother Kitikmeot Corporation president, Charlie Lyall and delegates Martina and Connie Kapolak, argued that the Government of Nunavut had spent most of the infrastructure money available from the federal government in the Baffin Region.
However, the party was not formed and no members ran for a seat in the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut which continues to run as a consensus government. Hamlets Other The Kitikmeot Region doubles as one of three census divisions in Nunavut, the others being the Kivalliq and the Qikiqtaaluk regions. Of the three the Kitikmeot is the smallest in size being 1,343.8 km2 smaller than the Kivalliq. It is the least densely populated of the three; the population is predominantly Inuit with 0.7% other aboriginal peoples, 0.3% North American Indian and 0.4% Métis, 9.3% non-Aboriginals. Canada 2016 Census Population: 6,543 Population change: +8.8% Private dwellings: 1,870 Area: 443,277.47 km2 Density: 0.02/km2 National rank in terms of population: 286th out of 293 Territorial rank in terms of population: 3rd out of 3 Kitikmeot Region information at Explore Nunavut Kitikmeot Heritage Society Kitikmeot Inuit Association Kitikmeot Corporation, economic development Kitikmeot School Operations
Bathurst Inlet, Nunavut
Bathurst Inlet, is a small Inuit community located in Bathurst Inlet in the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut, Canada. As of the 2016 census the population remained at zero; the Inuit name for the community is Kingaun or Qingaut, meaning nose mountain, which refers to a hill close to the community. Thus, the people of the area are referred to as "Kingaunmiut"; the traditional language of the area was Inuinnaqtun and is written using the Latin alphabet rather than the syllabics of the Inuktitut writing system. Like Kugluktuk, Cambridge Bay and Umingmaktok syllabics are seen and used by the Government of Nunavut. Bathurst Inlet is the traditional birthing grounds of a "key northern species", the large, migratory Bathurst herd of barren-ground caribou. Over millennia, the Inuit, First Nations and Métis depended on the Bathurst Inlet herd for survival; the first Europeans known to have visited the area was during the first expedition of John Franklin in 1821. There was little outside contact until 1936 when both the Catholic Church and the Hudson's Bay Company arrived.
Although, the Hudson's Bay Company abandoned the site in 1964 the Inuit decided to remain in the area and continue the traditional lifestyle. During the early 1960s, the area was visited by Glen Warner, a sergeant with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Warner, along with his wife Trish, purchased both the mission house and the HBC post which they turned into the "Bathurst Inlet Lodge", it is operated today as a joint venture between the Warners and the local Inuit, is open during the short Arctic summer. The lodge is a popular destination for tourists who wish to see a more traditional type Inuit lifestyle and wildlife such as foxes, barren-ground caribou, Arctic char and muskox. In the area is the Wilberforce Falls, the highest waterfall above the Arctic Circle. Like other communities in Nunavut, the only access is by aircraft. Although most tourists arrive from Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, it is possible to charter an aircraft from Cambridge Bay; the community has no local phone service and contact with the outside world is maintained by satellite phone.
Like its sister community Umingmaktok, schooling is provided by flying the students to Cambridge Bay and returning them for Christmas and the summer. Bathurst Inlet is the traditional birthing grounds of the migratory Bathurst herd of barren-ground caribou; the herd had experienced a rapid decline from 186,000 animals in 2003 to "approximately 16,000-22,000 animals" in 2015. The herd migrates from the birthing grounds to their winter grounds which extends from southern and central Northwest Territories. In some years, the herd winters as "far south as northern Saskatchewan." According to Environment and Natural Resources, "The Bathurst Herd are barren-ground caribou, a key northern species. They have shaped the cultural identity of First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples over millennia through mutual relationships built on respect." The Bathurst herd was the lifeblood of the Lutsel K'e Dene First Nation in the N. W. T, but by 2017, they faced "a complete ban on hunting from the Bathurst caribou herd."
With hopes of more jobs and the guarantee of state-of-the-art protection for the Bathurst caribou, the Kitikmeot Inuit Association among others, have agreed to the gold mine proposal by Vancouver-based Sabina Gold and Silver in the final hearings. The mine will be located about 150 km south of Bathurst Inlet. Sabina's Matthew Pickard said, "Our objective is to have no impact on caribou herds as a result of this project." According to the CBC, the "proposed mine lies on the eastern fringe of the Bathurst caribou range and in the midst of the range of the Beverly/Ahiak herd, but does not infringe on the calving or post-calving grounds of either herd." Umingmuktogmiut, a geographically defined Copper Inuit band in the northern Canadian territory of Nunavut, Kitikmeot Region. Bathurst Inlet Lodge Government of Nunavut Natural Resources Canada - Historical photos Office of the Languages Commissioner of Nunavut - PDF Dialect Map Office of the Languages Commissioner of Nunavut - Writing systems