Goblin Valley State Park
Goblin Valley State Park is a state park of Utah, USA. Its eminent feature is its thousands of hoodoos and hoodoo rocks, referred to locally as goblins, the distinct shapes of these rocks come from an erosion-resistant layer of rock atop softer sandstone. Along with Bryce Canyon National Park some 190 miles to the southwest, the park lies within the San Rafael Desert southeast of the east limb of the San Rafael Swell and north of the Henry Mountains. Utah State Route 24 passes about four miles east of the park, hanksville lies 12 miles to the south. Hiking is permitted in the park, which features three marked trails, evidence of Native American cultures, including the Fremont and Ute, is common throughout the San Rafael Swell in the form of pictograph and petroglyph panels. Goblin Valley is noted for several rock art panels, as well as the rock formations, the secluded Goblin Valley was found by cowboys searching for cattle. Then, in the late 1920s, Arthur Chaffin, owner/operator of the Hite Ferry, in 1949, Chaffin returned to the area he called Mushroom Valley.
He spent several days exploring the valley and photographing its scores of intricately eroded rocks. Publicity attracted visitors to the valley despite its remoteness, in 1954, it was proposed that Goblin Valley be protected from vandalism. The state of Utah acquired the property and established Goblin Valley State Reserve and it was officially designated a state park on August 24,1964. In October 2013, a delicately balanced hoodoo was intentionally knocked over by a Boy Scout leader while two men watched, one of whom recorded a video that was uploaded to the Internet. The men claimed that the hoodoo appeared ready to fall, the hoodoo formation had existed for many millions of years, having formed out of rock that dated back as far as 165 million years. The average rate of erosion of a hoodoo is approximately 2–4 feet every 100 years, the two leaders were subsequently dismissed from their leadership roles by the Utah National Parks Council which is a local council of the Boy Scouts in Utah.
The national Boy Scouts removed the men from the organization altogether. In January 2014, two of the one who toppled the hoodoo and the cameraman—were arraigned on felony charges of criminal mischief. The two men pleaded guilty to charges of criminal mischief and attempted criminal mischief, receiving a sentence of one year probation plus fines. Vegetation is limited to hardy desert species that can endure blowing sand and wildlife exist on a limited supply of water in the arid desert environment. Plants have adapted by reducing the size of their leaves to reduce evaporation, flora occupying Goblin Valley include Mormon tea, Russian thistle, Indian ricegrass, and various cacti
Obverse and reverse
In this usage, obverse means the front face of the object and reverse means the back face. The obverse of a coin is commonly called heads, because it depicts the head of a prominent person. In fields of scholarship outside numismatics, the front is more commonly used than obverse. For prints and drawings with material on both sides the one judged as more significant will be the recto, a convention now exists typically to display the obverse to the left and the reverse to the right in photographs and museum displays, but this is not invariably observed. Following this principle, in the most famous of ancient Greek coins, the tetradrachm of Athens, the obverse is the head of Athena, similar versions of these two images, both symbols of the state, were used on the Athenian coins for more than two centuries. The opposite side may have varied from time to time and this change happened in the coinage of Alexander the Great, which continued to be minted long after his death. The various Hellenistic rulers who were his successors followed his tradition and this script alone style was used on nearly all Islamic coinage until the modern period.
The type of Justinian II was revived after the end of Iconoclasm, without images, therefore, it is not always easy to tell which side will be regarded as the obverse without some knowledge. After 695, Islamic coins avoided all images of persons and usually, the side expressing the Six Kalimas is usually defined as the obverse. The form of currency follows its function, which is to serve as an accepted medium of exchange of value. Traditionally, most states have been monarchies where the person of the monarch, if not provided for on the obverse, the reverse side usually contains information relating to a coins role as medium of exchange. Additional space typically reflects the countrys culture or government, or evokes some aspect of the states territory. Regarding the euro, some regarding the obverse and reverse of the euro coins exists. This rule does not apply to the coins as they dont have a common side. A number of the used for obverse national sides of euro coins were taken from the reverse of the old pre-euro coins of some individual countries.
Several countries continue to use portraits of the monarch and the Republic of Ireland continues to use the State Arms. The Chrysanthemum Crest was no longer used after the war, and so, the side on which the date continues to be regarded as the reverse. Following ancient tradition, the obverse of coins of the United Kingdom almost always feature the head of the monarch
Japan is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea, the kanji that make up Japans name mean sun origin. 日 can be read as ni and means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon, Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet Land of the Rising Sun in reference to its Japanese name. Japan is an archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, the country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one, the population of 127 million is the worlds tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of Japans total population, approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period, the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, from the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a period of isolation in the early 17th century. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the country has the worlds third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the worlds fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is the worlds fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer, although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the worlds eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a country with a very high standard of living. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, in ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭.
It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning dwarf. The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa, meaning harmony, the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means the origin of the sun. The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, at the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon
A mushroom rock, called rock pedestal, or a pedestal rock, is a naturally occurring rock whose shape, as its name implies, resembles a mushroom. The rocks are deformed in a number of different ways, by erosion and weathering, glacial action, Mushroom rocks are related to, but different from, yardang. Usually found in areas, these rocks form over thousands of years when wind erosion of an isolated rocky outcrop progresses at a different rate at its bottom to that at its top. Abrasion by wind-borne grains of sand is most prevalent within the first 3 ft of the ground, running water can have the same effect. An example of type of mushroom rock is the one in Timna Park. Occasionally, the composition of the rocks can be an important factor, if the upper part of the rock is more resistant to erosion and weathering. Its formation has attributed to chemical weathering at the base of the rock due to the collection of dew near the surface. A mushroom rock may form from an originally flat area of hard rock overlying soft rock.
Weathering of the hard rock layer eventually exposes the lower rock to erosion from wind, salt intrusion. The layer of rock is more readily eroded, leading to the formation of a depression or blowout. The overlying harder rocks are resistant to this process, and may end up as isolated mushroom rocks standing above the new. The nature of erosion is that it concentrates a few feet over the ground - wind speeds increase with height. This means that the combination of highest sediment loads and fastest wind speed exist a few feet over the ground - leading to the narrowing of the support pedestal at this height. In contrast to a rock formed by erosion of a single rock. Typically, the uppermost rock was transported and deposited by the action of a glacier. The lower part of the formation might or might not have undergone a degree of erosion to accentuate the mushroom shape. Examples of this type of rock are Mushroom Rock in Signal Point National Park, and Le Champignon in Huelgoat, France. This type of mushroom rock forms from two rocks, one of which came to rest on the top of the other, caused by a sudden disturbance such as a rock fall or earthquakes
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar. The Earths outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock, rock has been used by mankind throughout history. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization, three major groups of rocks are defined, igneous and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is a component of geology. At a granular level, rocks are composed of grains of minerals, the aggregate minerals forming the rock are held together by chemical bonds. The types and abundance of minerals in a rock are determined by the manner in which the rock was formed, many rocks contain silica, a compound of silicon and oxygen that forms 74. 3% of the Earths crust. This material forms crystals with other compounds in the rock, the proportion of silica in rocks and minerals is a major factor in determining their name and properties.
Rocks are geologically classified according to such as mineral and chemical composition, the texture of the constituent particles. These physical properties are the end result of the processes that formed the rocks, over the course of time, rocks can transform from one type into another, as described by the geological model called the rock cycle. These events produce three general classes of rock, igneous and metamorphic, the three classes of rocks are subdivided into many groups. However, there are no hard and fast boundaries between allied rocks, hence the definitions adopted in establishing rock nomenclature merely correspond to more or less arbitrary selected points in a continuously graduated series. Igneous rock forms through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava and this magma can be derived from partial melts of pre-existing rocks in either a planets mantle or crust. Typically, the melting of rocks is caused by one or more of three processes, an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition, igneous rocks are divided into two main categories, plutonic rock and volcanic.
Plutonic or intrusive rocks result when magma cools and crystallizes slowly within the Earths crust, a common example of this type is granite. Volcanic or extrusive rocks result from magma reaching the surface either as lava or fragmental ejecta, the chemical abundance and the rate of cooling of magma typically forms a sequence known as Bowens reaction series. Most major igneous rocks are found along this scale, about 64. 7% of the Earths crust by volume consists of igneous rocks, making it the most plentiful category. Of these, 66% are basalts and gabbros, 16% are granite, only 0. 6% are syenites and 0. 3% peridotites and dunites
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine.
Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation.
Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble
Fins are narrow, residual walls of hard sedimentary rock that remain upright after adjacent rock has been eroded away along systematic parallel joints or fractures on either side. A fin is formed when a narrow butte or plateau develops a series of vertical cracks in a parallel pattern. Differential water erosion, sometimes as part of a freeze-thaw cycle, where two or more fins are present, a slot canyon may be formed between them. A wall left standing in between two slot canyons may be termed a fin, alternatively, an entirely isolated single fin may develop where a rock stratum is notably harder relative to neighboring strata. Myriads of fins, and more advanced features, may be seen at Arches National Park in Utah. Rock fins and arches are believed to form slowly over long periods of time by physical and chemical weathering
New Mexico is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6,1912 and it is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is fifth by area, the 36th-most populous, inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years before European exploration, New Mexico was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, it was part of independent Mexico before becoming a U. S. territory and eventually a U. S. state as a result of the Mexican–American War. Among U. S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, the major Native American nations in the state are Navajo and Apache peoples. The demography and culture of the state are shaped by these strong Hispanic and Native American influences and its scarlet and gold colors are taken from the royal standards of Spain, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe. New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico.
The name simply stuck, even though the area had no connection to Mexico or the Mexica Indian tribes, formerly a part of New Spain, adopted its name centuries in 1821, after winning independence from Spanish rule. New Mexico was a part of the independent Mexican Empire and Federal Republic of Mexico for 27 years,1821 through 1848, New Mexico and Mexico developed as neighboring Spanish-speaking communities under Spanish rule, with relatively independent histories. The states total area is 121,412 square miles, the eastern border of New Mexico lies along 103° W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and 2.2 miles west of 103° W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, the western border with Arizona runs along the 109°03 W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel, the 37° N latitude parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in the corner of New Mexico.
New Mexico, although a state, has very little water. Its surface water area is about 250 square miles, the New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. Despite New Mexicos arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses cover a significant portion of the state, the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north-south along the east side of the Rio Grande in the rugged, pastoral north. The most important of New Mexicos rivers are the Rio Grande, Canadian, San Juan, the Rio Grande is tied for the fourth-longest river in the United States. Tourists visiting these sites bring significant money to the state, other areas of geographical and scenic interest include Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument and the Gila Wilderness in the southwest of the state
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids, the study of minerals is called mineralogy. There are over 5,300 known mineral species, over 5,070 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association, the silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earths crust. The diversity and abundance of species is controlled by the Earths chemistry. Silicon and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earths crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals, minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals. Minerals can be described by their various properties, which are related to their chemical structure.
Common distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and habit, lustre, colour, tenacity, fracture, more specific tests for describing minerals include magnetism, taste or smell and reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents, the two dominant systems are the Dana classification and the Strunz classification, the silicate class of minerals is subdivided into six subclasses by the degree of polymerization in the chemical structure. All silicate minerals have a unit of a 4− silica tetrahedron—that is, a silicon cation coordinated by four oxygen anions. These tetrahedra can be polymerized to give the subclasses, disilicates, inosilicates, other important mineral groups include the native elements, oxides, carbonates and phosphates. The first criterion means that a mineral has to form by a natural process, stability at room temperature, in the simplest sense, is synonymous to the mineral being solid. More specifically, a compound has to be stable or metastable at 25 °C, modern advances have included extensive study of liquid crystals, which extensively involve mineralogy.
Minerals are chemical compounds, and as such they can be described by fixed or a variable formula, many mineral groups and species are composed of a solid solution, pure substances are not usually found because of contamination or chemical substitution. Finally, the requirement of an ordered atomic arrangement is usually synonymous with crystallinity, crystals are periodic, an ordered atomic arrangement gives rise to a variety of macroscopic physical properties, such as crystal form and cleavage. There have been recent proposals to amend the definition to consider biogenic or amorphous substances as minerals. The formal definition of an approved by the IMA in 1995, A mineral is an element or chemical compound that is normally crystalline. However, if geological processes were involved in the genesis of the compound, Mineral classification schemes and their definitions are evolving to match recent advances in mineral science
Totem poles are monumental sculptures, a type of Northwest Coast art, consisting of poles, posts or pillars, carved with symbols or figures. They are usually made from trees, mostly western red cedar. The word totem derives from the Algonquian word odoodem, his kinship group, the carvings may symbolize or commemorate cultural beliefs that recount familiar legends, clan lineages, or notable events. The poles may serve as architectural features, welcome signs for village visitors, mortuary vessels for the remains of deceased ancestors. Given the complexity and symbolic meanings of totem pole carvings, their placement and importance lies in the observers knowledge, Totem pole carvings were likely preceded by a long history of decorative carving, with stylistic features borrowed from smaller prototypes. Renewed interest from tourists and scholars in the 1880s and 1890s helped document and collect the remaining totem poles, twentieth-century revivals of the craft, additional research, and continued support from the public have helped establish new interest in this regional artistic tradition.
Totem poles primarily serve as symbol to the animistic peoples of western North America reflecting their submission to a pantheon. Makers of these include the Haida, Tsimshian, Kwakwaka’wakw, Nuxalk. Totem poles are carved from the highly rot-resistant trunks of Thuja plicata trees. Because of the climate and the nature of the materials used to make the poles. Noteworthy examples, some dating as far back as 1880, include those at the Royal British Columbia Museum in Victoria and the Museum of Anthropology at UBC in Vancouver. Totem poles are the largest, but not the objects that coastal Pacific Northwest natives use to depict worship, family legends, people. The freestanding poles seen by the regions first European explorers were likely preceded by a history of decorative carving. Stylistic features of these poles were borrowed from smaller prototypes, or from the support posts of house beams. Before iron and steel arrived in the area, natives used crude tools made of stone, the process was slow and laborious, axes were unknown.
By the late century, the use of metal cutting tools enabled more complex carvings. The tall monumental poles appearing in front of homes in coastal villages probably did not appear until after the beginning of the nineteenth century. The scholar Eddie Malin has proposed that totem poles progressed from house posts, funerary containers, malins theory is supported by the photographic documentation of the Pacific Northwest coasts cultural history and the more sophisticated designs of the Haida poles
Geology of the Bryce Canyon area
Other formations were formed but were mostly eroded following uplift from the Laramide orogeny which started around 70 million years ago. This event created the Rocky Mountains far to the east and helped to close the sea covered the area. A large part of western North America started to stretch itself into the nearby Basin, while not part of this region, the greater Bryce area was stretched into the High Plateaus by the same forces. The uplift caused the formation of vertical joints which were preferentially eroded to form the free-standing pinnacles called hoodoos, badlands. The formations exposed in the area of the park are part of the Grand Staircase, the oldest members of this supersequence of rock units are exposed in the Grand Canyon, the intermediate ones in Zion National Park, and its youngest parts are laid bare in Bryce Canyon area. A small amount of overlap occurs in and around each park, the rocks exposed in Bryce Canyon are about 100 million years younger than those in nearby Zion National Park, and the rocks exposed in Zion are younger than those in the Grand Canyon to the south.
There are, shared rock units between all three, creating a supersequence of formations that geologists call the Grand Staircase, together the formations of the Grand Staircase record nearly 2000 million years of the Earths history. Bryce Canyons formations are the youngest known units in the Grand Staircase, younger rock units, if they ever existed, have been removed by erosion. In the Cretaceous, a shallow seaway spread into the interior of North America from the Gulf of Mexico in the south into Utah, geologists call this shallow sea the Cretaceous Seaway or Western Interior Seaway. As the shoreline moved back and forth, the Bryce area alternated from being part of the Sevier landmass to being under the Cretaceous Seaway, alternating layers of nonmarine and marine sediments lay on top of each other as a result. Conglomerate and fossil-rich sandstone that together are up to 300 feet thick mark the arrival of the Cretaceous Seaway. Called the Dakota Sandstone, it is the oldest formation exposed in the Bryce Canyon area but the youngest one exposed in the Zion, abundant amounts of petrified wood, oyster beds containing millions of fossils, and coal are all found in the Dakota.
It sits unconformably on much older Jurassic formations that are not exposed in the immediate area and silt were deposited on top of the Dakota Formation as the seaway became deeper and calmer in the area. The resulting dark gray to black Tropic Shale records the maximum transgression of the seaway into Utah and is 1,000 feet thick in the Paria Amphitheater. It forms the unvegetated badlands seen in the Tropic Valley and is perhaps the most fossil-rich formation in the area, the Cretaceous Seaway was already retreating east and to the south by the time the locally 1,700 feet thick Straight Cliffs Formation was deposited. Its members represent various stages in this process, the cliff-forming sandstone of the Tibbet Canyon Member was conformably deposited on top of the Tropic Shale in shallow marine and near shore environments. Shale and sandstone from the Smoky Hollow Member were deposited on top of its basal layer of coal-rich mudstone in coastal swamps and this formation erodes into almost unclimbable cliffs and escarpments of whitish to yellow-gray sandstones with comparatively thin interbedded layers of shale and mudstone.
Shark teeth are found in the parts of the formation