Nieuwendam is a former village in the Dutch province of North Holland. It is now a neighbourhood of Amsterdam-Noord, Nieuwendam was a separate municipality until 1921, when it was merged with Amsterdam. The municipality covered the villages of Nieuwendam and Zunderdorp, J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, Nieuwendam. Map of the municipality, around 1868
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Amsterdam-Noord is a borough of Amsterdam, Netherlands. The borough is situated north of the IJ lake, the body of water separates it from central Amsterdam. On the northwest and northern side the borough borders the municipalities of Zaanstad, Landsmeer, there are 5 passenger ferries for pedestrians and bicycles. There are bus connections with the centre and other parts of Amsterdam and with Purmerend, because the area is physically separated from the rest of the Amsterdam conurbation it is not served by trams. The area will be served by metro when the under construction North-South line opens, Official website Official website for tourists/visitors
De Negen Straatjes is a neighborhood of Amsterdam, Netherlands. It consists of nine streets of the Prinsengracht, Herengracht. Together they form a sub-neighborhood within the larger western Grachtengordel, one with small and diverse shops. The construction in this area back to the first half of the 17th century. The Negen Straatjes is bordered on the north by the Raadhuisstraat, the idea to promote the Nine Little Streets as a shopping area came from Djoeke Wessing. Still a local shop keeper, she wanted a name for the area to give the same allure as the Jordan. This, she felt, would promote cooperation and business growth, the Association of The 9 Streets was founded on November 12,1996. Nobody thought it was a name at the time, but the name has stuck. In recent years the Hazenstraat, a street of the Elandsgracht in the Jordaan
The Kadijken, known as Kadijkseiland or Kadijkenbuurt, is a neighbourhood to the north of Artis zoo in the centre of Amsterdam. The name Kadijken is the form of Kadijk and refers to the two main streets that traverse the neighbourhood, Hoogte Kadijk and Laagte Kadijk. The neighbourhood is cut into two halves, a western part and a smaller western part, by a former complex of sluice gates that forms a canal between the Nieuwe Vaart and Entrepotdok canals. This canal isolates the western part of the neighbourhood from the rest of the city, connecting the two main streets, Hoogte en Laagte Kadijk, is a small street appropriately named Tussen Kadijken. The small street Buiten Kadijken runs from Hoogte Kadijk to Nieuwe Vaart canal, at the corner of Hoogte Kadijk and Buiten Kadijken is a pillar topped with a sculpture of a falcon with a crown on its head. This is a replica of a sculpture that stood here for many years as a trademark of the beer brewery De Gekroonde Valk. The western edge of the neighbourhood is formed by Kadijkenplein square with the Zeemanshuis, from the square, a cast-iron bridge leads across Nieuwe Herengracht canal.
Behind the bridge are the Scharrebiersluis sluice gates, both the bridge and the sluice gates were constructed in 1906. The neighbourhood has about 3,000 inhabitants, there about 1,700 residences, primarily in the western part of the neighbourhood. Of those, 70% is rented, and the remaining 30% is privately owned, the eastern part of the neighbourhood is less residential, this area is dominated by offices and workshops. The many former warehouses and shipyards in the Kadijken are a reminder of the neighbourhoods past as an area of town dominated by shipping, Werfmuseum t Kromhout and Koning William, both on Hoogte Kadijk, are still in use as shipyards. The eastern hall of Werfmuseum t Kromhout is now a museum, the neighbourhood has a large number of rijksmonumenten, including the warehouses on Entrepotdok, the Sibbelwoningen on Hoogte Kadijk and a series of 17th- and 18th-century houses. In this area, a dike, the Nieuwe Zeedijk, had been constructed beyond the original Sint Antoniesdijk dike. A kadijk is the outer, lower dike within a set of two dikes to keep a river, from flooding.
During the city expansion, the Nieuwe Zeedijk was raised and the part was called Hoogte Kadijk. The Kadijken rapidly developed into an area dominated by shipyards, the south side was originally used for recreation, but from the early part of the 18th century this part of the neighbourhood was filled with warehouses and other buildings for storage of goods. In 1827 the Rapenburgergracht, as the canal along the edge of the neighbourhood was called, was taken over by the Dutch national government. The government established the Algemeen Rijksentrepot there, which allowed goods in transit to be stored and transferred from one ship to another without the need to pay excise duties
The Jodenbuurt is a neighborhood of Amsterdam, Netherlands. For centuries before World War II, it was the center of the Jews of Amsterdam — hence and it is best known as the birthplace of Baruch Spinoza, the home of Rembrandt, and the Jewish ghetto of Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. But it grew to include parts of Nieuwmarkt, Sint Antoniesbreestraat, the Plantage, and Weesperzijde, especially after 1882, the first Jews to settle in Amsterdam were the Sephardim, who had been expelled from Portugal and Spain in 1593. They were joined in the decades by the Ashkenazi from Central and Eastern Europe. By 1612, the population was about 500 people but it doubled to about 1,000 in 1620, the Jews gave their new home, its Hebrew name, Mokum to show that they had finally felt at home in the city. So the Jews were allowed to build their own synagogues, the first of them was the Beth Jakob, built between 1602 and 1610, followed by the second synagogue, Neve Shalom, constructed between 1608 and 1612, and the third, Beth Israel, founded in 1618.
They were all hidden and therefore not visible from the streets, but the Jews were not alone in the Jodenbuurt. They were joined by several Christians, one of them was the artist Rembrandt, who was fascinated by the Biblical faces of his new neighbors. In 1641, a group of Franciscans came to establish a Catholic clandestine church in a house called Moses, known as the Jewish Church, it began as the Sint-Anthoniuskerk but it grew into the Mozes en Aäronkerk. It is still standing today at the Waterlooplein, on 8 November 1616, the Jews were made legal citizens by the City of Amsterdam. But they were not allowed to enter certain occupations, they were not permitted by the guilds of Amsterdam. So they were limited to street trading, book printing, from 1622, the synagogues began to cooperate for the good of the Jodenbuurt. On 3 April 1693, they merged their districts into a municipality under the name of Talmud Torah. In that year, they opened the first synagogue that was visible from the streets.
It stood on the Houtgracht, at the present Waterlooplein, next to the new synagogue on Nieuwe Amstelstraat was a meat market, where the residents of the neighborhood could buy their kosher meat. The Sephardi did not have knowledge about Judaism. They were not allowed to be Jews in Portugal and Spain, so in Amsterdam they sent for the rabbis to come out of Italy, North Africa, and the Ottoman Empire to teach them the ways of Judaism in the Jodenbuurt. The Portuguese Synagogue was the place where Spinoza was placed under the ban by the Sephardic Jewish community in 1656, because of their knowledge of Spanish and Portuguese, many of the Sephardim were involved with trade and plantations in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in South America