Chivor is a town and municipality in the Eastern Boyacá Province, part of the Colombian department of Boyacá. The mean temperature of the village in the Tenza Valley is 18 °C, Chivor is world-famous for its emeralds. Bordered to the north with the municipality of Macanal, to the south with Ubalá, Cundinamarca, on the east with the municipality of Santa María, Chivor comes from Chibcha and means Our farmfields - our mother or Green and rich land. The latter refers to the emerald deposits. Chivor was inhabited by the Muisca in the times before the Spanish conquest, the Muisca were organized in their loose Muisca Confederation with northern ruler the zaque of Hunza and the southern zipa in Bacatá. Already in those times the rich deposits were known and mined by the Muisca. The emeralds functioned as offer pieces in the Muisca religion, as decoration, the emerald deposits of Chivor were discovered by Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada in 1537 but the mines were abandoned until 1886.
Modern Chivor was not founded until December 16,1930 by Florencio Novoa, main economical activities of Chivor are agriculture and especially the emerald mining. Only in 2014 emeralds worth 30 million US dollars were extracted in Boyacá, the rich deposists have led to numerous conflicts in the region, including in Chivor. The Gran Esmeralda de Moctezuma is a mineral of 21 centimetres high,17 centimetres long and 16 centimetres thick and has found in Chivor. Currently the emerald is in Vienna, other grand emeralds from Chivor are Patricia weighing 632 carats, and La Magnífica of 1225 carats. The Embalse la Esmeralda producing hydroelectric energy is governed from Chivor, muzo, another town in Boyacá famous for its emeralds Colombian emerald trade Colombian Emeralds Branquet, Bernard Laumonier, Alain Cheilletz, and Gaston Giuliani. Emeralds in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, Two tectonic settings for one mineralization, Gaston, Alain Cheilletz, Carlos Arboleda, Victor Carrillo, Félix Rueda, and James H.
Baker. An evaporitic origin of the parent brines of Colombian emeralds, fluid inclusion, tipología y condiciones de formaciónde las manifestaciones del sector esmeraldífero Peña Coscuez, 1-121. Pignatelli, Gaston Giuliani, Daniel Ohnenstetter, Giovanna Agrosì, Sandrine Mathieu, Christophe Morlot, Colombian Trapiche Emeralds, Recent Advances in Understanding Their Formation
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada, the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, and the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.
Since the 1960s the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. Cultural diversity has influenced by Colombias varied geography. The urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines, ecologically, it is one of the worlds 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia is a power and a regional actor with the fourth-largest economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an accessing member to the OECD. Colombia has an economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run. The name Colombia is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus and it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule.
The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819. When Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was changed, this time to United States of Colombia. To refer to country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica, the oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 km southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period, at Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found
A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond is perfectly transparent with no hue, or color. However, in reality almost no gem-sized natural diamonds are absolutely perfect, the color of a diamond may be affected by chemical impurities and/or structural defects in the crystal lattice. Depending on the hue and intensity of a diamonds coloration, a color can either detract from or enhance its value. For example, most white diamonds are discounted in price when more yellow hue is detectable, while intense pink diamonds or blue diamonds can be more valuable. Of all colored diamonds, red diamonds are the rarest, the Aurora Pyramid of Hope displays a spectacular array of naturally colored diamonds, including red diamonds. Diamonds occur in a variety of colors—steel gray, blue, orange, green, pink to purple, colored diamonds contain interstitial impurities or structural defects that cause the coloration, whilst pure diamonds are perfectly transparent and colorless. 1%. If the nitrogen atoms are in pairs they do not affect the diamonds color, if the nitrogen atoms are in large even-numbered aggregates they impart a yellow to brown tint. 1% of known natural diamonds.
Synthetic diamond containing nitrogen is Type Ib, Type I diamonds absorb in both the infrared and ultraviolet region, from 320 nm. They have a characteristic fluorescence and visible absorption spectrum, Type II diamonds have no measurable nitrogen impurities. Type II diamonds absorb in a different region of the infrared and they have differing fluorescence characteristics, but no discernible visible absorption spectrum. Type IIb diamonds, which account for 0. 1% of gem diamonds, are light blue due to scattered boron within the crystal matrix. However, a blue-grey color may occur in Type Ia diamonds, not restricted to type are green diamonds, whose color is caused by GR1 color centers in the crystal lattice produced by exposure to varying quantities of radiation. Pink and red are caused by deformation of the crystal lattice from temperature and pressure. Black diamonds are caused by black or gray inclusions of other materials such as graphite or sulfides and/or microscopic fractures. Opaque or opalescent white diamonds are caused by microscopic inclusions.
Purple diamonds are caused by a combination of crystal lattice distortion, the majority of diamonds that are mined are in a range of pale yellow or brown color that is termed the normal color range. Diamonds that are of yellow or brown, or any other color are called fancy color diamonds. Diamonds that are of the very highest purity are totally colorless, the degree to which diamonds exhibit body color is one of the four value factors by which diamonds are assessed
Emerald is a gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Beryl has a hardness of 7. 5–8 on the Mohs scale, most emeralds are highly included, so their toughness is classified as generally poor. The word emerald is derived, from Vulgar Latin, esmaralda/esmaraldus, a variant of Latin smaragdus, like all colored gemstones, are graded using four basic parameters–the four Cs of Connoisseurship, Clarity and Carat weight. Before the 20th century, jewelers used the water, as in a gem of the finest water. Normally, in the grading of colored gemstones, color is by far the most important criterion, however, in the grading of emeralds, clarity is considered a close second. A fine emerald must possess not only a pure verdant green hue as described below, in the 1960s, the American jewelry industry changed the definition of emerald to include the green vanadium-bearing beryl as emerald. As a result, vanadium emeralds purchased as emeralds in the United States are not recognized as such in the UK, in America, the distinction between traditional emeralds and the new vanadium kind is often reflected in the use of terms such as Colombian Emerald.
In gemology, color is divided into three components, hue and tone, emeralds occur in hues ranging from yellow-green to blue-green, with the primary hue necessarily being green. Yellow and blue are the normal secondary hues found in emeralds, only gems that are medium to dark in tone are considered emerald, light-toned gems are known instead by the species name green beryl. The finest emerald are approximately 75% tone on a scale where 0% tone would be colorless, in addition, a fine emerald should be well saturated and have a hue that is bright. Gray is the normal saturation modifier or mask found in emerald, Emerald tends to have numerous inclusions and surface breaking fissures. Unlike diamond, where the standard, i. e. 10× magnification, is used to grade clarity. Thus, if an emerald has no visible inclusions to the eye it is considered flawless, stones that lack surface breaking fissures are extremely rare and therefore almost all emeralds are treated to enhance the apparent clarity. The inclusions and fissures within an emerald are sometime described as jardin, imperfections are unique for each emerald and can be used to identify a particular stone.
Eye-clean stones of a vivid primary green hue, with no more than 15% of any hue or combination of a medium-dark tone. The relative non-uniformity motivates the cutting of emeralds in cabochon form, faceted emeralds are most commonly given an oval cut, or the signature emerald cut, a rectangular cut with facets around the top edge. Most emeralds are oiled as part of the process, in order to fill in surface-reaching cracks so that clarity and stability are improved. Cedar oil, having a refractive index, is often used in this widely adopted practice
A belt buckle is a buckle, a clasp for fastening two ends, such as of straps or a belt, in which a device attached to one of the ends is fitted or coupled to the other. The word enters Middle English via Old French and the Latin buccula or cheek-strap, Belt buckles and other fixtures are used on a variety of belts, including cingula, baltea and waist-belts. Belt buckles go back at least to the age and a gold great buckle was among the items interred at Sutton Hoo. Primarily decorative shield on tongue buckles were common Anglo-Saxon grave goods at this time, elaborately decorated on the shield portion and associated only with men. One such buckle, found in a 7th-century grave at Finglesham, frame-style buckles are the oldest design. In a frame-and-prong buckle the prong attaches to one end of the frame and extends away from the wearer through a hole in the belt, where it anchors against the opposite side of the frame. The oldest styles have a loop or D shaped frame. Very small buckles with removable center pins and chapes were introduced and used on shoes, beginning in the 17th century, a chape is the fixed cover or plate which attaches buckle to belt while the mordant or bite is the adjustable portion.
Plate-style buckles are common on western military belts of the mid-19th century, officers might have a similar but more intricate clasp-style closure that featured two interlocking metal parts. In practice, the term belt plate refers to any flat, the distance between the fixed frame or chape of a plate buckle and its adjustment prong is called the throw. Box-out buckles make the traditional belt seen today, usually made with an enduring leather or other synthetic material as the band, these belt buckles are less functional but more fashionable. These belts became popular after Hollywood began using them in movies for their fresh, now they dominate belt production, and are viewed as a more attractive belt. Box-frame buckles are another, 20th-century style of military friction buckle, the box-frame buckle consists of three parts. There may or may not be a tip on the opposite tongue end of the belt for easier insertion. Earlier, military-style buckles often use friction and are designed for use with cloth belts or straps, simple friction buckles are one-piece frames with no prong whatsoever, the strap or belt winding through a series of slots, and may more technically be called belt slides or belt trims.
Although technically not buckles, other such as plastic side-clasp or even seat belt latches are often used on belts. Because of their association with military equipment, belt buckles were primarily a masculine ornament well into the 19th century. Belt buckles became more popular as fashion accessories in the early 20th century, the large, flat surface of the western-style belt buckles make them a popular ornament or style of jewelry
Young Turks was a political reform movement in the early 20th century that consisted of Ottoman exiles, civil servants, and army officers. They favoured the replacement of the Ottoman Empires absolute monarchy with a constitutional government, their leaders led a rebellion against the absolute rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid II in the 1908 Young Turk Revolution. With this revolution, the Young Turks helped to establish the Second Constitutional Era in 1908, after 1908, the Young Turks’ initial umbrella political party, the Committee of Union and Progress, began a series of modernizing military and political reforms across the Ottoman Empire. The struggle between the two groups of Young Turks ended in January 1913, when the top leadership of the CUP seized personal power from Freedom, the subsequent CUP-led government was headed by interior minister and Grand Vizier Talaat Pasha. Working with him were war minister Enver Pasha and naval minister Djemal Pasha, following the war, the struggle between the two groups of Young Turks revived and Accord Party regaining the control of the Ottoman government and Three Pashas fleeing into exile.
Freedom and Accord rule was short lived and the empire soon collapsed, the Young Turks favored a re-instatement of the Ottoman Parliament and the 1876 constitution, written by the progressive Midhat Pasha. The First Congress of Ottoman Opposition was held on 4 February 1902, at 20,00, at the house of Germain Antoin Lefevre-Pontalis, the opposition was performed in compliance with the French government. Closed to the public, there were 47 delegates present, the Armenians wanted to have the conversations held in French, but other delegates rejected this proposition. The Second Congress of Ottoman Opposition took place in Paris, Opposition leaders including Ahmed Rıza, Sabahaddin Bey, and Khachatur Malumian of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation were in attendance. The goal was to all the parties, including the Young Turks Committee of Union and Progress. The Young Turks became an organized movement with the Committee of Union. They recruited individuals hoping for the establishment of a monarchy in the Ottoman Empire.
In 1906, the Ottoman Freedom Society was established in Thessalonica by Mehmed Talaat, the OFS actively recruited members from the Third Army base, among them Major Ismail Enver. In September 1907, OFS announced they would be working with other organizations under the umbrella of the CUP, in reality, the leadership of the OFS would exert significant control over the CUP. In 1908, the Macedonian Question was facing the Ottoman Empire, tsar Nicholas II and Franz Joseph, who were both interested in the Balkans, started implementing policies, beginning in 1897, which brought on the last stages of the balkanization process. By 1903, there were discussions on establishing administrative control by Russian and Austrian advisory boards in the Macedonian provinces, the ruling House of Osman was forced to accept this idea, although for quite a while they were able to subvert its implementation. However, signs were showing that this game was coming to an end. On June 12,1908, the Third Army, which was in Macedonia, on November 2,1914, the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Brilliant (diamond cut)
A brilliant is a diamond or other gemstone cut in a particular form with numerous facets so as to have exceptional brilliance. The shape resembles that of a cone and provides maximized light return through the top of the diamond, even with modern techniques, the cutting and polishing of a diamond crystal always result in a dramatic loss of weight, rarely is it less than 50%. The round brilliant cut is preferred when the crystal is an octahedron, oddly shaped crystals such as macles are more likely to be cut in a fancy cut—that is, a cut other than the round brilliant—which the particular crystal shape lends itself to. The original round brilliant-cut was developed by Marcel Tolkowsky in 1919, in recent decades, most girdles are faceted. Many girdles have 32,64,80, or 96 facets, while the facet count is standard, the actual proportions are not universally agreed upon. One may speak of the American cut or the Scandinavian standard, to give, Tolkowskys ideal model has been overused. The original model was a guideline, as there were several aspects of diamond-cutting that were not explored or accounted for in that model.
Figures 1 and 2 show the facets of a round brilliant diamond, Figure 1 assumes that the thick part of the girdle is the same thickness at all 16 thick parts. It does not consider the effects of indexed upper girdle facets, Figure 2 is adapted from Figure 37 of Marcel Tolkowskys Diamond Design, which was originally published in 1919. Since 1919, the lower girdle facets have become longer, as a result, the pavilion main facets have become narrower. The relationship between the angle and the pavilion angle has the greatest effect on the look of the diamond. A slightly steep pavilion angle can be complemented by a shallower crown angle, other proportions affect the look of the diamond, The table ratio is highly significant. The length of the lower girdle facets affects whether Hearts and arrows can be seen in the stone, most round brilliant diamonds have roughly the same girdle thickness at all 16 thick parts. So-called cheated girdles have thicker girdles where the main facets touch the girdle than where adjacent upper girdle facets touch the girdle and these stones weigh more, and have worse optical performance.
So-called painted girdles have thinner girdles where the main facets touch the girdle than where adjacent upper girdle facets touch the girdle and these stones have less light leakage at the edge of the stone. Some diamonds with painted girdles receive lower grades in the GIAs cut grading system, several groups have developed diamond cut grading standards. They all disagree somewhat on which proportions make the best cut, there are certain proportions that are considered best by two or more groups however. The AGA standards may be the strictest, david Atlas has suggested that they are overly strict
A brooch /ˈbroʊtʃ/ is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to hold them closed. It is usually made of metal, often silver or gold, brooches are frequently decorated with enamel or with gemstones and may be solely for ornament or sometimes serve a practical function as a fastening, perhaps for a cloak. The earliest known brooches are from the Bronze Age, as fashions in brooches changed rather quickly, they are important chronological indicators. Many sorts of European brooches found in archaeology are usually referred to by the Latin term fibula, the fibula is an ornamental clasp used by Romans, Germanic peoples and by Celts and migratory tribes in Europe from the Early Bronze Age. They may have replaced fibulae made of more perishable Neolithic materials, fibulae are useful type-objects, carefully catalogued local typologies and distribution of fibulae can help date finds where neither numismatic nor ceramic materials provide a secure date. Fibulae were shaped somewhat like a safety pin and were used to hold clothing together.
They came in varieties and held prominent significance for the identity of the wearer, indicating ethnicity. Elaborately designed fibulae were an important part of Late Antique dress, the same types of fibulae can often be found on either side of the Roman limites, both among Roman and barbarian populations. The cultural interplay of elite objects designed to show status can be quite complex and it is likely that this type originated among Celtic groups and came to be adopted as an exotic fashion by Roman aristocrats, becoming naturalized as an important Roman emblem, and exported. From the eighteenth century through the Victorian era it was fashionable to incorporate hair, the practice began as an expression of mourning, expanded to keepsakes of loved ones who were living. Human hair was encased within the brooch or braided and woven into a band to which clasps were affixed and it was not uncommon for miniature brooch portraits to incorporate ground human hair as pigment. Two sided swivel brooches would display a portrait on one side and a lock of hair on the other, hellenic Ministry of Culture, Katie Demakopoulou, Bronze Age Jewellry in Greece Brooch.
Metropolitan jewelry, a catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries
Tiffany & Co.
Tiffany & Company is an American luxury jewelry and specialty retailer, headquartered in New York City. Tiffany sells jewelry, sterling silver, crystal, fragrances, water bottles, personal accessories, many of these goods are sold at Tiffany stores, as well as through direct-mail and corporate merchandising. Tiffany is renowned for its goods and is particularly known for its diamond jewelry. Tiffany markets itself as an arbiter of taste and style, and was once a purveyor to the Russian imperial family, founded by Charles Lewis Tiffany and John B. The name was shortened to Tiffany & Company in 1853 when Charles Tiffany took control, Tiffany & Company has since opened stores in major cities all over the world. Unlike other stores at the time in the 1830s, Tiffany clearly marked the prices on its goods to forestall any haggling over prices, in addition, against the social norm at the time, Tiffany only accepted cash payments, and did not accept payments on credit. Such practices, fixed prices for ready money, were first introduced by Palmers of London Bridge in 1750, who employed the young Robert Owen, the social reformer.
The first Tiffanys mail order catalog, known as the Blue Book, was published in 1845 in the United States, in 1862, Tiffany & Company supplied the Union Army with swords and surgical implements. In 1867, Tiffany & Co. was the first US firm to win an award for the excellence in silverware at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. In 1870, the built an new store building at 15 Union Square West, designed by John Kellum. It was described by The New York Times as a palace of jewels, Tiffany stayed at this site until 1906. In 1877, an insignia that would become the famous New York Yankees NY logo was struck on a medal of honor by Tiffany & Company. In 1878, Tiffany won the medal for jewelry and a grand prize for silverware at the Paris Exposition. In 1887, Tiffany bought the French Crown Jewels, which attracted publicity, the company revised the Great Seal of the United States in 1885. In 1902, after the death of Charles Lewis Tiffany, his son, Louis Comfort Tiffany, in 1919, the company made a revision to the Medal of Honor on behalf of the United States Department of the Navy.
This Tiffany Cross version was rare because it was awarded only for combat, in 1942 the Navy established the Tiffany version for non-combat heroism, but in August 1942 the Navy eliminated the Tiffany Cross and the two-medal system. In 1956, legendary designer Jean Schlumberger joined Tiffany, and Andy Warhol collaborated with Tiffany to create Tiffany Holiday Cards. In 1968 Lady Bird Johnson, First Lady of the U. S. at the time, in November 1978, Tiffany & Co. was sold to Avon Products Inc. for about US$104 million in stock
National Museum of Natural History
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Opened in 1910, the museum on the National Mall was one of the first Smithsonian buildings constructed exclusively to hold the national collections and research facilities. The main building has an area of 1,500,000 square feet with 325,000 square feet of exhibition and public space. The museums collections contain over 126 million specimens of plants, fossils, rocks, human remains, the United States National Museum was founded in 1846 as part of the Smithsonian Institution. The museum was housed in the Smithsonian Institution Building, which is better known today as the Smithsonian Castle. A formal exhibit hall opened in 1858, the growing collection led to the construction of a new building, the National Museum Building. Covering a then-enormous 2.25 acres, it was built in just 15 months at a cost of $310,000, congress authorized construction of a new building on June 28,1902.
The regents began considering sites for the new building in March, the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall was chosen to design the structure. Testing of the soil for the foundations was set for July 1903, the Natural History Building opened its doors to the public on March 17,1910, in order to provide the Smithsonian Institution with more space for collections and research. The building was not fully completed until June 1911, the structure cost $3.5 million dollars. The Neoclassical style building was the first structure constructed on the side of the National Mall as part of the 1901 McMillan Commission plan. In addition to the Smithsonians natural history collection, it housed the American history, art. Between 1981 and 2003, the National Museum of Natural History had 11 permanent, there were six directors alone between 1990 and 2002. Turnover was high as the directors were disenchanted by low levels of funding. Robert W. Fri was named the director in 1996. One of the largest donations in Smithsonian history was made during Fris tenure, kenneth E.
Behring donated $20 million in 1997 to modernize the museum. Fri resigned in 2001 after disagreeing with Smithsonian leadership over the reorganization of the scientific research programs. J. Dennis OConnor, Provost of the Smithsonian Institution was named acting director of the museum on July 25,2001, eight months later, OConner resigned to become the vice president of research and dean of the graduate school at the University of Maryland